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reason. The scenes of madness run into by the natural world numerous abortions are the ambitious Princes; the excelles our Nobili- confequence of the common course of naty and wealthy Commoners are, from time to ture ; but, in the moral, of fatal perverseness time, guilty of; and the fatal catastrophe of by making a bad choice. whole nations, whenever they arrive at the And, indeed, what state of discipline for pinnacle of greatnels and riches; thew the free agents can be conceived, without supabsolute necellity of affliction to force us up- pofing a possibility of their behaving ill in it? on contideration, to put us in mind of the Nothing but an absolute restraint upon the frailty of our nature and state, and to make liberty of the creature, which is wholly inus remember that we are under the govern- content with the nature of free agency, ment of one who can raife or humble, afflict and of a itate of discipline, could have preor relieve, reward or punish, as to him seems vented their acting, in many instances, amifs. good.

But the all-bounteous Creator has effectue That we may never lose sight of our du- ally put it out of the power of the most prety, nor have it in our power to pretend ig- fumptuously infolent of his creatures to arnorance ; and even to silence the poor ex- raign his justice. For, if he has given to every cuse of thoughtlehness; conscience, that ever accountable being a fairopportunity of attainwatchful and faithful monitor, is placed with ing happiness ; if he has placed him in the in the mind itself, to be always at hand to direct way towards it, and is ready to assist judge of our characters and actions, and to him in his endeavours after it; he has, to all alarm us with its ftings and reproaches, when- intents and purposes, done the same, as if ever we do amniss.

he had given it to every individual. For he There is no mind so gross and ftupid, as who points out the way to get an estate, not to feel, at times, some pangs of remorfe. or any of the good things of life, and who And not only conscience within, but every allifts and supports me in my endeavours to ohject in nature presents us fome moral lej- procure it, he it is to whom I am obliged for fon. Tempests, thunders, and lightnings whatever I acquire in consequence of his adfrom above; inundations and earthquakes vice, and by means of his protection and from beneath; the sworil, famine, and pef- allistance. tilence in our cities ; difcales and pains in our Every one knows, that, with respect to wun persons, or those of our nearest friends the present state, exclusive of futurity, there and relations, and death on our right hand is great difficulty in getting through life, and on our left : What are all these but aw- without some fatal misconduct, which may ful and yet kind warnings from the tender imbitter and render it unleappy. It is a matand compailionate Father of mankind, who ter of doubt whether a new-born infant will Thews himself willing to give his unthinking, get over the precarious time of youth, with short-lighted creatures all possible advan- out being drawn, thro'rashness and thoughttages for virtue and happiness that might be lellness, and the temptations of bad compaccntistent with their nature, as free agents; ny, into such a courie of folly as may efwith their condition, as being in a state of féctually prevent his proving a useful and vadiscipline; and with the grand and univer- Juable member of society. Yet we always Gal scheme, which must be equitable, un- look


the birth of a child into the world changeable, and uniform.

as a subject of joy, not of grief or complaint; Thus it appears plain, that the present life and upon the untimely death of a young was intended for a itate of discipline, and is person as a calamity; because we take into very well adapted to that purpose. Nor does our view the confideration of its being in the the actual prevarication of numbers of moral power of every person to behave well in life, agents prove, that the state was not intended if he pleafes ; and we hope he will do fo. The for training them up to virtue, or that it is not warrior is sufficiently apprised of the danger properly adapted to that purpose, any more of engaging; a danger which it is out of his than the amazing number of abortions which power to ward off. Yet he longs to mix in bappen in the natural world proves, that the martial tumult, and engages with joy in the general design of leeds was not to fructi. the glorious strife. Why Nould man think fy, and produce plants and animals. Natu- himself hardly used in being placed in a post salifts thew us, that, in fome cases, millions attended with occasional danger, but in which of stamina perish, for one that comes to ma- he must be egregiously wanting to himself, if turity. And, as we conclude every seed of he miscarries finally 2. But if I should not a plant, or animal egg, was formed capable chuse a happiness attainable only througha of fructification, fo we may, that every mo. peril and trouble, but would rather, through tal agent was formed capable of attaining lordid ftupidity and inactivity, desire to de. bappinels. The great difference is, that in cline existing upon such terms; does it there




fore follow, that the infinite Author of ex- to be remembered, that, as the inanimate
iltence may not oblige me, in spite of my world is made to concur with the divine scheme
obftinacy or stupidity, to go through what in a mechanical, and the animal in an in-
be may judge proper for me, and necessa- ftin&tive manner, so rational beings, if they
ry for his great ends ?

