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and desired to strengthen his hands for his arduous undertaking. With this view he gives him directions for the appointment of properly qualified presbyters in every city, who should be able and willing to teach “ the sound doctrine," and to counteract the useless and unwarrantable speculations of a semi-Jewish character, involving endless controversy, which were propagated by dishonest selfseeking teachers. He also reminds Titus of suitable exhortations to be addressed to the various classes in the Church, for the promotion of that practical godliness which ought to accompany sound doctrine. Titus himself is admonished to show himself in all things "an ensample of good works." 3

The epistle contains a number of memorable sayings, including some of the most comprehensive statements of Christian truth to be found in the New Testament.4 In the former of the two passages quoted below we have an excellent illustration of the “doctrine which is according to godliness," that sober-minded union of faith and practice, which is the ripest fruit of Christianity, and which forms the chief burden of this most salutary letter."

For this cause left I thee in all iniquity, and purify unto himself a Crete, that thou shouldest set in order people for his own possession, zealous the things that were wanting, and ap- of good works" ; iii. 4-7 : “But when point elders in every city, as I gave thee the kindness of God our Saviour, and charge"; vers. 10, 11: “For there are his love toward man, appeared, not by many unruly men, vain talkers and de- works done in righteousness, which we ceivers, specially they of the circumcision, did ourselves, but according to his whose mouths must be stopped."

mercy he saved us, through the wash2 It is remarkable that in this epistle ing of regeneration and renewing of the there is no mention of the other class of Holy Ghost, which he poured out upon office-bearers, the deacons, who figure us richly, through Jesus Christ our so largely in 1 Timothy. This would Saviour; that, being justified by his be unaccountable if the two epistles grace, we might be made heirs accordwere cunningly devised forgeries pro- ing to the hope of eternal life. ceeding from the same hand in the 5 Luther said of it: “This is a short interests of ecclesiastical order.

epistle, but yet such a quintessence of

Christian doctrine, and composed in For the grace of God such a masterly manner, that it contains hath appeared, bringing salvation to all all that is needful for Christian knowmen, instructing us, to the intent that, ledge and life." Most of the characterdenying ungodliness and worldly lusts, istic expressions of the Pastoral Epistles we should live soberly and righteously are to be found in this short letter--e.g. and godly in this present world; look- godliness" (eủoéßela), to describe the ing for the blessed hope and appearing Christian manner of life, occurring ten of the glory of our great God and times in these epistles and five times in Saviour Jesus Christ ; who gave himself the rest of the New Testament ; "the for us, that he might redeem us from faith" (ý plotis) in a doctrinal sense (cf.

1 i. 5:

3 ii. 7.

4 ï. 11-14 :

The epistle concludes with some allusions to personal matters, in the course of which Paul bids Titus come to him at Nicopolis as soon as Artemas or Tychicus has arrived to relieve him. This is scarcely consistent with the view maintained by some Episcopalian writers that Titus held a permanent official position in the island.



1. Authorship. In several passages this epistle bears the stamp of genuineness as a writing of St. Paul. In particular, the opening thanksgiving 1 is characteristic of Paul, eight of his other letters having a similar commencement, which is not to be found in any of the other epistles of the New Testament. At the same time, this is not such a prominent feature as to lead to imitation ; and, as a matter of fact, it is not found in the two other Pastoral Epistles.2

“the deposit,” tapaońkn of 1 Tim. vi. 20, 2 Tim. 1. 14); "our Saviour" (o owrñp ņuwv), more frequent in these epistles than in all the rest of the New Testament, and chiefly in Titus; "sound" or healthy (υγιαινούση διδασκαλία, λόγον üyen, &c.), applied to doctrine, faith, speech, and in this sense more frequent in Titus than in any other book of the New Testament (cf. Titus ii. 7: ¿v Sidao. kalią åpeoplav, “in thy doctrine uncorruptness"; 1 Tim. vi. 4: voow nepi SNTMOELS, “doting about questionings”; 2 Tim. ii. 17: ο λόγος αυτών ως γάγypaiva vouņu ëžel, “their word will eat as doth a gangrene"); “sober-minded" (owopwo---in various forms) occurring chiefly in these epistles and mostly in Titus'; “good works" (kalớv čpywv) peculiar to Titus, in which it occurs six times, while the word kalós is used by St. Paul no less than seventeen times in 1 Timothy, and only sixteen times in all his other epistles.

