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lent paper on “Public Education in the South,” by Hon. JOSEPH HODGSON, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Alabama.

He spoke of the condition of the South with respect to territory and capabili. ties, claiming that, for natural advantages and possibility of development, it was one of the most favored regions of the earth. Unfortunately, however, the ignor. ance of the common people there was general and lamentably great. The con. dition was even worse among the whites than among the colored population, for the former were actually growing more and more illiterate. Of the voters of that section, upward of 1,120,000 were unable to read or write. He was favorable to the idea of compulsory education, believing that if the government has the right to tax the people to educate the masses, it had an equal right to make those masses receive the benefits of the levy. But he declared that the South was not in a condition to endure any great taxation for schools or any other pur. pose, as the rate now was generally in that section twice as high as in the older States. He hoped that the General Congress might see fit to extend a helping hand to these people. This was the more to be desired, as the States admitted to the Union after 1848 received gratuities of land for educational purposes far in excess of what the earlier members of the Union received.

At the conclusion of the paper, President HANCOCK called attention to the very great importance of its statements. Commissioner EATON and Sup't WICKERSHAM strongly favored the granting of needed educational aid to the Southern States. Mr. BLAKE, of North Carolina, said that the paper expressed the exact condition and great need of the South. Mr. HUBBARD, of Iowa, expressed sim. ilar views. Dr. HENRY BARNARD, of Connecticut, desired to see a school system inaugurated in the South similar to the itinerent system of Sweden. President HANCOCK closed the discussion with a touching tribute to the educators of the South, who are laboring to establish public school systems.

W. T. HARRIS, Superintendent of the Schools of St. Louis, Mo., read the report of the committee on “Percentages of School Attendance,” which was adopted.

The following officers were elected : PresidentW. T. HARRIS, St. Louis; Vice President-J. W. PAIGE, of Maryland; Secretary-A. P. MARBLE, Worces.

ter, Mass.


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The President, Dr. D. A. WALLACE, of Monmouth College, Ill., read a paper on “College Degrees.”

He urged that honorary degrees should be based upon attainments as well defined as other degrees. As a remedy for the evils of irregularity in the conditions on which degrees are bestowed, it was suggested that each State should establish a senate of learned men to pass on the qualifications of candidates for degrees, the degree being bestowed by colleges on the certificate of the senate.

President Eliot, of Harvard, saw practical difficulties in the plan proposed, and suggested, as a temporary remedy, the adoption of the German system of adding the name of the college to the letters indicating the degree. The subject was further discussed by Dr. GREGORY, of Illinois, Dr. REED, of Missouri, Prof. STEVENS, of West Virginia, Pres. BAIRD, of Maryland, and, Pres. TAPPAN and Mr. HENKLE, of Ohio.

The session of Wednesday afternoon was held in the lecture-room of the In. stitute of Technology. Prof. H. M. TYLER, of Knox College, Ill., read the report of the committee on “Greek and Latin Pronunciation."

He recommended that the rules given in Goodwin's Greek Grammar should be substantially followed in the pronunciation of Greek. In Latin the ancient Roman pronunciation was recommended, Prof. LANE, of Harvard, being named as the best authority.

The report was briefly discussed. Pres. BAIRD, of Maryland, approved of the report. Prof. HARKNESS, of Rhode Island, and Prof. CROSBY, of Massachusetts,

strongly advocated the English pronunciation. Prof. BARTHOLOMEW disapproved of the “Continental” method, and favored the anciea pronunciation, as recommended in the report. Mr. HENKLE had used the Continental, but had. gone back to the English ; he thought the ancient method would save time.

Prof. E. C. PICKERING, of the Institute of Technology, next gave a lecture on “ Laboratory Methods of Teaching Physics.”

He said he had used the old methods of lectures, illustrated by experiments, for preliminary instruction, after which each student studies the science practically by manipulating the apparatus, or whatever is used, under the direction of the professor. · The lecturer illustrated this method in the presence of the audi..


Prof. SLATER, of Harvard College, followed with a lecture on "The Method of Teaching Natural History.”

