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Answered also by ALUMNUS, Waukesha, V. U., Eagle, K. SPOOR, Brandon, and H. NEILL, Alloa.
99.—Is it the true policy of a University to employ its own alumni ?
It is the true policy of any educational institution to secure the best instructors that its means will command; if they can be found among the alumni, it would seem perfectly proper that they should be employed.-V. U., Eagle.
100.- Are there any high schools in the state where the teachers are required to teach 22 days per month ?
Merely in answer to the question, and not in the spirit of complaint, I would say, the teachers of Waupaca schools are required to teach 22 days per month. -H. H. NICHOLSON.
NEW QUESTIONS. 101.-What number of dollars at the same per cent., compound interest, will double itself in the same number of years ?
If possible give a solution without using the principles of Double Position.W. E. ANDERSON, Waukesha.
102.—What are the corporate names of the six oldest Colleges in the United States, where are they located, and when were they incorporated ?-IB.
103.—Is the principle of object teaching philosophical and worthy of universal attention in our common schools ?
104.—Mention and situate the active volcanos on the globe, and explain vol. canic phenomena.-D. M., Windsor.
105.-In numbers two and three of the second volume, I have read two articles on primary reading, one defending the “word method," and the other the “old method.” Having almost invariably taught the children of foreigners, I have used the latter method, seeing no possible reason why children who do not understand English should learn English words any more easily than the names of the letters. Besides, it is not in the least clear to me how children ever can learn the names of all the letters without being taught, and it seems to be admitted even by the defenders of the “word method,” that this learning is necessary. Perhaps you will put this question into the Query Box: When do children who are taught reading by the “word method ” learn the letters of the alphabet ?— P. P. IVERSLEE, Iola.
106.—Will some reader of the JOURNAL give the number of persons of each nationality inhabiting the state of Wisconsin ?-16.
107.–Are the words in italics the same part of speech in every one of the fol. lowing sentences: the snow is very deep; the snow is extremely deep; the snow is a foot deep; the snow is three feet deep. Again, if foot and feet are nouns in the above, how are they governed ?–J. B., Fond du Lac.
108.—Is there any institution in the state for feeble minded children?
109.-A pole 54 feet in height, perpendicular to the horizon and standing on the side of a hill, was broken, but not completely severed, the top resting on the ground 30 feet down the hill from the foot of the pole; the horizontal distance of the broken part from the bottom of the pole being 1012 feet; required the height of the stump.-L. CAMPBELL, Door Creek.
110.—If a conical glass, whose top diameter is 5 inches and altitude is 6 inches, be filled one-fifth full of water, and a globe four inches in diameter be be dropped into the glass, how much of the axis of the globe will be immersed in the water ?-Ib.
111.-It is required to divide a given right cone into two equal parts by a plane cutting the side of the cone and passing through the point of intersection of the opposite side with the base.-Ib.
112.-A. B. and C. purchased a grindstone, for which they paid equally. The stone measured five feet in diameter and had a circle of five inches in diameter at the center allowed for an eye. At the outer edge the stone measured four inches across the face, increasing uniformly in thickness to 942 iuches at the circumference of the eye. Required what part of the diameter each must grind down that they may share equally, the eye being rejected.-Ib.
113.—Place the numbers from 1 to 16, in four rows, so that they may count 34 horizontally, vertically and diagonally.—Mrs. S. C. SIRRINE.
114.-On each side of a square 12 sheep are penned in the following manner: 12 at the top, 12 at the bottom, and 12 at each side. A person bought 8 and afterwards returned 4 of the number. Out of which pens were the 8 taken, and in which were the 4 replaced to make exactly the same number as before on each side ?-1b.
115.—Why is limestone, after being heated, lighter than before; and why does the application of cold water cause it to effervesce (froth up) and become hot?Ib.
116.-If the pressure of the air will sustain a column of water only about 33 feet in height, what is the nature or philosophy of the power used to draw water from wells much deeper than that?–16.
