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a similar sense, “the region of Galatia” being in this case put before Phrygia, because the first two cities he would visit on the route (Lystra and Derbe), although in the Roman province of Galatia, were not in Phrygo-Galatia, as Antioch and Iconium were, which he would subsequently visit. In any case, Paul must have visited these cities of South Galatia where he had already planted churches, for it is said that he “went through the region of Galatia and Phrygia in order, stablishing all the disciples(kabetîs . . . otplŚwv Távtas tous ja@ntás); and this does not fit in with the supposition that in making for the province of Asia (which was evidently his destination in this journey, as he had been withheld from preaching there on the previous occasion) he had taken the circuitous course through Cappadocia and North Galatia which was open to him. Besides, that route was a very unlikely one both for the apostle and for Jewish emissaries (such as those referred to in Gal. v. 7-10), being comparatively unfrequented and affording few opportunities for the propagation either of the Jewish or the Christian faith. In these circumstances the language of xix. 1 : “ Paul having passed through the upper country (tà åvwtepikà pépn) came to Ephesus,” is to be understood as referring to the route which led to Ephesus by way of Antioch, across the great central plateau.

Confirmation of this interpretation of “the Galatian country” and Phrygia” is found in the fact that inscriptions have been discovered in which Phrygia (as distinct from the country of the Celts) is mentioned as one of a number of districts in the Roman province of Galatia ; and also in the analogy afforded by the name of Pontus Galaticus, which was applied to a portion of the district of Pontus that had been added to the Roman province of Galatia.

(4) It is generally admitted that in his epistles Paul uses geographical names in their Roman sense (so, even the word Galatia in i Cor.

as I gave order to the churches of Galatia, so also do ye”); and this is alleged to be a feature of those parts of the Book of Acts which were composed under the immediate influence of the apostle, as compared, for example, with earlier portions of the Book. With this Pauline usage agrees also that of Peter in the beginning of his First Epistle, where, summing up “the whole of Asia Minor north of the Taurus range,” he says: Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia."

(5) With regard to the apostle's words in Gal. iv. 13: “Ye did me no wrong : but ye know that because of an infirmity of the flesh I preached the gospel unto you the first time :" it is held to be incredible that the apostle could have thought of crossing North Galatia merely for the purpose of preaching in Bithynia or Pontus, or that he should have set himself to its evangelization—with its scattered cities and fatiguing journeys—when recovering from sickness. The true ex

xvi. I :


planation is alleged to be that in his first missionary journey Paul was prostrated with a malarious fever at Perga, where he not improbably arrived during the hot season, possibly in June. Such an illness is a common experience of travellers at the present day; and a remedy is frequently sought in such a change to the hills as that which Paul obtained when he came to Antioch (Acts xiii. 13, 14). Hitherto his face had been turned westward (Perga being on the way to Rome), and it was owing to the change of plan involved in the journey to Antioch that John Mark, who had come with Paul and Barnabas as far as Perga, returned to Jerusalem.

(6) The enthusiastic reception accorded to him by the Galatians, to which the apostle refers in the epistle (iv. 14, 15:

“And that which was a temptation to you in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected ; but ye received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus. Where then is that gratulation of yourselves ? for I bear you witness, that, if possible, ye would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me.” i. 8 : “ But though we, or an angel from heaven, should preach unto you any gospel”) corresponds with the account given in the Book of Acts of the wonderful impression made at Antioch and elsewhere, but especially at Lystra, where the cry was raised "the gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.” The language of vi. 17 : “From henceforth iet no man trouble me : for I bear branded on my body the marks of Jesus," may also refer to the effects of the “persecutions, sufferings; what things befell me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra.” 2 Tim. iii. 11.

(7) The charge of inconsistency on the part of the apostle which is implied in Gal. v. II: “But I, brethren, if I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted ?” was no doubt occasioned by his conduct in causing Timothy to be circumcised at Lystra, and would be very likely to be brought against him by the Jews in that and the neighbouring cities. (8) The repeated allusions to Barnabas (Gal. ii. 1, 9, 13 :

... insomuch that even Barnabas was carried away with their dissimulation") give the impression that Barnabas was personally known to the readers, and seem more natural if addressed to the Churches in South Galatia, where Barnabas had been a fellow-labourer with Paul.

(9) The words in Gal. ii. 5: “To whom we gave place in the way of subjection, no, not for an hour ; that the truth of the gospel might continue with you,” have a more definite meaning if the readers were in possession of the gospel before the occasion referred to. But this could only have been if they heard the apostle preach during his first missionary journey-when he visited the cities of South Galatia.

(10) The language of Gal. iii. 28 : “ There can be neither Jew nor Greek, there can be neither bond nor free, there can be no male and female : for ye all are one man in Christ Jesus," would also be more appropriate if addressed to Churches in which Greek culture was widely diffused. As regards the Jewish element, it is known to have existed both in North and South Galatia.