On Thursday afternoon, Prof. F. A. MARCH, of Lafayette College, Pa., read an able paper on

"The Method of Teaching English in High Schools." We much regret that we have not space for such an abstract as will do justice to this very valuable paper.

The next exercise was a discussion of the bill now before Congress for the establishment of a National University. It was opened by Dr. J. W. Hoyt, of Wisconsin, who was followed by President ELIOT, of Harvard, Secretary NORTHROP, of Connecticut, and Prof. STEBBINS, of Massachusetts. The subject was referred to a committee consisting of President Eliot, Dr. Hoyt, and President LUPTON, of Alabama, to report next lyear. Inasmuch as this measure is in the hands of a permanent committee appointed by the General Association, we question the propriety of this action by the Department of Higher Instruction.

The following are the officers elected: President-D. A. WALLACE, of Illi. nois; Vice PresidentJ. D. KUNKLE, of Massachusetts; Secretary, W. D. HENKLE, of Ohio.


A fine reception, tendered to the Association by the city government, took place on Thursday evening, in Faneuil Hall. A splendid and superabundant collation was served at an early hour. The divine blessing was invoked by Pres. CHADBOURNE, of Williams College, and, after nearly an hour had been spent at the tables, Rev. Dr. WATERSON called the assembly to order, and with a few remarks introduced Hon. A. H. RICE, who spoke in behalf of the city of Boston. Speeches were also made by Hon. B. G. NORTHOP, of Connecticut, Hon. JOSEPH WHITE, of Massachusetts, Pres. E. E. WAITE, of Ohio, Hon. John Eaton, National Commissioner, Hon. John P. WICKERSHAM, of Pennsylvania, Hon. John SWETT, of California, Hon: JOSEPH HODGSON, of Alabama, and Supt. W. T. HARRIS, of St. Louis. The occasion was a fitting close to the exercises of the three previous days.

CORRESPONDENCE. LETTER FROM CALIFORNIA.-A large number of subscribers will read the fol. lowing with interest:

DEAR JOURNAL:—The extra labor attendant upon my somewhat hurried de. parture from Wisconsin, left me no time to complete my series of "Institute Notes.” It is now too late, for I have no doubt the local secretaries have furnished you with reports. I had hoped to make up a summary of the Normal Institutes-something that should give statistics, etc., showing what had been done; but that, also, I am obliged to to leave undone. I hope the Institute work is being vigorously pushed, and that all the appoint

3-VOL. II, No. 12.

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ments made have been faithfully filled. From the ability of my successor, Prof. GRAHAM, and from the abundant success that attended his previous labors in the field, I have no doubt that all will be satisfied, if not more, with the change in the agency;

Having lost none of my interest in the educational affairs of Wisconsin, by my removal to California, I shall be glad to know that the Institutes, short term and Normal, are being liberally provided for, and that they are growing in favor and usefulness. That they are, at the present time, the most important educational agency in the State, no one, who has seen the ground, can doubt.

Of educational matters here, I can as yet say but little. There seems to be work enough, and at good salaries, “in the upper story,” though without some acquaintance it would be difficult to step into a place. The Normal School is furnishing, and has furnished, a large number of teachers, mostly ladies. If death, sickness and marriage did not continually diminish the number, a better home supply could be had. I think there are four or five times as many normal graduates teaching in California as in Wisconsin. The course of study is but two years, and more graduate. It will probably be extended a year, or a postgraduating class provided for. The building is magnificent in proportions, splendidly constructed "regardless of expense,” and when finished will be something of which to boast.

May I be vain enough to add a few personal words? I am comfortably situ. ated where (when it it is paid for) I can, literally, “sit under my own vine and fig tree"; with no one, as yet, to come and say “how do you do?" Just a little lonely, that's all. Shall soon get acquainted. In making my adieus to my many kind friends in Wisconsin, I can but return thanks for the uniform good will exhibited toward me, for the courtesy with which I have been received, and for the many expressions of hearty sympathy with me in my, not always philosophic, educational themes. For one and all, I have the kindliest feelings, and should any favor me with a few words, in my new home, they will be thankfully received and always answered.

