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Do not allow wrangling. If teachers differ in opinion, let them differ, but do not use class time in discussions. Make sentence and composition writing a daily exercise, giving instruction in form, folding and filing as well as grammatical construction. Have at least two exercises in letter writing, giving full instructions and requiring a well written letter from each member.
INSTRUCTION.—Take three or four lessons in illustrating how to introduce the subject of grammar. Lay stress upon the fact that the first and chief point aimed at is the power to discern the office of words and phrases in sentences. Cultivate the power of discrimination by acquiring the ability to recognize, at once, from their office, name words, asserting words, quality words and phras-8, etc. When this is done, begin with the sentence, as simple as possible, yet growing more and more complex, and give some clear, brief, and not labored system of sentential analysis, logical rather than grammatical, making all thoroughly familiar with the office and relation of the different parts of a sentence, and different kinds of sentences. After this has been well done, the grammatical relations and laws may be given, and will comprise the definitions and rules of grammar, together with their application in parsing.
Use the last week in conjugating the verb, and correcting false syntax. Select for examples of false syntax, the every-day errors of the Institute, from written exercises, oral recitations, and even from conversation, and have them corrected in a clear, logical manner, particular and definite. “Judged by the law, condemned by the law, and corrected by the law.” Do not fail to have the writing or practice keep pace with the theory.
GEOGRAPHY. Note.But one class in Geography will be needed, and this, if found necessary, may alternate with History.
INSTRUCTION.- Take the first week in illustrating, by doing the work; shcw how to introduce the child to the study of primary geography, first of home and things around home, and then give a general idea of the earth as a whole, from a globe. The second week may be used in teaching local geography from outline maps, showing and enforcing the fact that it can be successfully taught only by perfecting and impressing mental pictures. This of course should be accompanied by mapping; not by any abstruse or labored system, but by cultivating the ability to reproduce, rapidly, with the hand, the pictures already in the mind. During the third week, having somewhat familiarized the eye and hand with a few localities, (or in other words, found a place in which to put the facts of natural and political geography,) have a few illustrative topical recitations, taking, perhaps, one grand division and one state. A few lessons, the last week, will be needed in mathematical and physical geography, giving thorough instruction in the points presented, and suggestions in reference to those left.
It need hardly be said that if all here designated be attempted, geography must be a daily exercise, and cannot alternate with history.
PENMANSHIP AND DRAWING. Note. These should either alternate or be given in sections. All should participate, and the exercises should be short, keeping all busy.
INSTRUCTION.-In both, devote a full half of the time to hand culture. Endeav. or to secure freedom of motion in the fore-arm, wrist and fingers. This should be first done in the air, then upon the black-board, and at last upon paper. The subjects then require separate classes. In penmanship give some simple analysis of the letters, by elements, training the class upon these
elements and their combinations. Give abundant black-board illustrations, and if practicable, individual practice. In drawing, give practice lessons, first by straight lines, and then combinations of these with curved lines, concluding with instruction upon a few principles of perspective and shading. Give as much black-board work as possible, that teachers may be able to do such work before their classes.
CONSTITUTION AND HISTORY. Note.-The law requiring the Constitution of the United States and of the State of Wisconsin to be taught in our public schools seems to demand that a special preparation be made for this work. The four weeks, if well used, will do much in this direction. It will probably be best to study the Constitution of the United States in class, and by comparison and contrast carry along the Constitution of Wisconsin. Much history can and should be blended with this, but if time can
3—[VOL. II.-No. 8.]
be found, have also a distinct class in history. After having studied and explained the constitution, have it presented for review by a full ar.alysis, upon the board.
INSTRUCTION.- Let the class in history recite topically, and seek to give the philosophy and relations of history as well as the facts. A few things studied exhaustively will be more valuable than much attempted and poorly done. Require full written abstracts of the subjects etudied.
GENERAL EXERCISES. A few simple lessons in physical exercises should be given, such as may be used in the common schools. There should be also a series of general exercises, upon objects, or general questions, carried through the session. Take one subject and treat it exhaustively and use the remaining part of the time in suggestive exercises, to be perfected hereafter. Make these exercises short and lively, usually not to exceed ten minutes; and never allow them to run over time.
OTHER SUBJECTS. It will probably be necessary, in connection with the Normal Institutes, to form classes in the branches required in the second, and possibly in the first grade certificate. If teachers are well qualified, in the lower grade, opportunities for advancement should be given. No syllabus of such instruction is presented, for it will have to be given as needed; nor is the instruction in these deemed as important as in the branches required in the common schools.
POINTS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE. In addition to the illustration and discussion of methods of instruction, in the various class exercises, the following topics are suggested for lectures and discussions. Upon these instruction, such as will be available to young teachers, should be given :
1. Examination; Taking a school; Contract.
3. School programme, including, between these two, how to reduce the number of classes so as to get the necessary time for each.