of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner : but suffer hardship with the gospel according to the power of God; who saved us, and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before times eternal, but hath now been manifested by the appearing of our Saviour Christ Jesus, who abolished death, and brought life and incorruption to light through the gospel, whereunto I was appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher. For the which cause I suffer also these things : yet I am not ashamed; for I know him whom I have believed, and I am persuaded that he is able to guard that which I have committed unto him against that day. Hold the pattern of sound words which thou hast heard from me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus. That good thing which was committed unto thee guard through the Holy Ghost which dwelleth

This thou knowest, that all that are in Asia turned away from me ; of whom are Phygelus and Hermogenes. The Lord grant mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus : for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain ; but, when he was in Rome, he sought me diligently, and found me (the Lord gran unto him to find mercy of the Lord in that day); and in how many things he ministered at Ephesus, thou knowest very well"; iv. 9-22 : “Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me: for



1jii. 12-15.

2 i. 5-18 : “having been reminded of the unfeigned faith that is in thee; which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and, I am persuaded, in thee also. For the which cause I put thee in remembrance that thou stir


the gift of God, which is in thee through the laying on of my hands. For God gave us not a spirit of fearfulness; but of power and love and discipline. Be not ashamed therefore

A strong proof of genuineness is afforded by the proper names of Church-members) in the epistle. They are twentythree in number, including ten mentioned elsewhere, exclusive of Paul and Timothy. In connection with several of these ten remarks are made which a forger would have been very unlikely to invent. For example, "Demas forsook me, having loved this present world,” 3 is more like what we should have expected to find related of Mark, in view of his former desertion of Paul ;4 whereas we find favourable mention of him in this epistle. Dalmatia is also a strange place to have invented as a destination for Titus,& considering that he had been written to so recently at Crete-although it fits in with the summons to Nicopolis which had been previously addressed to him. A striking argument has been derived from the occurrence of the

li. 3:

Demas forsook me, having loved this present world, and went to Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with thee: for he is useful to

me for ministering. But Tychicus I sent to Ephesus. The cloke that I left at Troas with Carpus, bring when thou comest, and the books, especially the parchments. Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil : the Lord will render to him according to his works : of whom be thou ware also; for he greatly withstood our words. At my first defence no one took my part; but all forsook me: may it not be laid to their account. But the Lord stood by me, and strengthened me; that through me the message might be fully proclaimed, and that all the Gentiles might hear : and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion. The Lord will deliver me from every evil work, and will save me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the house of Onesiphorus. Erastus abode

at Corinth : but Trophimus I left at Miletus sick. Do thy diligence to come before winter. Eubulus saluteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia and all the brethren. The Lord be with thy spirit. Grace be with you."

“I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers in a pure conscience, how unceasing is my remembrance of thee in my supplications, night and day longing to see thee."

2 Galatians and 2 Corinthians are also exceptions. The latter begins with an ascription of praise (i. 3, 4), but without reference to any matter for thankfulness in the spiritual life of the readers.

3 iv. 10; cf. Col. iv. 14 : “ Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas salute you."

4 Acts xiii. 13 "and John departed from them and returned to Jerusalem."

5 iv. 11 (quoted above).
6 iv. 10 (quoted above).

7 Titus iii. 12: "give diligence to come unto me to Nicopolis : for there have determined to winter."

name Linus in the closing salutations. The argument is based on the fact that Linus, Cletus, and Clement are the names of the first three “ bishops” of the Church of Rome, preserved in her Eucharistic Service, dating from the second century. If the epistle had been written in the post-apostolic age, Linus, it is held, would have been sure to receive a more prominent place in the list of salutations, and his name would have been accompanied with that of Cletus, or at all events with that of Clement, as the latter was believed to have been an immediate disciple of Paul.?