concur at all, must concur in a manner suit-
It has been asked, why the heneficent Au- able to their nature, that is, rational, free,
Bror of being did not pursue such an effec- and voluntary.
tual (cheme in the moral world as he has The requinte concurrence of moral agents,
done in the natural, by planting in our of whatever rank or order, or their confor-
minds fuch a strong and irresistible propen- mity to the grand design of the universal Go-
lity to virtue as would have effcctually fe- vernor, which is the ground-work of uni-
çured the universal happiness of the species ? verfal harmony, pcrfe&ion, and happiness
The answer is obvious, that he required the throughout the Creation, consists therefore
obedience of free agents, by a love of choice in their acting according to truth, rectitude, -
and a love of reason. To propose, by niere and propriety, in their respective stations,
inftinctive attractions, mechanically to draw whether higher or lower in the scale of be-
free agents to the love and practice of virtue, ing, whether in states of discipline or reward,
was contradictory to the nature of his delign. in all cases or circumstances that regard ei-
Because what is wanted is not so inuch, that ther themselves, their fellow-beings, or their
mankind be brought to go, like inachines, in Creator. Whatever moral agent Atri&tly and
a certain track, as that the rational faculties

universally observes this rulc, he is of that

be formed in a rationai manner to the intire character which all rational beings call good,

Love and habitual pursuit of goodness. This is amiable in the sight of the fupreme Judge

thews mechanical means to be inproper of rectitude and goodness; and it is as cer.

alone for that purpose, though they may tain, that every such being must be finally

prore, as we find, useful helps ; and that ra- happy, as that the nature of things is what

tional means are absolutely neceffary for act. it is, and that perfect wisdom and goodness

ing upon rational natures. And it is ever mult act rightly in governing the world ;

To fuppliant virtue rothing is denied,

For blessings ever wait on virtuous deeds;

And, though a late, a sure reward fucceeds.

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Tbe following Account, from Dr. Robertson's History of Charles V, of a Con.

SPIRACY to overturn the Government of GENOA, as well as the



Istions which that Event, extremely mysterious in its forf Appearances, seemed to por.
sexd, will, we bope, be Matter of agreeable Entertainment to many of our Readers.

HE form of Government which had attempting to overturn that fabric, which had
time when Andrew Doria restored liberty But that authority and influence, which in
to his country; though calculated to oblite- his hands were innocent, they easily faw
rate the memory of former diffenfions, and would prove destructive, if usurped by any
received at first with eager approbation, did citizen of greater ambition, or less virtue.
not, after a trial of near twenty years, give A citizen of this dangerous character had
universal fatisfaction to these turbulent and actually formed such pretensions, and with
factious Republicans. As the intire admi- some prospect of success. Giannetino Do-
niftration of affairs was now lodged in a ria, whom his grand uncle Andrew destined
certain number of noble families, inany, en- to be the heir of his private for tune, aimed
vying them that pre-eminence, withed for likewise at being his successor in power.
the restitution of a popular Government, to His temper haughty, insolent, and over-bear-

svhich they had been accustomed ; and, ing to such a degree as would fcarce have

though all reverenced the disinterested virtue been tolerated in one born to reign, was alto-

of Doria, and admired his talents, not a few gether insupportable in the citizen of a free

were jealous of that ascendant which he had State ; and the more fagacious among the

acquired in all the Councils of the common- Genoese already feared and hated him as the

wealth. His age, however, his moderation, enemy of those liberties for which they were

and love of liberty, afforded ample security indebted to his uncle. While Andrew

to his countrymen that he would not abuse himself, blinded by that violent and undifa

his power, nor Brain the close of his days by cerning affection which persons in advanced

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age often contract for the younger members most imminent danger, while he allowed and of their family, fet no bounds to the intal- other to reap all the fruits of his sucrets; gence with which he treated him ; leeming and exhorted him warmly to aim bindet at leis follicitous to secure and perpetuate the that pre-eminence in his, which freedom of the commonwealth, than to ag- he was destined by his illuftriaus birth, was grandife that undeserving kinliman.

