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vorce of written and mental arithmetic, requiring two classes when one would serve, be discontinued.

The following classification is submitted as an approximation to what is desired:

1. The whole school constituting one class for physical exercises and penmanship.

2. Primary instruction, using charts, pictures, objects, blackboard, slates, etc., to form one class.

3. Language, including reading, spelling, writing compositions, grammatical exercises, three classes.

4. General knowledge, including geography, history, civil government and natural sciences, two classes.


The report was unanimously adopted.

The committee to whom the subject was referred, report the following course of instruction for country schools:

PRIMARY INSTRUCTION. 1. Conversations about home and school.

Training of the eye and hand; exercises with sticks--position, direction, distance and form.

Training of the ear and voice; object lessons on sound and elementary sounds. 2. Conversation about things at home, their parts, properties and uses. Training of the eye and hand; drawing dots and lines on slate, Training the ear and voice; phonic analysis and synthesis. 3. Conversations about the human body. Physical exercises. Training the eye and hand; lines, curves and their combinations.

Training of the ear and voice; distinguishing sounds as lip, teeth and palate sounds.

4. Conversations about the parts, forms, size, colors and qualities of things. Training of the eye and hand; writing the alphabet. Training the ear and voice. Association of the letter with the elementary sound which it represents.

Reading and writing words of two letters. 5 Conversations about what people do.

Reading and writing words of two and three elementary sounds; also easy sentences.

Drawing—combination of lines. Numbers from 1 to 10 through object lessons. 6. Conversation about animals and plants. Reading and writing easy words and sentences. Recitations of verses and maxims.

Object lessons on numbers from 1 to 20. Writing numbers.

Singing, physical exercises and conversations about morals and manners throughout the entire primary course.


1. First reader begun. Conversations about the lessons. Spelling: pronunciation, meaning and use of the words in the lesson. Copying the whole or a part of the reading lesson. Declamation exercises from the reader.

2. First reader completed. Spelling; etc., as in preceding grade. Writing answers to questions on the reading lesson.

3. Second reader begun. Dictation exercises. Declamation in connection with reading. Writing of declamation exercises from memory.

4. Second reader completed. Spelling, meaning and use of words in reading lessons. Writing abstract of lessons. Writing and speaking original sentences, containing words selected from the reading lesson.

5. Third reader begun. Writing abstracts of reading lessons. Rules for spelling, use of capitals and marks of punctuation. Sentence-making. Development of the ideas of subject, predicate and other parts of a simple sentence.

6. Third reader compled. Spelling, declamation, as in preceding grades. Derivation of words. Writing abstracts of lessons. Changing structure of sentences. Writing composition from outline, given by the teacher. Writing letters and business forms. Sentence-making continued.

7. Fourth reader, composition and technical grammar.

ARITHMETIC. 1. Combination of numbers from 1 to 20. Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Oral and written exercises.

2. Numbers from 1 to 100. Easy fractions. Parts of numbers.

3. Units of different kinds. Easy exercises in compound numbers. Numbers from 1 to 100 as in previous grades.

4. Units, tens and tenths. Decimal notation. Number exercises continued.

5. Reduction. Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of simple and compound numbers. Common and decimal fractions.

6. Percentage. Fractional analysis.
7. Proportion and partnership. Applications of percentage.
8. Book keeping.
9. Mensuration.

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE. 1. Primary ideas about place, etc. Home geography. The school district. The town; natural features, people, their occupations; government of the town and school district. Mathematical descriptions. Natural and artificial productions. 2. Geography and history of the county. 3. Geography, history and government of the State. 4. Geography, history and government of the United States.

5. Physical and mathematical geography of the world. Elements of natural science.

6. Political geography and history of the world. Drawing and penmanship, singing, conversations on morals and manners, and physical training throughout the course. Respectfully submitted,


The following resolution was unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That this report be received and published in the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION for critical examination by the teachers of the State, and that a committee, of which Mr. Viebahn shall be chairman, be appointed by the State Superintendent to report on the whole subject of “Course of Instruction,” “Classification in Schools,” and “ Text Books,” pertaining to our common schools, and submit the same to the next meeting of this body, and, if possible, have it previously published in the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.

The following gentlemen were appointed on this committee: C. F. Viebahn, W. H. Chandler, and A. F. North.

Your committee to whom was referred the subject of Text Books for country schools, would respectfully report the following list of books for said schools:

1st. Charts 1st, 2d, 3d and 4th.
2d. Two Arithmetics.
3d. One Grammar.
4th. Outline Maps and Geographies.
5th. United States History.
6th. Writing and Drawing by principles, from charts and printed copy books.


