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The interest increased until the close, when many expressed a wish for " one month more." During the last two days of the week, the county superintendent held his public examination of applicants for teachers' certificates.-A. J. HUTTON, Conductor.

POLK COUNTY.-The Institute for this county, held at Osceola Mills, was conducted by Mr. ALBERT EARTHMAN, Principal of the Public School at Reedsburg, Sauk county, which is a good guaranty that the instruction was thorough and systematic. Superintendent MEARS writes, Sept. 14th: "We closed a successful session of the Institute this week. Mr. EARTHMAN left for home on Thursday. We hope to have another session next year, and to have EARTHMAN with us." The number enrolled was 43.

CALUMET COUNTY.-Of the Institute held for this county, at Stockbridge, and conducted by Messrs. SALISBURY of Brodhead, HOARD of Mauston, and SPRAGUE, late of Augusta, we have no detailed account as yet, but learn that it was quite satisfactory to all concerned.

We also await information as to the Institute held at Elkhorn.

GREEN LAKE COUNTY.-A Normal Institute is held annually, by the County Superintendent, Mr. A. A. SPENCER. This year it is at Markesan, commencing September 17, and closing October 24.

THE SHORT INSTITUTES for the Fall are now in vigorous operation. We have some account of that held at Manitowoc, the last attended by Professor ALLEN, which the Chronicle speaks of in very favorable terms. The attendance was 115, and the Institute gained the mead of commendation for superior spelling. The Chronicle also bears testimony to the "judicious management of Superintendent KIRWAN."

We have a very favorable account also, from Superintendent DEVINE, of the Institute at Hales's Corners, for the benefit of the First Superintendent District of Milwaukee county, one of the first attended by Prof. GRAHAM, since his reappointment as Agent. The attendance was 31, which is very well indeed for the number of teachers in the District. Superintendents NORTH and SKEWES of Waukesha and Racine counties aided and abetted.

SHEBOYGAN COUNTY.-Mr. L. A. PRADT, a teacher of this county, writes, from Plymouth, September 23: "Our Institute has been ‘home made,' but interesting and instructive."

Institutes have also been held at Darlington, Mineral Point and Janesville, of which we have received as yet no account.

An Institute will be held at Wonewoc, beginning Monday, October 14th, and conducted by the County Superintendent, assisted by some of his best teachers. Juneau county has home talent enough to make a very profitable Institute.

THE UNIVERSITY has nearly 500 students, including 20 in the law class. The supply of young lawyers is not likely to run short.

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THE WISCONSIN ACADEMY, in charge of Messrs. HARRINGTON and LEAHY, graduates of the University, aided by other skillful teachers, is now located in Youngs' Block, and has become a valuable institution of our city. Special attention is given to preparing students for college and teachers for examination. References are given to the President and several members of the Faculty of the State University.

1 (Ad.)-VOL. II, No. 10.

PERSONAL.

I. A. (not E. A.) SABIN is at Depere instead of Fountain City, as announced last month, and is much pleased with the prospect there.

E. H. SPRAGUE, a graduate of the Platteville Normal School, has resigned at Augusta, Eau Claire county (where they have reduced the school term to six months), and as the result of his work in the Institute at Stockbridge, Calumet county, has been invited to take charge there.

J. S. THOMPSON, who formerly taught at Brodhead, has taken charge at Black River Falls.

J. H. GOULD, recently connected with the Rochester Seminary, has gone to Necedah, Juneau county, as Principal of the Graded School there.

W. D. BASHFORD, a graduate of the University of 1871, is engaged as Principal at Mineral Point.

H. H. NICHOLSON, who has been at New London, is now Principal at Waupaca.

A MODEL SCHOLAR.—Clara BLESCH, a pupil of Fort Howard, entered school November 28, 1867, attended 203 days without absence or tardiness, then being lame, recited all her lessons at the room for the next twelve days, and then, returning to the school room, attended 715 consecutive school days without loss of one minute by absence or tardiness. "This will be claimed," says the Principal, Mr. WERDON REYNOLDS, “to be the best record of attendance upon the public school registers in the state, until one shall be reported that parallels or surpasses it."

New Publications.

BOOKS.

CATALOGUE OF THE STATE LIBRARY OF WISCONSIN. direction of the State Librarian.

1872. Prepared under the

Professor CONOVER, who is too modest to put his name on the title-page, or to claim more than a direction of the work, has furnished for those who consult the State Library a very convenient manual, digested under appropriate heads. In addition to the very large and valuable collection of Elementary Law Books, Reports, Digests, Statutory Laws and Legislative and Executive Documents which make up the bulk of the library, it contains a fair share of Miscellaneous Books, together with general works of reference. The library is very comprehensive, but the librarian does not fail to point out that it is still incomplete, as a law library.

THOMSON'S NEW GRADED SERIES OF ARITHMETICS.-Comprising "Mental," ‘Rudiments," and "Practical." New York: CLARK & MAYNARD, 1872.

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This series hrs been revised and improved by Dr. THOMSON, and brought up to the present wants of schools. His mathematical publications have long been favorites with many teachers, and the present series will please them still more. Obsolete matter is judiciously omitted, and we are glad to notice that a thorough drill in mental exercises is strongly recommended. The books are elegantly printed and well bound.

ELEMENTS OF PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE. By R. T. BROWN, M. D., Chemist-inChief, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Published by WILSON, HINKLE & Co., Cincinnati and New York.