called by the voice of his filo:v-citizers, and But whatever suspicion of Doria's deligns, would be raised by the zeal of his friends. or whatever diflatistaction with the lytter of This discourse opened fuch vak prospects to adminittration in the commonwealth, thele Fielco, and so suitable to his genius, that, circumstances might have occalioned, they abandoning his own plan, he eagerly adopted would have ended, it is probable, in nothing that of Verrina. The other persons present, more than murmurings and cumplaints, it tho' sensible of the hazardous nature of the John Lewis Fiesco, Count of Lavagna, obundertaking, did not chute to condenn what serving this growing dilgust, had not been their patron had to warmly approved. It encouraged by it to attempt one of the boldett was instantly resolved, in this dark cabal, to actions recorded in history. Tliat young aflaisinate the two Doria's as well as tlic prinNobleman, the richest and moit illuitrious cipal pertons of their party, to overturn the subject in the Repubííc, poffelled, in an emi. established system of Government, and to nent degree, all the qualities which win upon place Fiesco on tie ducal throne of Genc. the human heart, which command respect, "Tüne, however, and preparations were reor secure attachment. He was graceful and quitite to ripen such a delign for execution ; majestic in his person ; magnificent to pro- and, while employed in carrying on these, fusion; of a generosity that prevented the Fiesco made it his chief care to guard again! withes of his friends, and exceeded the ex- every thing that might betray nis fecret, or pectations of Atrangers; of an insinuating create fufpicion. The disguise he allumed address, gentle manners, and a flowing atfa- was of all others the most impenetrable. He bility. But under the appearance of thefe seemed to be abandoned intirely to pleasure virtues, which seemed to form him for en- and dissipation. A perpetual gaiety, dijoying and adorning civil life, he concealed versified by the pursuit of all the amusements all the dispositions which mark men out for becoming his age and rank, ingroiled, in taking the lead in the most dangerous and appearance, the whole of his time and dark conspiracies ; an insatiable and restless thoughts. But, amidst this hurry of dillipaambition, a courage unacquainted with fear, tion, he prosecuted his plan with the most and a mind that disdained fuborlination. cool attention, neither retarding the delign Such a temper could ill brook that ftation of by a timid hesitation, nor precipitating the inferiority, wherein he was placed in the execution by an excess of impatience. He Republic; and, as he envied the power continued his correspondence with the which the elder Doria had acquired, he was French Ambassador at Rome, though withfilled with indignacion at the thoughts of its out communicating to him his real intendescending, like an hereditary poffeffion, to tions,

that by his means he might secure the Giannetino. These various passions, prey. protection of the French arms, if hereafter ing with violence on his turbulent and aspir. he should find it necessary to call them to ing mind, determined him to attempt his aid. He entered into a close confederacy overturning that domination to which he with Farnese Duke of Parma, who, being could not fubmit.

disgusted with the Emperor for refusing to At first he thought of an alliance with the grant him the investiture of that Duchy, was King of France, and even proposed it to the eager to promote any measure that tended to French Amballador at Rome; and, after diminish his influence in Italy, or to ruin a expelling Doria together with the Imperial family so implicitly devoted to him as that of faction by his affistance, he resolved to put Doria. Being sensible that, in a maritime there public once more under the protection of state, the acquisition of naval power was that Monarch, hoping in return for that ser- what he ought chiefly to aim at, he purvice to be intrusted with the principal thare chaled four gullies from the Pope, who proin the administration of Government. But, bably was not unacquainted with the design having communicated his scheme to a few which he had formed, and did cot ditapprove choren confidents, from whom he kept 1.0- of it Under colour of fitting out one of thing secret, Verrina, the Chief of them, a thele gallies to fail on a cruise against the man of defperate fortune, capable alike of Turks, he not only afsembled a good numadvising and of executing the most auda- ber of his own raisals

, but engaged in his cious deeds, remonstrated with earnestnels forvice many bold adventurers, whom the agzint the folly of expoling himself to the truce between the Emperor and Solymua


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had deprived of their usual occupation and to enter, but strong guards posted within the fubsistence.

