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lanches, fruit, and other things rot unseen in corners of desks and under benches; and where the foul breath and poisonous exhalations of the skin combine with dust and dirt to make the school-room unhealthy. Practice the precepts of Hy. gene, and you will find it easy to teach them.
The “Meerschaum" in Vienna.-The manufacture of the celebrated “Meer. schaum” pipes forms an extensive branch of industry in Vienna. Not less than 1,000 turners, 150 cutters, 35 trimmers, 15 workers in amber, and 14 business firms, are devoted to its manufacture and sale. A first-class “ Meerschaum" is worth from 80 to 100 thalers, while the commoner kinds of the genuine article still sell for from one to ten guilders.
Cuvier's Beard.—The celebrated CUVIER writes: “I found that by shaving every day I wasted a quarter of an hour per day, or almost four days a year. This calculation frightened me. I am always complaining that life is too short, and work too plentiful; and now I find that I waste four days a year in scraping my face.” And thenceforth he allowed his beard to grow..
Tress and National Emblems.-As far as we know, every nation has some favorite tree which it cherishes and embalms in story and song, or receives as an emblem into its coat-of-arms. Thus, the Palmetto of the Southern states, the date palm of Northern Africa, the fig and laurel of Southern Europe, are instances. To us the maple and hickory seem the representative trees of our Northern states, although our tradition and literature are hardly old enough to settle that point. The favorite trees of Germany are the oak and linden-the former being consecrated to its ancient mythology, its national lore, and regarded as emblematic of certain national traits and virtues. But the true favorite of German folk-lore, in songs and traditions, both religious and profane, is the beautiful linden-tree. Its name is mentioned in numberless songs, legends and fairy tales, and the names of many places as Lindan, Lindenhof, Lindenthal, etc., show the popularity of the tree and its name.
CONTRIBUTED BY D. M. Needles. How seful and indispensable the needle is to a civilized people, yet we read that needles were first made by a negro from Spain in London, during the reign of Queen Mary. He died without imparting the art. The art was recovered in 1565. Elias Growse first instructed the English to make needles, but the art was again lost for nearly a century, when it was restored by Christopher Greening, who settled at Long Crendon, in Buckinghamshire. Needles are now chiefly made in England at Hathersage in Derbyshire, Redditch in Worcestershire, and in and near Birmingham.
Liquor Traffic.-At an ale and beer congress_session in New York—a delegation was present representing over one hundred million dollars capital. From its deliberations we learn that the breweries in this country exceed three thousand, that they consume annually some twenty-five million bushels of barley, and eighteen million pounds of hops. In 1871 these establishments paid a government tax of seven million eight hundred thousand dollars—being the heaviest taxed industry in the country. The consumption of ale and beer increages at a ratio quite out of proportion to the increase of population. The estimated daily consumption of spirits in the United States is 230,000 gallons. Have people actually abandoned rum, whiskey and brandy.? Is ale or beer more healthy or less harmless than the former rebellious liquors ? Certain it is that our foreign population do not consume all the ale and beer now manufactured.
The Lion's Roar.-Livingstone contradicts the popular statement that " has led the sentimentalist to consider tne lion's roar the most terrific of all earthly animals.” The roar of the lion iv South Africa, he says, “is well calculated to in. spire fear if you hear it in combination with the tremendously loud thunder of that country, on a night so pitchy dark that every flash of the intensely vivid lightning leaves you with the impression of stone-blindness, while the rain pours down so fast that your fire goes out, leaving you without the protection of even a tree, or the chance of your gun going off.” But,” he says further," when you are in a comfortable house or wagon the case is very different, and you hear the roar of the lion without any awe or alarm.” The ostrich makes a noise as loud, but is never
feared by man. There is quite a similarity in the roar of the lion and noise of the ostrich. He concludes by saying that “we hear
of the majestic roar of the king of beasts, but to talk of the majestic roar of the lion is mere majestic twaddle."
