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izens of foreign birth, and whose vernacular is not English,) authorizes no conversion of the school into anything else than an English school. If more instruction in a foreign language is desired than can be obtained in the “ one hour a day,” it must be obtained in private schools, or otherwise.

Q. Does the law, which allows one hundred days to be five months, require twenty-two days for one month?

A. The law, as it now stands, regards one hundred days as five months, so far as the apportionment of the income of the school fund is concerned, but requires twenty-two days as the teacher's month, unless it be otherwise specified in the contract.

Q. Should a teacher's certificate be annulled for a single act of misconduct? A. This depends lipon

the nature of the act. Conviction of an infamous crime disqualifies for holding office, and this rule may reasonably apply to teachers. But a single wrongful act, of a less heinous character, may not require the annulment of a certificate. Character is not determined by a single act; none are perfect; and some allowance must be made for human imperfection. Still, the example of a teacher, beyond that of most persons, is important.

Q. Is it legal for a county superintendent to issue all the third grade certificates, at the spring examinations, for six months?

A. The law gives him power to issue such certificates “for a less period than one year,” but implies--rather than provides—that ordinarily they will be for that term. A superintendent who deems it important to raise the standard, at the fall examinations, would be justified in limiting the certificates given in the spring to six months. It would be reasonable, however, to make an exception, if desired, in the case of those who came up to a high standard--say 80 or 90 per cent.

Q. If a town fails to vote a tax, any year, for school purposes, does it forfeit its share of the school fund income, that year?

A. There is no law requiring towns to vote a school tax. They have power to do so, at their discretion, “in addition to the amount required by law to be raised,” that is, in addition to the amount board of county supervisors, at their annual meeting, shall estimate and determine," as the sum to be raised in “ each town and ward in their county, for the support of common schools.” This sum must " not be less than the amount of school moneys apportioned to such town or ward by the state superintendent, in his last apportionment," “ in addition to any sum any such town or ward may have voted to raise," etc. In other words, what may be voted by the town, and what must be levied upon the town, are distinct from each other.


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Query and Scrap Box.

68.–Given (#8211;) To find the value of x and y.



y2 + 7 [We supposed the “restless spirit” of this problem had been sufficiently laid, but our friend at Reedsburg does not think so, and sends us the following.-EDs.]

I call it a poor solution of a problem where a person must find the answer by some other means in order to solve it. Any one can see the writer must know the values of x and y, in the solution published in the March JOURNAL. Suppose the numbers were such that they could not be easily guessed, as 546 and 312 instead of 11 and 9, then there would be more guessing. To save time in guessing the values, I would say get the square root of the larger one for one value, and the remainder is the less; then having found the answer the problem can be solved as published.-N. DARROW, Reedsburg.

94.-Correction. There was an eclipse of the sun, visible at Rome, July 5th, B. C. 753, instead of 754, as printed in the last number of the JOURNAL. (See page 235).-L. C.

What is the circumference of a round acre?

The square root of the area multiplied by 13. 14159=1.12838=the diameter. The diameter multiplied by 3.14159=circumference; 160 rods=one acre; v 160= 12.64911; 12.64911x1.12838=14.2730+=diameter, 14.273 x 3.14159=44.8399 rcds=circumference.-W.J. HUGHES, Ripon.


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[Questions 1, 2, 3 and 9, to which new answers are given below, will be found in the April, May and June numbers, and need not be repeated.-Eds.]

“ It is wrong to do so." Wrong” is an adjective, qualifying the phrase "to do so.” “To do so ” is an infinitive phrase, used substantively as the subject, and represented by the expletive “it.” In the sentence,“ The pipers loud and louder blew; the dancers quick and quicker flew;” the words “loud” and “ quick” are both the same part of speech, viz., adverbs, though the adjective form is used. “It is forty feet high.High” is an adjective, qualifying the subject, “it.” feet” is an adverbial phrase, expressing degree, or, how much, and modifies the adjective “high.” He is aged twenty years.” This is the same construction.

Aged ” being the adjective attribute, and“ twenty years ” the adverbial phrase, telling how aged he is. " It is well worth the money.The meaning is “it is well worthy of the money;" hence, “well” is an adverb, modifying "worthy” or worth, and “worth” is an an adjective, qualifying “it," and money is the object of the preposition “of” understood. “ Whatever is, is right.” A complex, declarative sentence; principal clause, “that is right;” subordinate, " which is; That (thing) which is, is right. “To be, or not to be, that is the question.” To be, or not to be” is an infinitive, independent clause, used substantively. “That is the question ” is a simple sentence, of which “that” is the subject (representing the thought in the preceding phrase), and “is question” the predicate.-Miss F. 6. MCINTYRE, Geneva.

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11.-Will some one please inform us, through the JOURNAL, if Noah and Daniel Webster were related, and if so, in what way?

I think there is nothing to show that that they were in any way related whatever.-D. M.



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12.–Given the base of an inclined plane; what must be its altitude, in order that a ball may descend down the plane in the shortest possible time?