To the JOURNAL I shall not say adieu. Its monthly visits will be looked forward to like “good news from home.". May it bring only good news from or about any Wisconsin teacher. Very Truly,

Chas. H. ALLEN. SAN JOSE, Cal., Nov. 4, 1872.

FROM ANOTHER WISCONSIN TEACHER.–We give place to the following as speaking a good word for Iowa as well as Wisconsin:

GENTLEMEN :-Please find inclosed $1.50 as subscription for the Journal for the present year. I never found the same as useful to me, as it is now. The ed. itorials and the contributions show progress in the views of public education in the right direction. What a difference in the methods of 1860 and 1872; indeed I feel sometimes as if I might now safely resign in favor ofthers which formerly I could not, for conscience sake. The same progress I met a few weeks ago in Delaware county, Iowa, wliere I was called to assist in a teachers' institute. My radical views in methods were not only applauded, but regarded as very proper, and it seemed to me as a matter of course. A more intelligent crops of teachers I never saw. Prest. WELCH, of the Agr. College, and Prof. PIPER, and others I met again, who are doing a great work in Iowa.

In the hope that the public schools will not only in didacties and methodics, but also in morals and religion, be based on safe foundations, and thus lead to the healing of our nation, corrupted as she is, I most respectfully remain yours, GALENA, Ill., Nov. 5, 1872.

J. WERNLI. A QUESTION.—We give place to the following, from the City Superintendent of Schools, of Racine. All thoughtful persons must share his anxiety, and join with Mr. WERNLI in the hope that our public schools may be so elevated as to help materially in the “healing of the nation.” At present, our youth can cer. tainly see little that is elevating or refining, or calculated to foster a pure and noble sentiment of patriotism, in the corruptions and slanders that characterize a political campaign, or in the demonstrations of election day. Be it the effort of our teachers to make the next generation of voters more worthy of the elective franchise, and to bear the name of American citizens, than a good many of their fathers are:

“DEAR SIR :-Did not our Legislature make a mistake in making election day a holiday? Men ought to be men on that day, if on any, but there is no day in which so many descend so low all tending rapidly to demoralization--and the more separate the children can be kept from this the better. It seems to me that no good comes of dismissing schools on election days, but otherwise.Truly yours, D. W. EMERSON.

PRACTICAL.-We appreciate a letter like the following:

DEAR SIR :-Inclosed I hope you will find $1.50, for JOURNAL OF EDUCATION for the coming year. I'l: just add that the JOURNAL grows better-more readable, and more practical with each number.-Yours, L. M. BRIGGS, Green Bay.

VISITORS OF NORMAL SCHOOLS.—The following persons have been appointed as visitors of the Normal Schools for the ensuing year:

Whitewater-W. A. DE LA MATYR, A. F. NORTH, J. K. PURDY.

UNCHANGED.—Changes of teachers are apt to be noted, but after all the fact that they do not change is often more noteworthy. First should be mentioned J. K. PURDY, (President elect of the State Teachers' Association,) who we think has been at Fort Atkinson about fourteen years. W. D. PARKER has some of the same “stick-to-a-tiveness," as it regards Janesville; J. C. PICKARD, in Milwaukee; E. E. ASHLEY, in Portage; N. G. HARVEY, in Beaver Dam; F. M. LUND, in Horicon, and many others who are quietly doing their work.

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SPELLING.—The following twenty-five words were given out at the Waupaca Normal Institute. Mr. HUTTON says, “sixty-nine teachers spelled, and 1152 words were mis-spelled, being 66 4-5 per cent. of the whole, which proves that the list of words is a very hard one." Ammunition. Cachinnation. Trichinæ. Surcingle. Trafficking. Mortise. Inspissated. Fascinate. Eying.

Referring. Desiccated. Catechetically. Avoirdupois. Rarefy. Tyrannize. Bilious. Emanate. Scilly. .

Teetotaler. Tic-douloureux. Lilies.

Inflammation. Cincinnati. Battalion. Tranquillity.

WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY.—Nearly every State Superintendent of Public Instruction in the Union, or corresponding officer where such an one exists, has has recommended Webster's Dictionary in the strongest terms. Among them are those of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachussetts, Rhode Island Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Carolina, Alabama, California, and also Canada--twenty-four in all.

Gducational Intelligence,

THE UNIVERSITY. At our request, Prof ALEX. KERR of the University, has prepared the following, which will show something of the present status and animus of the institution, and, we have no doubt, will be gratifying to its friends:

The present term of this institution has shown the happy results of our recent efforts to raise the standard of scholarship by making the entrance examinations searching and thorough, and by adding to the amount required for admission both in the English branches and in the classics.

In a Freshman class, numbering over seventy, there is a decided majority of students who exhibit a manly purpose to attain high scholarship for its own sake. This indicates a spirit which is not very prevalent in most literary insti. tutions, and a spirit to be encouraged by every friend of higher education.

Notwithstanding the added requirements, there is a steady gain in the number of applicants, which speaks well for the public schools of the state. At the examination for admission to the several departments of the University, which was held in September, the average attainments of the candidates were considerably above those shown on any previous occasion. In arranging their plans of study, after the examination was completed, more young men than usual decided in favor of the long course; three ladies also have entered the lists for honors in the College of Letters, and, judging from their record thus far, we may say they have entered with good prospects of success.

Several graduates of graded schools are in the Sophomore and Freshmen classes receiving free instruction, in accordance with the law of March, 1872, favoring this class of students. Their presence in the University is an earnest of the good time coming when the edcational system in Wisconsin shall have that unity in its plans and efforts which shall enable it to meet the demands of the future.

THE STATE. JACKSON COUNTY.—The Annual Institute was held at Black River Falls, November 6th, 7th and 8th, and conducted by Prof. GRAHAM. The enrollment was about forty-five, and something of the spirit of the teachers and of the influence of Superintendent HOFFMAN, may be gathered from one of the resolutions adopted :

Resolved, That we, the teachers of Jackson county, feeling the importance of, and realizing the benefits derived from the Annual Teachers' Institutes, do earnestly desire and request our Assemblyman, Mr. MERRITT, to use all honorable means in his power to cause a law to be passed by the State of Wisconsin, compelling teachers to attend the annual sessions of Teachers' Institutes, unless sickness, or some unavoidable circumstance prevents; and a failure to attend as required shall render the teacher's certificate void.

KENOSHA COUNTY held her fall Institute, at the call of Superintendent MAGUIRE, in Wilmot, the first two weeks in October. From the report of the Secretary, S. H. PATTERSON, in the Kenosha Telegraph, we gather that the session was pleasant, practical and profitable. The whole enrollment was sixty-eight. We notice that ex-Supt. EARLE, of Racine, labored a week in the Institute, with much acceptance.

RICHLAND COUNTY.—The report of the Normal Institute for this county, owing to some delays, for which Mr. BARNS was not responsible, did not reach us last month. He says:

“The session was divided-a two weeks' Institute being held at Richland Cen. ter, and a second term of two weeks at Woodstock.

"Sup’t A. O. WRIGHT, of New Lisbon, assisted in conducting exercises, and Sup't WAGGONER acted as secretary,

“The ‘Syllabus of Instruction, furnished by Prof. ALLEN, was followed as closely as possible both points, with exception of division of Institute into reading and spelling classes, an examination having revealed the fact that nearly all were very fair readers, and unusually proficient in spelling. This was especially true at Richland Center. The class at Woodstock was small, and no division needed.

Evening lectures were given by those having the Institute in charge. These lectures were well attended and well received.

“The Institute was profitable, and seemed to be very satisfactory to all parties; nevertheless it was manifest that the breaking up of an Institute in the middle of a session to move to another point, is poor policy, and to be deprecated. The entrance of many new teachers at the second place, makes it necessary to go over the ground again, thus completely spoiling the long term Institute, and making two short similar terms, which would be much better attended, and do much more good, if an interval of six months were placed between them.

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