This beautiful little volume of 280 pages, forms, if a layman may judge, the most valuable presentation of the subject, yet made for the purposes of a common school book. It is not written, as are most of the books of its class, from

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No class of men do more for mankind than those who successfully reform its systems of education. If you doubt the assertion, consider for a moment what it is to educate. Is it to send our children for ten

or fifteen years to some institute of learning, there to teach them a given amount of book-knowledge, and then to dismiss them from our care, with a grand diploma for a compass, in the perilous voyage of life? Or is it not, rather, to train the child's body until it answer every purpose for which nature designed it; and so to cultivate and expand the mind until it has attained the three great points on which all success in teaching rests, viz: energy in the pursuit of knowledge, a clear comprehension to master it, and moral excellence? I think you will agree with me in saying that true education means the cultivation of every talent, the encouragement of every virtue, and that its end is to send us out on our long journey of life-not crippled and weary, and glad to escape from books and study, or proud of our little surface-polish and parrot-knowledge, but strong to resist evil and ready to do our duty, and, while seeking knowledge, still humbly remembering that after all, the wealth of the mind is worthless without the treasures of the heart. Education is not merely the beginning of our life, but it is also the middle and end; it is the present day and the grand, approaching future. Would you reform all mankind—educate it! Every new avenue of knowledge, of goodness, shuts an avenue of vice. Would you reform the future drunkard or thief, or man-slayer? Then take him up in childhood and train him to do right! If you would forestall misery and crime, then educate!

And who was he that taught us these grand doctrines of true education? To what time and country do we owe this glorious thought

of man made better by a better education? Well may we feel a just pride in answering, "He was the son of a free people!" So glorious a means of raising the moral and mental standard of whole nations, could spring from no other soil but that of a republic! It was HENRY PESTALOZZI of Switzerland, who gave to the world a system of education which the greatest men of our century pronounce to be the only "true and natural method of developing and maturing the moral as well as mental capacities of childhood"-let us add that experience has fully justified this verdict.

Having thus broadly stated the fundamental ideas of PESTALOZZI's system, let us briefly sketch his history. Much that we teachers need may be learned therefrom.

The great Swiss reformer was the son of a physician, and born in Zurich in 1746. With his grandfather, a minister of the Gospel, HENRY spent a considerable portion of his early youth, and this venerable old man laid the foundation for many of the future ideas of his grandson. From this good shepherd the boy learned the axiom that faith and piety are not the result of doctrines nor dependent on forms, but that both, to be genuine, must result from purity of heart, good example, and the love of God and man. At school, young PESTALOZZI was always first where sound thinking, quick perception and correct notions of right and wrong were concerned; but he was very deficient in certain of his studies, and, owing to careless habits which no one heeded or corrected, and from bad example at home, he grew up sadly deficient in the appreciation of beauty and order. He never got over this defect in his early training-it followed him through life and proved one of his worst enemies. Thus, his own example showed the truth of his maxim that every virtue must be practiced in youth, and become a habit before the character is formed. This indifference to the beautiful seems very strange as he was passionately fond of the classics, which, as is well known, abound with the knowledge of beauty and excel in exquisite harmony of thought and language.

After leaving school, Pestalozzi was at first undecided whether to study for the ministry, or to devote himself to government service. He did neither. He happened to read Rousseau's "Emile," and the idea suggested rather than contained in that book, decided his fatehe became a schoolmaster. It is not to be supposed, however, that he did this to carry out Rosseau's ideas-they were new, striking, excellent, but also ideal and often impracticable-in short, they were the dream of a philosopher who is not called upon to put his teachings to a practical test. To Pestalozzi they were the spark that was to kindle his whole being into a sacrificial flame-they revealed his true talents

and showed him where his field of labor lay. He looked about him and soon perceived that Rousseau's "Emile " influenced the institutes of learning where the rich, the powerful received their education, and there its influence ended-it did not "touch bottom," not reaching the masses. While it perfected one, it left a hundred more to grope in darkness, ignorance and crime. "What has Rousseau, what have others done for you, you poor unwashed, untutored children of poverty?" This thought became the keynote to which all his plans and endeavors were set. Education, he argued, is the unalienable right of every human being, kept from the masses by the indifference or bigotry of their rulers, and he yearned to see this glorious right restored to the people. The schools for the latter were in no way adequate to the wants of childhood and life. They were taught in a superficial, soulless manner, which killed rather than kindled the thirst for knowledge. Even the majority of higher institutes labored under the curse of a formal, mannered method which left its imprint on all but the greatest minds. Would reform, if introduced among the rich, the learned, descend and influence the people? Pestalozzi with the keen insight peculiar to genius, saw and felt that it was the great mass of the people that most needed and deserved a reform. In the regeneration of the common school he saw the promise of a great and immediate good, and there he would introduce his "leaven, which was to leaven the whole lump." There he would labor and show the unbelieving world which believed not in the importance of education for the poor, how great a good could issue from a lowly source.

Thus determined, he gathered around him all the little vagabonds and friendless orphans that came within his reach, and with these he commenced his great work of first humanizing and then instructing them. Poor, ill-housed, and almost without materials of any kind, often compelled to teach in a barn, he persevered in his labor of love, never discouraged or weary of well-doing. The great and ever-increasing number of children that gathered around "father" Pestalozzi, caused him to try a new experiment—that of leading his pupils to instruct each other. This method is known to uss as the Bell-Lancaster system; but as it was originated by Pestalozzi, it ought to bear his name just as America ought to bear the name of Columbus, instead of that of the cunning Americus.

In this school the future reformer first put his ideas to the severe test of practical experience-and well they stood that test! He himself was continually learning; he studied every individual pupil, his wants and capacities; he studied the effects of his methods and rejoiced to see every new measure bear excellent fruit. Like every

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