THE NORMAL INSTITUTES. This class of institutes has been a notable feature of the work of the year. The month of August is not the best time for them, so far as temperature is concerned, but it is about the only month in the year in which a sufficient working force can be secured, of the proper quality.
The first and longest of these institutes was held at Sparta. Some doubts were entertained whether so long a session would be advisable, but the result seems to show that doubts were unnecessary. As it was the first, the longest and the largest of the series, we give a pretty full account, furnished by Prof. 0. R. SMITH, Principal of the High School at Sparta, and a valuable co-worker in the institute during its whole continuance.
The work at Sparta was similar to that done at the other institutes, so that it is unnecessary to give as minute a description, in connection with each. The admirable syllabus prepared by Professor ALLEN not only tended to secure this uniformity of work, but in case of change of instructors, enabled a new one to begin where his predecessor left off. The county superintendents more immediately concerned, all express much satisfaction with work done.
SPARTA.—The institute began on Monday, July 15, 1872, and continued for two weeks under the charge of Prof. ALLEN, who at that time was succeeded by Prof. R. GRAHAM, who remained for the rest of the term.
Attendance. The institute began with an enrollment of 75, which steadily in. creased until at the close it reached 124. The attendance of the teachers was very punctual and regular. Some four or five were obliged to leave at the end of the fourth week to begin school.
Instruction.-The instruction was mainly elementary. Classes were formed, however, and successfully carried through for instruction in Algebra, Physiology and Physical Geography. In Arithmetic, the members of the Institute were drilled in regular class work through the elementary rules, and in methods of teaching, which were discussed. In Grammar, sentential analysis and grammatical construction engaged most of the time. Oral teaching in language lessons was also presented. Geography was presented by its simple and natural method, and some attention was paid to map-drawing. The teachers seemed much interested in the general plan of the exercises in Geography. Natural History was presented in the manner of short lectures daily, first on Botany and then on Zoology. The teachers stand in great need of instruction in these branches. Penmanship was presented systematically. The institute for a few days enjoyed the advantages of instruction by Prof. CURTISS, of Winona, who is an artist in the teaching of that branch. Daily exercises were given in the constitution and in United States History. The institute was divided into two classes for reading. Instruction was given daily in this branch, in which atten-, tion was paid to elocutionary drill and to the discussion of methods of teaching reading. A daily drill in elementary sounds, by Prof. GRAHAM, proved very profitable.
In the matter of instruction, the syllabus in the circular of the Normal agent,
Prof. ALLEN, was taken as a guide, as also in the general discipline of the institute—the conductors endeavoring to make it " in all respects a model school."
Examination. At the close of the institute the last two days were taken for an examination of teachers by County Superintendents HOLDEN, of Monroe county, and Whiting, of Trempealeau. Most of the teachers present sustained a creditable examination, and several received second grade certificates.
Lectures, etc.—Evening lectures were given by Prof. ALLEN and Superintendent FALLOWS. Judge Bunn, of Sparta, conducted for several days, to great acceptance and profit, an exercise in English Literature. Prof. WEBB, of Michigan, gave some lessons in primary reading by the word method, which were very instructive. For the last two weeks of the institute classes for model drill were formed, and conducted by members of the institute, under the criticism of the instructors. The institute, which at first was averse to these exercises, soon came to regard them as of especial and practical value.
Results:--The institute has been in every respect a success. The attendance and interest remained constant until the close. The teachers became thoroughly aroused to the importance of their work end the necessity of more thorough preparation therefor. One of the immediate results is shown in the fact that twelve or more teachers who attended the institute have gone to the Normal School, at Oshkosh, and many more are intending to go during the year. The larger number of teachers were from Monroe county, but several were also present from Vernon, La Crosse, Trempealeau and Jackson counties. Superintendent WHITING was present, from Trempealeau, for two weeks, and gave much valuable assistance in the class work. The institute fully demonstrated the wisdom of the policy inaugurated by the Board of Regents of having institutes for a long term. They can be made successful and profitable.