The report was adopted.

Your committee to whom was referred the subject of holding “ Monthly Town Institutes,” believing the plan to be lacking in feasibility and efficiency, would most respectfully report unfavorably to the same.


The report was laid on the table.

The subject of "Compulsory Attendance upon Institutes," submitted to Messrs. O'Connor, Chandler and Wright for report, was at their request laid over.

Mr. Chandler, for the committee, read the following report on the work of visitation by the County Superintendents:

Resolved, That the prevalent idea that County Superintendents can do but little or nothing towards the improvement of our common schools, by visiting them is er

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roneous; that such visitation should be made the occasion not only for conference with, and suggestions to, teachers and school district officers, but also, where needed, for demonstrating better methods of instruction, and the handling and movement of classes and schools, and also for determining the standing of teach. ers in “theory and art” of teaching.


W.H. CHANDLER. The following resolution was presented by Mr. Chandler, and unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed, of which the President of this Convention shall be chairman, whose duty shall be to secure legislation giving County Superintendents discretion to withhold certificates from such candidates as refuse or neglect to attend such institutes or institute as may be appointed or and held by the County Superintendent in the district where such candidate resides or proposes to teach; and that it is the sense of this meeting that no special licenses or temporary certificates be granted to any teacher.

The following resolutions were also unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That Messrs. Fallows, Chandler and Morgan be a committee to prepare and present a resolution of this body to the legislature requesting them to pass a bill empowering county superintendents, in their discretion, to refuse certificates to such teachers as persistently refuse to attend institutes or make themselves familiar with educational literature.

Resolved, That we recognize in the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, an able and efficient educational agency, a wide circulation of which we will try to secure in our respective counties, and that we request a publication of the proceedings of this meeting in the same.

Resolved, That a special meeting of Superintendents be held at the next session of the State Teachers' Association.

Resolved, That we adjourn to meet at the call of the State Superintendent.

Almost every member of the convention took part in the discussions on the above reports and resolutions. The speeches were short, pithy and pointed, and seldom failed to bring out all that could profitably be said on both sides of the subjects discussed.



Madison, Wisconsin, January 2, 1871.
To County Superintendents:

It is the purpose of the Regents of Normal Schools to provide for holding Institutes during the coming year of the following classes:

1. Institutes of one week's duration.

2. Normal Institutes of not less than four weeks; these to be held in localities remote from the Normal Schools, and to be provided with a full corps of Instructors and similar in their work to the Normal Schools.

It has also been proposed to have one or more Normal Institutes of from six to eight weeks in duration where two or more counties may unite, securing a large attendance, thus enabling the Institute to work in sections. Institutes of this class will secure results far more satisfactory than even the four weeks Normal Sessions.

That this work may be provided for without confusion and so as to encourage the working force, Superintendents desiring sessions should at once make application to this Agency, giving information upon the following particulars:

"a.” At what time (giving as wide a range as possible in its selection) is such session desirable.

“b.” What number of bona fide teachers, including those persons who may be preparing to teach during the year, can be guaranteed as an attendance.

“ C.” What arrangements can be made for rooms in which to meet, and for the entertainment of teachers.

Upon receiving each application appointments will immediately be made, when circumstances are favorable, and when they can possibly be provided for.

CHAS. H. ALLEN, Agent.

SUGGESTIONS TO COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. In consequence of the great diversity of usage among County Superintendents in reference to Institute work, the following suggestions may not be considered out of place:

1. To make the work successful requires the energetic coöperation of all engaged in it. Full and timely notice should given of the Institute, and teachers should be made to understand that they are to come together for work, and work that will be found of daily service, in the school roovi.

2. Teachers should bring with them to the Week Institutes, a fourth Reader, at least six sheets of foolscap paper, or its equivelent in blank book or note paper, and of course be provided with pen or pencil.

3. Invitations should be extended to all friends of education to attend the sessions of the Institute, but only those should be enrolled as actual members, who are to be prompt and regular in attendance.

Certificates of attendance will be issued from this Agency, but only to those who have been working members and in attendance the full session.

4. The distance irom point to point is in some cases so great that the conductor cannot reach the Institute until Monday evening or Tuesday morning. The Superintendent should meet and organize the Institute on Monday P.M., and when possible commence work.

5. One or more evening lectures should be provided for by the Superintendent, and also, when suitable home help can be procured, alternate exercises during the day.

