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Senator Mathias. I would like to conserve my questions until the whole presentation has been made.
Senator STEVENSON. I just don't quite understand why two detention facilities are needed. Is that because of the unavailability of land near Judiciary Square?
Mr. HARDY. Let me comment on that, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. Hardy. If we consider function alone then putting the detention facility in proximity to the courthouse would be desirable. However, Judiciary Square is a very special area. Space is highly restricted there and extremely expensive. Value runs $30 or $50 a square foot and up. This alone would come to many millions of dollars. We run into conflict with a number of other plans for structures in that vicinity. The task of assembling the 5-plus acres would be expensive and would run roughshod against these many other plans. In going into detail in the rationale for a detention center in the immediate proximity of the courthouse we determined that there are certain areas when a detainee requires this type of accessibility. At other times he does not. His lawyer has to have access to him immediately after his imprisonment and while a determination is made as to whether he will be put out on bail or not. Certainly during the period of his trial. For the longer periods of detention while it may be desirable it isn't absolutely essential. Therefore, what we came up with is essentially a compromise with the realities of the situation.
Senator STEVEXSox. How much land will you require for this satellite site ?
Mr. HARDY. We haven't determined it yet. My estimate at this point is somewhere in the neighborhood of 1 to 11,2 acres would be sufficient.
Senator STEVENSOX. Mr. Hardy, why don't you proceed with your presentation.
Mr. HARDY. The next recommendation of the Crime Commission was that 100 additional officers should be added to the Department of Corrections. Mr. Chairman, I am pleased to report that with the understanding of the Congress we have moved that figure of 100 recommended in 1966 to a total of 260 officers added to the Department of Corrections and I don't find any means to imply that we are satisfied with that figure. But I do want to note there that we have moved far above the 100 recommended by the Crime Commission back in 1966.
The next recommendation regards our correctional training academy. I am asking my assistant who is the administrator of the academy to give the pertinent details about the development and the operation of the academy. Mr. Sisson.
STATEMENT OF JOHN W. SISSON, ADMINISTRATOR, TRAINING
Mr. Sissox. Yes, sir. Our training academy was established July 1, 1969, after the recommendation of the President's Crime Commission that this be done. A grant was received from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration which allowed us to study
the needs and to design a program for the training academy. This study set up a three-phase training academy program. One phase being the preservice training for new employees entering on duty in the Department. One phase being for inservice training for the employees already on duty. And a third phase being higher level classes which would upgrade the academic background of employees in the Department.
Between July 1, 1969 and May 30 of this year we trained 712 new employees who have entered on duty in our Department, either on a 40-hour training program for all new employees or an 80-hour program for all new correctional officers. We have also had 625 of our employees participate in one form of in-service training or another at the academy, totaling 72,090 on duty manhours of training since 1969.
We try to provide a balanced program in the academy between treatment and security. A program which materially provides and deals with empathy, understanding the inmate, understanding inmate problems, and also the security aspect-contraband, narcotics, and subjects of this nature.
The instructors at the academy are made up of the staff which was authorized by Congress within assigned positions to create the academy. Then we used guest instructors, people from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, various colleges, and Department employees at every level. Whenever a problem is noted, a particular program is designed to cope with it. We try to find the best possible instructor within the Department.
Some of the type of seminars today are seminars from last year. In narcotics, teaching our correctional people utilization of manpower, and getting the best use of manpower. We even worked one training program for a case aide inmate to assist the classification officers at the complex. In the narcotics program, to mention one, we worked with Washington Technical Institute in developing our program which leads to an associate and applied science degree in corrections administration. So far, since 1969, 341 employees of the Department have enrolled in at least one or more courses in this program which starts at present at the District of Columbia jail and at the training academy. They have participated in over 6,000 man-hours of off-duty training. This to me, speaks of an interest on the part of employees in the Department to center their career development and work in the field which they have chosen. Most of these college courses are paid for through the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration from grants which are available to the college. Upon the recommendations of the Joint Commission on the Department of Corrections and Training, the President's Crime Commission, and the Mayor's task force, in May of 1970, we asked LEAA for a grant to establish a regional training academy to provide management and supervision training for Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia departments of correction.
In November 1970, we were given a $99,000 grant and did establish a regional training academy. The purpose of this, as I said, was to bring together correctional officials from the three-State region to train in areas in which we could not individually train.
To date we have completed 21 seminars in the regional academy, and 18 seminars are scheduled to be completed before the end of the grant in November of this year. We have had 422 participants in the regional academy representing six States, Puerto Rico, the Bureau of Prisons, and the District of Columbia. We have had a total of 7,700 man-hours of training thus far in the academy,
One illustration of a training session which was held in the academy was the executive development seminar which was held in April of this year. A 2-day seminar which brought together the directors of three States, the prison industry directors of four States, officials of the Government, the JC's, ex-inmates, members of the inmate body itself, and private industry. Out of this 2-day conference a second meeting was established and a regional correctional action council was established which will seek to advance to find a new model correctional industry. I believe this will be covered in testimony later on this morning.
Time does not permit an elaboration of all the programs offered. Needless to say the academy has made a significant start and has gained some recognition. We have had inquiries from 34 States concerning our program and also an inquiry from Australia regarding our training program. We believe we have the potential for an excellent training program and we look forward to the challenge the future holds and to the opportunity to provide adequate training for our employees and to others who seek the training. We realize the importance of our influence on the employees who will be called upon to provide an impact to the reduction of crime in the District. We also recognize the importance of meeting the challenges which are ours.