court suffered no one to return. Verrina, While Fiesco was taking these important mean-while, and a few persons' trusted with steps, he preserved so admirably his usual ap- the secret of the conspiracy, after conducting pearance of being devoted intirely to plea- Fiesco's vassals, as well as the crews of his lure and amusement, and paid Court with gallies into the palace in finall bodies, with such aitful address to the two Doria's, as im* as little noise as possible, dispersed themselves posed not only on the generous and unluspi- through the city, and, in the name of their cious mind of Andrew, but deceived Gian- pation, invited to an entertainment the prina netino, who, conscious of his own criminal cipal citizens whom they knew to be disguftintentions, was more apt to diftrust the de- ed with the adminstration of the Doria's, and signs of others. So many inftruments being to have both inclination and courage to atnow prepared, nothing remained but to tempt a change in the Government. Of the strike the blow. Various consultations were vart number of persons who now filled the held by Fietco with his confidents, in order palace, a few only knew for what purpose to settle the manner of doing it with the they were assembled ; the rest, astoniihed at greatest certainty and effect. At first, they finding, instead of the preparations for a proposed to murder the Doria's and their featt, a court.crouded with armed men, and chief adherents, during the celebration of apartments filled with the instruments of war, high mass in the principal church ; but, as gazed on each other with a mixture of impa. Andrew was often absent from these religious tience, curiosity, and terror. folemnities, on account of his great age, that While their minds were in this Itate of delign was laid afide. It was then concert- fufpence and agitation, Fiesco appeared. ed that Fiesco should invite the uncle and with a look of alacrity and confidence, he nephew, with all their friends whom he had addressed himţelf to the persons of chief difmarked out as victims, to his houłe ; where tinction, telling them, that they were not now it would be easy to cut them off at once called to partake of the pleafure of an enterwithout danger or refiftance ; but, as Gian- tainment, but to join in a deed of valour, netino was obliged to leave the town on the which would lead them to liberty and imday which they had chosen, it became neces- mortal renown. He set before their eyes fary likewise to alter this plan. They at the exorbitant as well as intolerable autholatt determined to attempt by open force rity of the elder Doria, which the ambition what they found difficult to erfect by strata- of Giannetino, and the partiality of the Emgem, and fixed on the night between the peror to a family more devoted to him than ad and 3d of January, for the execution of to their country, was about to enlarge and their enterprise. The time was chosen with to render perpetual. This unrighteous great propriety; for, as the Doge of the for- domination, continued he, you have it mer year was to quit his office, according to now in your power to fibvert and to custom, on the first of the month, and his eftablish the freedom of your country on fucceffor could not be elected fooner than the a firm basis. The tyrants must be cut fourth, the Republic remained during that off. I have taken the most effectual meainterval in a fort of anarchy, and Fielco sures for this purpose. My affociates are might with less violence take posteslion of the numerous. I can depend on allies and provacant dignity.

tectors, if neceflary. Happily the tyrants The morning of that day Fiesco employeel are as secure as I have been provident. in visiting his friends, paling fome hours Their infolent contempt of their countrymen among them with a spirit as gay and unem- has banished the fufpicion and timidity which barrailed as at other times. Towards evening umally render the guilty quick-lighted to he paid Court to the Doria's with his usual difcern, as well as lagacious 10 guard 2marks of respect, and, surveying their counte- gainft the vengeance which they deserve. nance and behaviour with the attention natu- They will now feel the blow, befi re they ral in his situation, was happy to obferve the fufpect any hottile hand to be nigh. Let us perfect security in which they remaineil, then fally forth, that we may deliver cur without the least foresight or dread of that country by one generous effort, almost unacAtorm which had been to long a gathering, companiel with danger, and certain of fucand was now ready to burst over their heads. cess. These words, uttered with tirat irre. From their palace he hattened to his own, fiftible férvour which animates the mind which stood by itself in the middle of a large when roused by great objects, made the de. court, furrounded by a high wall. 'The Gred impresion on the audience. Fielco's gates had been set open in the morning, and valials, ready to execute whatever their malall persons without diltinétion were allowed ter should coinmand, received his discourse with a mummúr of applause. To many, Dorfena, or little harbour where Doria's fleet whole fortunes were desperate, the licence lay. All puffibliity of escape being by this and confulion of an infurrection a:furded an precaution cut off, when Fietco attempted to agtceable prospect. Those of higher rank enter the gailies from the thore to which they and more virtuous sentiments durit not dir were made fait, as they were unrigged and cover the- fürptile or horror with which they disarmed, having no crew on board but the were ftruck at the proposal of an enter- llaves chained to the oar, they were in no prisë so unexpected and atrocious; as each condition to make resistance. Every quarter imagined the other to be in the secret of the of the city was now filled with noile and tur conlpiracy, and saw himself surrounded by mult, all the streets resounding with the cry perfons who waited only a signal from their officio and Liberty.' At that name, so leader to perpetrate the greatest crime. P:pular and beloved, many of the lower rarik With one voice then all applauded, or feign- took arms, and joined the conspirators. ed to applaud the undertaking.