4. School records, rules and regulations.
5. Social influence of the teacher, comprising visits to parents, and intercourse with pupils out of school hours.
6. School Discipline ; including all points in the control of a school, such as Opening exercises, Movements of classes, Recesses, Communications, Punishments, Control out of school.
7. Recitations ; Methods of conducting, Ends in view and how accomplished, Written Recitations, Reviews and Examinations.
8. Compositions, Declamations and Public Exercises.
13. Instruction that should be given in subjects not provided for in our Schools, and information beyond that given in the text books.
14. The great purpose of all the work, to make honest, independent, intelligent Christian men and women.
A GIGANTIC DEBT.-The united debts of all the nations on our globe are twenty-eight thousand millions of dollars, having increased about one-half since 1849. We naturally ask, for what purposes have such immense liabilities been incurred? Statistics show that public improvements (railways, canals, arts, sciences and education), have absorbed but twelve per cent. of the sum, while eighty-eight per cent. have been spent on wars and other
enterprises not subservient to the public welfare! This will not seem strange when we recapitulate the principal wars since 1849. They are, the war of the Crimea; the war in Italy; the Spanish war in Morocco; the war in Denmark; the German-Austrian war; the English India (rebellion of the Sepoys); the wars in Mexico and Paraguay; the civil war in the United States, and the
Franco-Prussian war. Of less important campaigns, we had Garibaldi's raid; the Roman and
Neapolitan occupation; the Polish insurrection; the expedition to Syria; the Russian invasion of Central Asia, and the wars in China. If the thousands oi millions which these wars cost, had been spent for civilization and education, what would have been the result?
THE ASSOCIATION. The late meeting, by common consent, was regarded as one of the best we have ever had. It was more practical than any former one. The papers were generally short, pithy and to the point. The recess on Wednesday afternoon was a great relief, in the pressure of the intense heat. Next time, let there be a little planning beforehand of ways to spend the recess-on the lakes-croqueting, etc. The division into sections would have worked better, had the attendance been larger. As it was, it secured more of useful work. It would be well for all to make up their minds definitely which section they wish to attend, and then continue of that mind, especially where entrance and exit are so near the speakers.
On the whole, the session was extremely pleasant and profitable, and reflects much credit upon those who were responsible for its management. The Secretary promises some account of what transpired outside the regular work. The President's excellent address and several other papers are given in this number. Others will be given in the futur3.
WOMANS' WAGES FOR TEACHING. Two papers on this subject, presented before the Association, by Missts TERRY and STUART, will be found in this number. They are well written, and were well read. It is not unnatural that ladies, who are doing good work in the school room, should sometimes feel keenly the disparity of their remuneration and that given to gentlemen. But this, like all things else that have a commercial or money value, is governed by the inexorable law of demand and supply.
Teaching is one of the few avocations open, to any great extent, to ladies. It is only one of many open to the other sex. The consequence is that thu supply of female teachers is greater than the demand. People are too selfish, as a general rule, to pay more than the market price for any commodity, from any considerations of magnanimity or charity. School boards are no exception to the general rule. The discovery of large quantities of diamonds in South Africa has reduced the market price of those gems 50 per cent. Should a number of great conflagrations destroy half of this year's cotton crop, the price would rise 50 per cent., or
Without attempting here to discuss the subject at length, it may be remarked, that there are two obvious measures that would tend to advance the wages of our female teachers; first, let those who love the work use every effort to increase their skill and capacity, and they will be preferred to others; second, let those who are unfitted for the work, and who seek it only because they must do something, seek more than they do now, for other employments. Young men work at everything, though not genteel. There is altogether too much fastidiousness with many young women, who need to earn their living, as to what they shall do. But society-employers-can do much in opening wider avenues of employment for this class. This appears to us the most feasible way in which the inequality so justly complained of can be reduced.
EXAMINATION.--The results of the examination for State Teachers' Certificates cannot be given till next month.
THE TEACHER'S MONTH. Although it has been so stated, under the official department, numerous inquiries and widespread misapprehension make it expedient to state again, that the law has not been changed which requires 22 days for a teacher's month, in settling for wages,
“unless it be otherwise specified in the contract.” The source of the misapprehension lies in the fact that the second section of the same law, chapter 164, of 1871, was so altered last winter as make “100 days” constitute the" 5 months ” of schooling necessary to entitle a district to school money. This was intended as a favor to small or unfortunate districts, but in no way affects teachers, except that it renders it more likely that teachers in such districts will receive their pay promptly.
It is quite important that teachers and boards understand this matter, as mistakes and perhaps hard feelings will thereby be avoided.