6. No attempt should be made to run an Institute like an Association, no officer being necessary save a Secretary to enroll names, and prepare a copy of the proceedings.-C. H. A.

DRAWING. The article in this number upon “Drawing in our Common Schools,” will, we hope, help to awaken further attention to this subject, and to suggest how the exercise may most advantageously be taught. The writer has sent some Drawing Charts, executed by her own hand, to our office, such as she would have used in school, and they met the approbation, we believe, of the teachers and superintendents who saw them at the recent conventions.

We append the following testimonials from teachers who have used them:

Miss SCHORB'S CHARTS FOR SLATE DRAWING.–These charts, designed for the use of primary classes in our public schools, are a timely and greatly needed thing to make drawing and object teaching a success in our schools. The inexperienced teacher will at once see their merits and usefulness. We are sure that the world of little folks will gratefully receive these charts, and be highly benefited by them. Not only will they assist in mastering the rudiments of drawing, and in laying a good and correct foundation in this useful and delightful art, but also materially aid in skilling the eye and drilling the hand for penmanship. They are, besides, unsurpassed as a suitable and beneficial employment for young scholars in the intervals of study.

We firmly believe that the antennæ of every branch of knowledge and art should commence in the lowest grades as early as possible, and by degrees increase in such quality and quantity as to healthily widen the scope of ideas and strengthen the minds of the young learners.

We seriously hope that our able State Superintendent will have these tablets published at an early date.

CHAS. F. GREBLE, PrincipalUnionPublic School, Milwaukee.

MILWAUKEE, Wis., Dec. 13, 1871. Miss LOUISA SCHORB:

DEAR FRIEND:-Those Drawing Charts of yours are just the articles I needed, for the busy fingers of my little ones, during the intermission of the regular studies. Being in such a form, they are always on hand to copy, thus giving instruction, and creating a love for the beautiful, at the same time. I should be very unwilling to do without these great helps towards developing the minds of my pupils. Yours truly,


SPELLING ONCE MORE.—The spelling lesson sent by Prof. ALLEN, last month, lost a little of its “tranquillity,” but only to the extent of an 1, which got into the word “rarefy,” in the next column, and changed it to“ rarely.”

Educational Intelligence.

WISCONSIN. BLACK RIVER FALLS.We make the following extract from the Educational column of the Badger State Banner, edited by J K. HOFFMAN, County Superintendent, relating to the opening of the new and commodious school house at Black River Falls:

“It was pleasant to pass from room to room, and see children numbering nearly three hundred, rich and poor alike so comfortably provided for with everything that modern improvement has brought about, regardless of expense, showing the wisdom of the people, and although the sum expended has been enormous, all the remuneration asked or expected is the education of their children.

“ The object of the school is not only to educate the children residing in the village of Black River Falls, but it affords an institution where all the higher branches can be pursued by all who wish to patronize it, and it is the aim of all concerned to make it an institution worthy of patronage. The following are the various departments and instructors:

"High School.-W. W. FREEMAN, Professor of Ancient Languages and Literature and Instructor in Mathematics, Principal. 1st and 2d Grammar-S. P. Wilder. 1st Intermediate-M. J. Burk. 2d Intermediate-Mrs. J. M. Milikin. 1st PrimaryMiss M. E. Robinson. 2d Primary-C M. Tyler.

“Professor Freeman is a graduate of Dartmouth College, of the class of 1864. Mr. Wilder is a graduate of Beloit College, of the class of 1871. The other teachers are not graduates, but have each attended several terms in prominent institutions in this and other States. The whole corps is composed of teachers having several years experience in teaching. The board, consisting of E. B. Cheney, H. B. Coie and J. V. Wells, have endeavored to secure good teachers, and have not allowed themselves to be influenced by savor or prejudice, and have done what they thought to be their duty. Much credit is due to them for the interest they have manifested in behalf of the school, and also to D. J. Spaulding, the contract01, who has spared no means to build the house according to plans and specifications, although costing hundreds of dollars inore than the contract price.

The building was designed by W. H.J. Nichols, architect, of La Crosse, and built under the supervision of William Van Hoosear, Master Mechanic, of this place. The outer walls are of brick, with stone foundation. The arches over the windows and doors, and window sills, are of Frear Stone.' Its size is 60 by 80 feet, and three stories high, with Mansard roof. A next tower projects out from the main walls and rises about thirty feet above the main building, with Mansard roof, in which there is a bell room, clock room and dials.”


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