GRANT COUNTY -The institute, or rather institutes, were held at Bloomington and Boscobel, two weeks in each place. The enrollment at the former place was fifty-three; at the latter, forty-five. Of those who attended at Bloomington, very few went to Boscobel, and only one remained till the close. By this plan of division more teachers were reached, but of course not so systematic and extended work could be done as if the institute had been a unit. The conductor was W. D. PARKER, Principal of Janesville High School, assisted by Miss MARTHA A. TERRY, and the County Superintendent, W. H. HOLFORD. A very exact record was kept, and at the close Mr. PARKER makes the following remarks :
The Institute at Bloomington opened August 5, with the discouragement of tardy attendance, but with a fair promise of work for conductors, and for those attending. A commendable effort to do the work required was a feature of the entire Institute, and this interested attention was the foundation of all the work accomplished. An attempt was made, with great success, to render the Institute an example of promptness, as it should appear in all school. The regular hours assigned to the different branches were almost invariably observed, and the sub-lectures rarely ran over time, so that the programme for each day showed precisely the work done. This good example was not sufficiently powerful to induce prompt and regular attendance of teachers; only one half-session passed without tardiness, and the absent list forms the largest part of the minutes.
Numerous notes of facts and principles were made, and in many cases these were carefully reviewed and elaborated after the close of the session in which they were taken, thus furnishing suggestions for future work in the school
The citizens manifested much interest in the work, and visited the day exer cises considerably. The attendance upon the lectures by Profs. ALLEN and CLARK, was good though somewhat tardy in assembling.
The conductors of the Instittte aim d to show the teachers in attendance how work should be done, rzeking more to inculcate manner than matter, and to in. tensify the impression that work in the schoolroom will fail of its purpose unless done “decently and in order."
The general effect of the Institute, bringing together minds of different degrees of culture, and varying adaptation to the work, seems to have been to inspire all classes with some new enthusiasm, and to raise the ideal standard of perfection in the work.
The Institute at Boscobel opened Monday, August 19. The morning was rainy, and the first prospect discouraging. Nine o'clock found only the conductors present, and their best efforts were required to make the building comfortable for the Institute work. Before the close of the morning session several members had been enrolled, and work had begun. But few of those enrolled in Bloomington appeared at all in Boscobel, and of these, only one remaining through the entire term. An intelligent class of teachers was enrolled in Boscobel, and the numbers increased steadily to the close. The attendance was good and close attention was given to the work, but the citizens showed comparatively little interest, visitors being few in number. An interesting lecture by Hon. SAMUEL FALLOWS, State Superintendent, was well attended by both Institute and citizens. The conductors of the Institute received efficient and constant assistance from County Superintendent, W. H. HOLFORD. The general effect of the Institute, seems to have been good both in raising the standard of education, and in exciting healthy inquiry after facts and principles.
Mr. PARKER also submits the following suggestions to the agent, “relative to the apparent needs” of Institutes in the future:
Notice of Time and Place of Institute.-Notice of the Institute should be published early and should be widely distributed in order to fix the attention of teachers upon the Institute as upon a permanent organization. More extended notice is also necessary to facilitate local arrangements for the personal accommodation of teachers. At the Grant County Institute teachers joined daily up to the close, huving accidently learned of its progress, and many who wished Institute instruction did not learn of its appointment till after it had closed.
Institute Work.—The present admirable syllabus, published and recommended for the use of Institutes this year, should be abridged to meet the possibilities of each locality, and its use made mandatory.
Institute Conductors.-The vast interests involved, demand a more thorough organization of the instructional forces, and the sum appropriated for compensation for institute work seems to warrant an Institute for conductors of one or two weeks duration, to be held immediately preceding the local Institute season, and conducted by the agent of the board of normal school regents, with a view to outline the work, and to exemplify the organization and management of the Institute.