THE FALL INSTITUTES. In compliance with invitations received, and assurances that local arrangements will be made, the following Institutes have been appointed by Prof. C. H. Allen, Agent of the Board of Regents of Normal Schools, to be held at the places and times specified, for the term of one week each: Grand Rapids
Aug. 26 Manitowoc.
Sept. 3 Wauwatosa
Sept. 9 Mineral Point
Sept. 23 Wausau ..
Sept. 24 Lodi, (Joint Session,).
Dane and Columbia Cos. Sept.30
Washington Co... Oct. 7 Alma
Oct. 14 Durand
Oct. 21 Plainview.
Oct. 29 Omro
Dec. 3 Monroe
Dec. 9 County superintendents desiring to secure the services of Professor Allen for an Institute of one week's duration, in either of the weeks not already applied for, (November 4 to 28), should apply at once to him at Madison.
If the agent is not in attendance on Monday, the county superintendent should organize and begin work, as he will be able to reach the point designated for the Institute early in that day.
Normal Institutes, under the special charge of competent persons, and under the general direction of Prof. Allen, will be held, principally in the nionth of August, in the counties of Grant, Richland, Sauk, Monroe, Polk, Waupaca and Calumet.
The State Superintendent will indicate by correspondence with county superintendents at what places and times he can deliver evening lectures, in connection with the institutes.
Particular attention is called to the directions and course of instruction for the longer institutes, prepared by the agent.
STATE CERTIFICATES. It is expected that examinations for State Certificates will be held in connection with the Normal Institutes in Monroe and Grant counties. The Institute for Monroe county is now in session at Sparta, with a large attendance, and the examination will probably be at the close, i. e., in the latter part of August. An examination is also in contemplation in Milwaukee.
QUERY BOX To make room for a good number of the papers, and likewise the proceedings of the Association, this month, we not only give give eight extra' pages and“ unlead” the matter for the most part, but omit the Query Box and some other usual features.
We have heretofore given the “ Box” too liberal a measure of latitude and longitude, wishing to encourage all, who felt inclined, to write even a few lines for the Journal; but it is time to condense and raise the standard of admission. We would suggest therefore that no questions be sent which can be answered by turning to any good dictionary, grammar or other suitable book of reference; nor any which are too decidedly trivial and unimportant. A little amusement is not hurtful, but personalities will not be inserted.
As for" scraps,” they should be both good and rare-not such as have been already widely circulated in the common newspapers. In this respect the contributions of “ Pen” are admirable.
WISCONSIN STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION.
MADISON, July 9, 1872. Pursuant to notice, the Twentieth Annual Session of the Wisconsin State Teachers' Association commenced this evening in the Assembly Chamber.
President Samuel Shaw, of Berlin, occupied the chair. After the singing of the National Anthem, J. H. Carpenter, Esq., President of the Madison Board of Education, welcomed the teachers in a few appropriate remarks, and President Shaw responded as follows:
“In behalf of the members of this association, I desire to return our thanks for your most cordial welcome. We appreciate it all the more highly, when we consider into what a sea of excitement you were recently plunged during the editorial convention, and reunion of the Grand Army of The Tennessee. While we shall feel free to accept any favor which you may extend to us, we shall endeavor not to tax your jaded hospitality too severely. And, now, we invite yourself and the citizens of Madison generally to cheer us by your presence at our various sessions; thus we shall feel the heart-beat of your living sympathy, and know that the professions made here to night are not a cold formality,
“Our deliberations will differ externally from the work usually done in this chamber; but the object at which both organizations aim is really the same, viz.: the welfare of the state, the progress of civilization, the elevation of the human race into a clearer intellectual light. Unitedly, we battle a common enemy. Samson is no longer standing under the tower of Gaza praying for the return of his wonted strength that he may overthrow the Philistines by unexpected disaster; but that other blind giant, Ignorance, is forever tugging at the pillars of free government, hoping to demolish the superstructure of modern enlightenment, and transform its elegant proportions into a mass of unsightly ruins.
Again, we thank you for your friendly expressions." President J. H. Twombly, of the State University, was then introduced, and delivered a lecture upon “ Educa iors and their Profession.”
(As this and other addresses will be published in full in the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, outlines of the same are omitted in this report.-SEC'Y.) The programme for Wednesday was read, and the convention adjourned.
WEDNESDAY, July 10-9 A. M. Precisely at 9 o'clock, the meeting was called to order by the president.
After prayer by Rev. C. H. Richards of Madison, and singing by the whole audience, the president delivered his address. (See first pages of this number of the Journal.)
On motion of W. D. Parker, the address was referred for distribution to a committee consisting of C. H. Allen, H. C. Howard and M. T. Parker. The following
committees were announced: On Enrollment.-A. Earthman, C. M. Treat and J. K. Purdy. On Finance.-H. Barns, W. H. Holford and A. O. Wright.