117.—Why do we find grass and herbage wet with dew, while rocks, equally exposed, remain dry? Why is there more dew in clear nights than in cloudy ones? What causes dew What is it? and where does it come from ?-Ib.
118.-Given, x x-1=64, to find the value of x. A solution without the use of “ position " preferred.--ALUMNUS, Waukesha.
119.-A and B travel in the same direction; A is 30 miles ahead, one-half the distance. A travels in three-quarters of an hour, equals two-fifths the distance B travels in two-thirds of an hour; how far must B travel to overtake A ?-J.T.A.
120.-A, B and C start together to travel around an island 90 miles in circumference; they travel at the rate of 2, 4 and 6 miles an hour respectively; how long will it be before they are together again if they travel 12 hours a day ?-Ib.
121.-How did men ascertain the distances from the earth to the sun and moon, and the size of each ?-Ib.
122.–Parse the words indicated in the following sentences: “ “Many hands make quick work.” “The army was disbanded.”-A. Wood, Prairie du Sac.
CONTRIBUTED BY PEN.
Modern Hellenes.—The pure Hellenic blood is, in modern Greece, to be found in homeopathic quantities only, the Greeks of our day being a mixed and degenerate people—“a race of Greco-Slavonic bastards," as a celebrated historian calls them. The best Grecian blood is now to be found on the islands of the Archipelagus; it amounts to less than 30 per cent of the entire population of Greece, though all inhabitants of the land of Homer claim to be true descendants of Themistocles and Epaminondas. Of course this claim is absurd. If anything destroys romance and sham pretensions, statistics do, and this is what they say of modern Hellas: Of 1,000,000 inhabitants, just one-tenth (100,000) were, in the
year '68, under indictment for various crimes minor offenses. To every fifty in. habitants there was one government official, and the policemen (gens d'armes) outnumbered the army. In the same year, the Grecian minister of finance, M. Soteropulos, was carried into captivity by brigands, and was obliged to purchase his liberty for 80,000 drachmas!
Egyptian Reverence.-So sacred was the name of God held among the ancient Egyptians, that no mortal was permitted to pronounce it. In the collections of antiquity in the Louvre there is a papyrus leaf containing, in hieroglyphics, the words, “ Pronounce not the word JAO, on penalty of the punishment which the peach tree yields.” It is inferred from this that the aneients were acquainted with the deadly poison known as prussic acid; that they obtained it, probably by distillation, from the peach stone, and used it for the purpose of inflicting capital punishment.
CONTRIBUTED BY D. M.
Fictitious Literature in the Colonies. It is a fact worthy of note that during the entire existence of the colonies, no work of fiction originated from their press, and it was of so recent date as 1795 that the first American novel appeared. Vermont claims the distinction of producing this book, which was written by ROYAL TYLER, under the nomme de plume of “ Dr. UPDYKE UNDERHILL,” and published in Walpole, N. H. The novel was entitled “The Algerine Captive," and portrayed the danger that attended our commerce in the Mediterranean. What a vast amount of fiction writing has proceeded from this small beginning.
Facts concerning Paper.-Paper, the most convenient of all materials yet discovered, was first made about five hundred years ago. It takes its name from the papyrus, a plant found in Egypt, from which it was made by the ancients. It has since been made of the interior bark of trees, of the bamboo, of asbestos, of straw, of cotton and linen rags, of various grasses, of the husks of Indian corn, and many other substances. The material now mostly used is cotton rags. The best paper has the stamp of European manufacture upon it, though the article is, in many cases, made in this country. Some American paper is in no way whatever inferior to the best English and French fabrics; but because the foreign article had acquired a reputation among us before ours had attained its present perfection, some of our manufacturers have resorted to false labels in order to meet the demands of those fastidious people, for whom home
made things are never good enough.
Bingen on the Rhine.—Mrs. NORTON'S poem, “Bingen on the Rhine,” is regarded by many of our ablest critics as the most beautiful song in the English language.
CONTRIBUTED BY MRS. S. C. SIRRINE.