The Nobles and partisans of the Ariitocracy, Having thus fixed and encouraged his af- astonished or affrighted, shut the gates of fociztes, before he gave them his last orders, their houses, and thought of nothing but lg he haftened for a moment to the apartment curing their from pillage. At lait, the of his wife, a Lady of the noble House of noise, excited by this scene of violence and Cibo, whom he loved with tender aff Stion, confusion, reached the palace of Doria; Gif and whose beauty and virtue rendered her annetino ftarted immediately from his bed, worthy of his love. The noise of the armed anı, imagining that it was occasioned by men who crouded the court and palace hav- fome mutiny among the failors, rushed out ing long before this reached her ears, the with a few attendants, and hurried towards concluded some hazardons enterprise to be in the harbour. The gate of St. Thomas, hand, and the trembled for her huband. through which he had to pali, was already He fund her in all the anguish of uncer- in the possesion of the conspirators, who, tainty and fear; and, as it was now impof- the moment he entered, fell upon him witla able to keep his design concealed, he inform- the utmost fury, and inurdered him on the ed her of what he had undertaken. The spot. The same must have been the fate of prospect of a scene so full of horror as well the elder Doria, if Jerome de Fiesco had exeas danger completed her agony ; and, fore- cuted his br. ther's plan, and had proceeded boding immerliately in her mind the fatal immediately to attack him in his palace; but, issue of it, the endeavoured, by her tears, he, from the fordid consideration of preber intreaties, and her despair, tó divert him venting its being plundered amidst the con from his purpose. Fiesco, after trying in fusion, having forbid his followers to ada vain to soothe and to inspire her with hope, vance, Andrew got intelligence of his nebroke from a situation into which an excess phew's death, as well as of his own danger; of tendernefs had unwarily seduced him, and, mounting on horseback, faved himself . though it could not shaké his resolution. hy flight. Mean while a few Senators had "Farewel

, he cried, as he quitted the apart- the courage to assemble in the palace of the mént, you shall either never see me more, or Republic. At firtt, fome of the most daring you fall behold to-morrow every thing in among them attempted to sally the scatterod Genoa subject to your power.'

foldiers, and to attack a body of the conspirac As soon as he rejoined his companions, he tors; but, being repulled with loss, all agreed allotted each his proper station ; fome were that nothing now remained, but to treat with appointed to affault ‘and seize the different the party which seemed to be irresistible. Degates of the city ; fone to make themselves puries were accordingly sent to learn of masters of the principal streets or places of Fielco what were the concellions with which ftrength : Fiesco reserved for himself the at- he would be laustied, cr rather to submit tack of the harbour where Doria's gallies to whatever terms he thould please to prewerę laid up, as the post of chief impor- scribe. tance, and of greatest danger. It was now Eut by this time Fiesco, with whom they midnight, and the citizens tiept in the lecu- wire imposvered to negociate, was no more. rity of peace, when this band of conspirators, Just as he was geing to leave the harbcur, numerous, defperate, and well armed, ruídeí ite: e cvery thing had succeeded to his with, out to execute their plan. They surprised that he might join his victorious companions, without reliftance some of the gates. They got he heard icme extraordinary uproar on board poffeffion of others after a sharp contict the Admiral gakiey. Alarıned at the noise, with the foldiers on guard.

Venna, with and fiaring that the llaves mnicht break their the galley which had been fitted out against chains, and overpower his allucia:es, he ran thuc Tuks, blocked up the mouth of de tiher ; bus, course and which reached fium



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