(11) Although the supposition of Celtic influence in the Galatian Church has to be given up, an equivalent is found in the Oriental character of the Phrygians and Lycaonians, which gave them a

strong natural affinity for the Hebraic type of Christianity.”

(12) An argument is derived from the testimony borne by various readings of Codex Bezae in favour of this interpretation. Special authority is claimed for this MS. in any question affecting Asia Minor, as its readings in such cases (unlike those referring to Europe) are often valuable, and appear to embody a tradition of the country at least as old as the second century.

It niay be well to add that according to Professor Ramsay the prevailing misconception as to the meaning of Galatia has been due to the fact that “ during the second century the term Galatia ceased to bear the sense which it had to a Roman in the first century. The whole of central and southern Lycaonia was, before the middle of the second century, separated from Galatia and formed into a province Lycaonia."



1, Authorship.

THE Pauline authorship of this epistle is universally admitted. There is no lack of external evidence in its favour?; but its strong resemblance to Galatians is enough to prove its common authorship with that epistle.

Moreover, a comparison of its contents with other Pauline epistles and with the Book of Acts affords valuable confirmation of its genuineness and authenticity. Besides the remarkable coincidences with regard to the time and place of its composition (p. 146), the following points are worthy of notice. (1) The statement of the writer's long-felt desire to visit Rome, and of his hope of now doing so after fulfilling his mission to Jerusalem, is in harmony with the purpose expressed by the apostle at Ephesus some time before. (2) The request which he makes to the Christians at Rome that they would unite with him in prayer that he “may be delivered from them that are disobedient in Judæa," corresponds with the apostle's expression of feeling in his last journey to Jerusalem. (3) The teaching in this epistle and in Galatians is in striking harmony with Paul's mission as the apostle of the Gentiles, and goes far to explain the accusation brought against him on his last recorded visit to Jerusalem. (4) The nature of the visit to Rome contemplated by the writer of this epistle, “that I may come unto you in joy through the will of God, and together with you find rest”3 is so very different from what the apostle actually experienced, when he was carried a prisoner to Rome, that it could not have been so described by any one who derived his information from the Book of Acts.

1 It is quoted expressly or virtually by many times from coming to you: but Clement of Rome, Polycarp, Basilides, now, having no more any place in these Justin Martyr, Theophilus, Tatian, regions, and having these many years a Irenæus (reporting the testimony of longing to come unto you, whensoever I certain Elders), Clement of Alexandria, go unto Spain (for I hope to see you in Tertullian, and also in the Letter to my journey, and to be brought on my Diognetus, and that of the Church of way thitherward by you, if first in some Vienne and Lyons. It is also contained measure I shall have been satisfied with in the Syriac and Old Latin Versions, your company)-but now, I say, I go and in the Muratorian Canon.

unto Jerusalem, ministering unto the “And I would not have you saints. For it hath been the good ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to purposed to come unto you (and was make a certain contribution for the hindered hitherto), that I might have poor among the saints that are at Jerusome fruit in you also, even as in the salem." Acts xix. 21: “Now after rest of the Gentiles."

these things were ended, Paul pur“Wherefore also I was hindered these posed in the spirit, when he had passed

2 i. 13:



From one of the closing salutations we learn that the epistle was written by Tertius as the apostle's amanuensis.4

2. The Readers.

“To all that are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints."5 These words and the absence of any mention of bishops and deacons either in this epistle or in the account of the welcome which Paul received from the Roman brethren three years afterwards6 would seem to indicate that there was no formally organised Church in the

through Macedonia and Achaia, to go
to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been
there, I must also see Rome."
1 xv. 30, 31 :

“Now I beseech you, brethren, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that ye strive together with me in your prayers to God for me; that I may be delivered from them that are disobedient in Judæa, and that my ministration which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints.” Acts xx. 22, 23:

" And now, behold, I go bound in the spirit unto Jerusalem, not knowing the things that shall befall me there : save that the Holy Ghost testifieth unto me in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions abide me.

hearsed one by one the things which God had wrought among the Gentiles by his ministry. And they, when they heard it, glorified God; and they said unto him, Thou seest, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of them which have believed ; and they are all zealous for the law : and they have been informed concerning thee, that thou teachest all the Jews which are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children, neither to walk after the customs."

2 Acts xxi. 17-21: “And when we were come to Jerusalem, the brethren received us gladly. And the day following Paul went in with us unto James ; and all the elders were present. And when he had saluted them, he re

3 xv. 32.

4 xvi. 22: “I Tertius, who write the epistle, salute you in the Lord.”

5 i. 7.

6 Acts xxviii. 15: “And from thence (i.e, from Rome) the brethren, when they heard of us, came to meet us as far as The Market of Appius, and The Three Taverns: whom when Paul saw, he thanked God, and took courage."

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