Not Far Out of the Way.-An unsophisticated country lady seeing for the first time, the queer-looking, unfinished dome of the capitol, at Washington, said: “I suppose those are the gas works.” “Yes, madam,” replied a gentleman friend, ' they manufacture gas there for the whole nation."
The Surrendered General.-After the capture of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, he was one day standing in the presence of Gen. Washington, with his head uncovered. The general politely said to him, “ My Lord, you had better be covered from the cold.” His Lordship, applying his hand to his head, replied, “It matters little, sir, what becomes of this head now."
Words.-Words seem like little things, yet they are full of power—falling, if fitly spoken, like sunshine and dew upon the garden of the heart, but when unkindly, like frost and hail, and the fierce tempest.
The next transit of Venus will take place in 1874, and the next afterward in 1882. There will be great preparations to take observations in all parts of the world, and it is expected that the sun will be found to be four million miles nearer to the earth than was supposed.
FLASHES OF THOUGHT.
(TRANSLATED BY PEN.)
Or to the compass say, “Thou heretic!"--16.
To preserve it, seeks the sage;
And not childish in his age.”-Mirza Shaffy.
Some work of beauty or of art-
To diamonds brilliancy impart.”—16.
By a stately silence may cover it.”—16. “He who is at peace with his conscience, is at peace with God; but he who curses in the name of the Almighty, commits blasphemous sacrilege.--Ib.
“All discord is bitter
To Allah above,
And godlike is love.-Ib.
Truth's generous wine,
Of the goddess divine?”—Ib.
Is he who does not make his good deeds known!”-Hagedorn.
But form is Beauty's primest attribute.”-Schiller.
THE CLOSE OF THE SECOND VOLUME. With this number our second volume is ended. Before indulging in any sentimental reflections, we wish to refer to business matters.
And in the first place we thank our friends for their co-operation in the work of sustaining the JOURNAL another year—our contributors, who have found time and inclination to furnish articles (and among them our correspondent “PEN" is deserving of especial remembrance)—our subscribers, who have furnished material aid without which paper and printing cannot well be obtained. While we are more especially grateful to those who pay promptly, we appreciate the force of the suggestion made by an exceedingly good hearted but somewhat negligent subscriber, who in sending us his subscription, at a late day, said we “ought to be somewhat thankful that he delayed no longer!” Yes, we shall be both “somewhat” and a good deal thankful, if those who are in arrears “delay no longer.”
Subscribers to periodicals sometimes fall into other inadvertences. We receive orders for the JOURNAL, sometimes, without any designation of the postoffice of the writer, and so cannot comply with the request. Occasionally money comes in the same way, and if we do not recollect the post office of the party remitting, we are unable to give credit. Another oversight is ordering the address of the JOURNAL to be changed, without indicating in any way the previous address.
Those who take a periodical of any kind should remember that if they wish to discontinue it, whether at the end of a year or at any other time, the only sensible and reasonable course to pursue is to inform the publishers of the fact, and at the same time pay up arrearages. Instead of this, we not unfrequently receive a missive saying, "I do not want the JOURNAL another year,” after the writer has been supplied with several numbers more than have been paid for. Perhaps they have-perhaps they have not-been taken from the post-office; but in either case, how is a publisher to know that his publication is not wanted, unless he is so informed ? Many country post-masters are negligent or ignorant of their duty of informing publishers, when their periodicals are not taken from the office.
The JOURNAL is now printed on new type, and we can conscientiously say makes a better appearance than most of its contemporaries. For its literary character, the printers and paper makers are not responsible. To a considerable extent, its editors are. It is not improper to mention, however, that one of them has engagements which call him often away, and that the time of the other is mainly taken up with official business that cannot be neglected. The additional task of publishing the JOURNAL was not sought or expected by them, but as it has been devolved upon them, they must continue to do the best they can under the circumstances. The JOURNAL could be made better, and at the same time, more creditable to the teachers of the State, who asked for its re-establishment, if a larger number of them would write for it, and write more frequently. There are many gentlemen and ladies among us, connected with the work of education, who are quite competent to do this, and who will we hope, in the future, more than in the past, send us something for our pages.