Altogether, the personal details contained in this epistle, especially in its closing chapter, are so unusually abundant, that it would have been comparatively easy of detection if it had been a forgery. As it is, the marks of genuineness are so numerous and striking, and there is such a tone of sincerity and earnestness running through the whole epistle, that it is accepted by many critics who reject its two companions. But as the main objections to the latter, on the score of their novel language and teaching, and their want of correspondence with the Book of Acts, apply equally to 2 Timothy, it is generally admitted that the three epistles must stand or fall together. Hence any argument for the Pauline authorship of this epistle has a reflex influence on that of the two others.

2. The Reader.

"To Timothy, my beloved child.”3 (See p. 192.)

1 iv. 21 (quoted on previous page).

2 The closing salutations from “ Eubulus, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren" present a seeming inconsistency with the statement in iv. II: “Only Luke is with me,

which a forger would have taken care to avoid. But


closer view we see that the context in the latter case relates only to

Paul's missionary associates. The omission in this passage of any reference to Aristarchus shows that the writer was not taking his cue from the Acts, or the

Epistles of the Imprisonment (Acts xix. 29; xx. 4; xxvii. 2; Col. iv. 10; Philemon, ver.24). Perhaps Aristarchus' death may account for the silence regarding him. It is also worthy of notice that greeting is sent to "the house of Onesiphorus" (iv. 19), not to Onesiphorus himself, which falls in with i. 1618 (see p. 203, note 1), on the supposition that Onesiphorus had recently died, or was on his way to the East. Some such explanation a forger would have been pretty sure to offer.


3 i. 2.

3. Date and Place of Composition. From expressions in the epistle, it is evident that it was written by Paul while a prisoner at Rome. That it was a different imprisonment from that mentioned in the Book of Acts may be inferred from the general considerations already adduced (p. 187), and more particularly from the apostle's anticipation of a fatal result as compared with his expectation of release in Philippians and Philemon. There are several other circumstances, however, which lead us to the same conclusion (1) The difference between Paul's position during his first imprisonment, and at the time he wrote this epistle.4 (2) The absence of Timothy, Demas, and Mark, of whom the first-named is associated with the apostle in the epistles to Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon, and the two latter are mentioned in Colossians as sending salutations. (3) The statement in this epistle, “Erastus abode at Corinth; but Trophimus I left at Miletus sick.”? For in the apostle's last recorded journey to Jerusalem Trophimus was not left at Miletus, but went

1i. 8: “ Be not ashamed therefore of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner : but suffer hardship with the gospel according to the power of God” ; 15-18: “This thou knowest, that all that are in Asia turned away from me ; of whom are Phygelus and Hermogenes. The Lord grant mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus : for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain; but, when he was in Rome, he sought me diligently, and found me (the Lord grant unto him to find mercy of the Lord in that day); and in how many things he ministered at Ephesus, thou knowest very well."

2 iv. 6-8 : “For I am already being offered, and the time of my departure is come. I have fought the good fight, I have finished the course, I have kept the faith : henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give to me at that day : and not only to me, but also to all them that have loved his appearing." 3 Acts xxviii. 30, 31: “And he abode

two whole years in his own hired dwelling, and received all that went in unto him, preaching the kingdom of God, and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ with all boldness, none forbidding him”; Phil. i. 12-14 : “Now I would have you know, brethren, that the things which happened unto me have fallen out rather unto the progress of the gospel ; so that my bonds became manifest in Christ throughout the whole prætorian guard, and to all the rest ; and that most of the brethren in the Lord, being confident through my bonds, are more abundantly bold to speak the word of God without fear."

4 ii. 9: “wherein I suffer hardship unto bonds, as a malefactor ; but the word of God is not bound”; i. 15-17 (quoted above, note 1); iv. 16: « At my first defence no one took my part, but all forsook me: may it not be laid to their account.

5 P. 202, note 2.
6 Col. iv. 10, 14.

7 iv, 20.

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