Thank you for your attention and for this opportunity to testify. Senator STEVENSON. Thank you, Mr. Sisson.
Senator MATHIAS. Just one question. You mentioned one of the programs has an LEAA grant. When does that grant run out?
Mr. Sisson. The grant expires in December of this year.
Mr. Sisson. We hope we will get an extension or that there will be other ways of dealing with it.
Senator MATHAIS. How much was the grant for?
Mr. HARDY. I would like to say, Mr. Chairman, that the correctional department part of the academy, that is for the District of Columbia Academy, has been programed into the budget of the Department of Corrections. We are funded for that. But we are only using Law Enforcement Assistance Administration funds for the regional academy. Senator STEVENSON. I see.
Mr. HARDY. Perhaps at the end of the grant we can share the funding on a regional basis.
Senator STEVENSON. Who is the next witness?
Mr. HARDY. The next witness, Mr. Chairman, is Mr. David Thomas, personnel officer for the Department. While his presentation will not relaté directly to the recommendations of the Crime
Commission, it is intertwined with the Crime Commission and the Joint Commission on Correctional Manpower and Training—which was the Commission appointed by the President. They made certain recommendations to the Department of Corrections in the country so the Crime Commission report is not the only guidebook we use in correction. There are many, many studies that we use as guidebooks.
Mr. Thomas will perhaps give recommendations that more minority members be employed in correction, the elimination of different tests, the lowering of legal administrative barriers in hiring exoffenders, elimination of written tests for lower staff, and top priority be given to the education and training of the employees development. Mr. Thomas, you might want to go on.
STATEMENT OF DAVID C. THOMAS, PERSONNEL OFFICER, DEPART
MENT OF CORRECTIONS
Mr. THOMAS. How we become involved with the Corrections Department in recent years was not only our inability to increase the Correctional Department positions but to fill positions once they were obtained. One of the primary bottlenecks was the form of the existing examination process which included a written examination. One period of recruitment activity in the Department was discussed where 1,300 applicants were assigned examination. Over 1,000 failed the test. We were able to employ some of those but generally wiped out the advantage of additional personnel.
We anticipated a large number of employees under the budget. We proposed to the Civil Service Commission that they establish a new correctional officer examination on a college basis for the District of Columbia without a written test. The results were astounding. Normally recruiting—70 some applicants. The new exam process gave us over 750. The Civil Service reviewed our findings and reissued correctional officer examinations in November of last year fully adopting our plan and eliminating the written test. It is now in effect and is used by both the Department of Corrections and the Bureau of Prisons. We have less than 2-percent vacancy account in our institutional and correctional officers out of the total correctional staff of 800. We now feel confident that we can meet any recruitment need that may come up in the immediate future. The recruitment and labor market is such that positions of correctional officers, with professional people, we feel we would be able to respond.
An additional area in which the Department has made great strides is in employment of minority members. In 1967 the minority representation on our present force was under 20 percent. In 1971 it has increased to 43 percent and still being increased.
The increase can partly be attributed to the move of the personnel office from Lorton to central headquarters in the District and to increased progress in the District community area. We are constantly searching for highly qualified applicants regardless of social makeup hut accept the responsibility for increasing the opportunity for District residents to participate in their community affairs.
Another area in which we have been able to move forward is employment of offenders and ex-offenders in the Department by efforts to obtain employment for men returning to the community by our institution
In January 1970 the Department obtained a $40,000 grant to develop an inmate personnel system supplemented by our previous program. The grant had as its purpose the development of an increased capability for identifying, developing, and stimulating an increased employment for ex-offenders in the private sector as well as Government service. We shortly had a separate unit of 15 employees to handle this effort and there were 3,000 offenders referred to our facilities.
The Department of Corrections itself employed approximately 100 of the ex-offenders and has obtained outside jobs for approximately 1,500 this past year and a half.
We currently are planning an additional request of a grant for $9,000 as part of this program to increase our job casting before an inmate is released to the community—job development and the establishment of new industries in the Department. All of these efforts when combined in a simple training program outlined by Mr. Sisson in our efforts, civil service and outside college training program will make a significant impact on the subject program.
Senator STEVENSON. Thank you, sir.
Senator MATHIAS. Could you explain the term correctional officer in the terms in which you want to use that expression ?
Mr. THOMAS. The correctional officer is what we call the backbone of the Department in that he is a community individual employee and man the institutions 24 hours a day, not only for basic security service but to participate in the informal lay counseling effort to deal with the men while they are in the institution. They are on our security force and they are also the man with whom the inmates come in contact with most and have the opportunity to influence the development of the inmate.
Senator Mathias. Plus the other categories of the personnel ?
Mr. Thomas. Yes; we have a large staff of in-training personnel: The social workers, the classification workers, the psychologists, the teachers, the educational specialists who are informed in participating in programs to assist the inmate and the individual in returning to the community. We also have various staff who continue the operation of the Department.
Senator STEVENSON. Do you have medical personnel in the administration ?
Mr. THOMAS. Yes; we have a departmental health staff of approximately 35 physicians.
Senator STEVENSON. One of the conditions in the report is to assume responsibility for the operation of all medical facilities of the District of Columbia penal institutions. Has that recommendation been implemented ?
Mr. HARDY. I believe, Mr. Chairman, I can handle that question better. The request was forwarded to the U.S. Public Health Service and they made a survey. They find that their policy does not involve