WARREN D. PARKER. SAUK COUNTY.-The Institute opened at Reedsburg, on the 6th of August, with an attendance of twenty-five teachers. This number was increased from day to day till the end of the second week, when it reached sixty. Nearly all parts of the county were represented. The services of Mr. C. F. VINBAHN, former County Superintendent, were secured for the entire session, and other well known institute workers were present for a short time. Among these were Professors ALLEN, MCGREGOR, of Platteville, and EARTHMAN, of Reedsburg. Lectures were delivered by Superintendent FALLOWS, Prof. ALLEN, Prof. O. PHELPS and V. P. KLINE, Esq., of Cleveland, Ohio. One evening of the last week was devoted to an entertainment combining literary and social exercises. The session closed with an examination of teachers, held on the 30th and 31st.
A few of the prominent features of this Institute deserve special mention. The method suggested by Prof. ALLEN for primary teaching in various branches, the drill in different arithmetical operations given by Prof. McGREGOR, and the skillful presentation of the subject of home geography and various topics connected with methods of teaching, Vr. VIEBXİN, were, aside from any other exercises, of sufficient value amply vu compensate the texhers for any sacrifices they may have found it necessary to make in order to be presenta
The institutes previously held in this county have produced among the leading teachers a sentiment so favorable to this kind of work, that the number in attendance here consisted largely of those who had previously had some experience in such work, and who were consequently better qualified to derive the greatest benefit from it. To the less experienced teachers, the occasion was one of profit, both as a means of suggesting the particular direction their future efforts should take, and an opportnnity for making a comparison between their own ideas, abilities and methods, and those of older members of the profession.
That the plan of the work marked out at the beginning, though well devised, was not thoroughly executed, nor the best results obtained from what was done, was due to the fact that a large number of the teachers attended but a part of the session. The question suggested itself to those in charge, whether a refusal to register names for a part of the time, thus requiring all the working members to be present during the whole term, would not, with sufficient notice to that effect, be a preferable plan.
One fact seems to be demonstrated to the satisfaction of all who have interested themselves in the consideration of the subject. It is this: The Teachers' Institute, especially the Normal Institute, supplies a want in our school system that no other agency can supply, and produces results quite as valuable to the State as any other means that employs no larger share of the educational fund.J. H. TERRY, County Superintendent.
WAUPACA. - The Institute opened on Tuesday, August 6, with an attendance of fifty-four members, and ninety-four names were enrolled in all. For statistics in regard to regularity and punctuality of attendance, I refer you to the register.
We organized as a school at once, and immediately commenced work, trying to follow the plan of Syllabus of Instruction as closely as possible. We found the time too limited for the accomplishment of all the work indicated. Most of those who were in attendance are young and inexperienced ; so keeping in mind the principle of working for the greatest good of the greatest number, we confined ourselves to the consideration of those matters about which young teachers are most ignorant, and the study of those subjects which are most poorly taught in our district schools. As thoroughly as our limited time would permit, we taught the branches required for a teacher's third grade certificate, presenting such methods of instruction in those branches as seemed to us the best. We de. voted half an hour each day to “Points in Theory and Practice,” and in this part of our programme, all were especially interested.
Evening sessions were held once a week ; each session closing with a "sociable.” The sociables were vere very enjoyable, and, we think, very profitable, as the machinery of our school worked much more smoothly after all became mutually acquainted. Many of the citizens who could not do so during our day sessions, came in to see us, and those who came once usually came again.
Mr. J. BURNHAM, late of the Waupaca High School, gave able instruction dur. ing the first week. Afterwards the wide-awake Mr. J. B. HOLBROOK, of Weyau. wega, filled Mr. BURNHAM'S place. The County Superintendent, Mr. W. B. MUMBRUE, showed his interest in the work by his frequent presence, and also by his valuable instruction in drawing.