Let AC be an inclined plane, AB its altitude and BC its base. Place BC=A, AB=x, and let y=time required for a ball to move from A to C.

a+x? ; Ņ1611 Then

a? +r?

Since y is to be the least possible, minimum. Hence,


=0; consequently x=a; that is the altitude of the plane=its base.-L. CAMPBELL.

14.-Will some one define “ voice,” (meaning one of the properties of verbs.) Some authorities say that “voice” is a“ property of transitive verbs only,” while others say that a few intransitive verbs may take the passive voice.”

• Voice,” as defined by all good authorities, is a property of transitive verbs; hence, intransitive cannot have it. Some intransitive verbs take the form of the passive voice, and we think pupils should say, in reference to such words,“ it has the form of the passive voice.”—F. B. MCINTYRE.

[Examples: “I tire of this wearisome work;" or, “ I am tired," etc. “ Do I mistake, in calling you John ?” or, “ Am I mistaken,” etc.]

15.—How many tenses ought there be given to the subjunctive mode? Two are sufficient.-IB.

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22.—The longest side of a triangle is 150 rods, and each of the other sides 75 rods. Required, the value of the grass at $10 per acre.

[This is one of those amusements called “ catch questions.” We omit several answers from parties who did not see the catch.—EDRS.]

23.—What three figures multi lied by 2 will produce precisely three? 142 (composed of three figures), multiplied by 2=3.-C. E. VEEDER, Woneuoc.

24.- A snake desires to get up a wall 20 feet in height; during the day it climbs 5 feet, but slips back 4 feet every night; how many days would it take to reach the top?

The snake climbs 5 feet during the day, and slips back 4 feet during the night. It therefore gains 1 foot every 24 hours. Hence, it will take it so many days to reach the top of the wall; as 1 is contained times in 20; or twenty days of 24 hours each.-16.

Another Answer.-If the snake climbs 5 feet in a day and slips back 4 feet every night; on the morning of the sixteenth day it will be 15 feet from the ground, and during the day climbs 5 feet which equals 20 feet; or it reaches the top of the wall in 15 days +1 day=16 days.-A. S. CHLOUPECH, Kossuth.

Third Answer.—Since he climbs 5 feet every day and falls back 4 feet every night, it will take him 16 days to reach the top of the wall.-NANCY MCDONALD.

25. What is the best theory that the interior of the earth is composed of a fiery molten mass?

The best theory accounting for internal fires, and the melted condition of the matter composing the interior of the earth, with which we are acquainted, is that which supposes the material of which the earth is composed to have once been in an exceedingly soft and plastic condition. We read in Genesis that “In the beginning, the earth was without form, and void.” The surface gradually acquired consistency, and solidity; until at length a crust was formed which has since grad ually increased in thickness; and which encloses an interior, fiery, molten mass.C. E. V., Woneuoc.

Second Answer. That the interior of the earth is intensely heated is inferred from the following fact: in the first place it has been observed that in all deep mines the temperature of the rock increases one degree Fah. for every fifty or sixty feet of descent, after the first one hundred feet. This is true in all parts of the world and in every kind of rock. In the next place, water that flows from artesian wells increases in temperature with the increase of depth. - NANCY MCDONALD.

27.-Who will send us the names of the Chief and Associate Justices of the United States Supreme Court, and the name of the State they reside in, and the number and territory of circuit?

J. W. WEST, of Juda, sends a reply, but for a full answer to this question with much additional information, see an article by Mr. REYNOLDS, in this number,

page 266.

28.- What are electoral votes, and how are the President and Vice President elected?

An electoral vote is an expression of choice of an elector by tho voice or by a written ticket.-A. S. CHLOUPECK, Kossuth.

[The writer also gives the provisions of the Constitution as to the election of Presidential electors, and the method by which they elect the President and Vice President. It seems unnecessary to reprint this, as it may be read in the Constitution itself, which is now widely circulated in the State-every school district having or being entitled to receive, six copies on application by the clerk to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. It is proper to remark, however, that contrary to what the Constitution intended, the people at large, and not the electors, determino who shall be President and Vice President. The electors, when assembled, exercise no discretion of their own, but merely ratify the choice of the nation already expressed in their own election, in the several States.-EDRS.]

A Second Answer.--Electoral votes are votes cast by electors, chosen by the States in such manner as the Legislatures may have provided, to elect the President and Vice President of the United States.-C. E. V., Woneuoc.

[This respondent also explains the process of electing the President and Vice President, as provided in the Constitution, but we omit this portion of his answer, for the reasons given above.-EDRS.]

31.-Is a teacher doing her duty when she disregards the requirements of the state and county superintendent and of the School Code in neglecting to exercise in writing thoge pupils who read in the second and third readers and who study geography, provided she receives the unanimous approval of the pupils and their parents?

A teacher is not doing her duty wlien she does not comply with the require ments of the School Code and the state and county superintendents. I think the teacher was not doing her duty when she did not exercise those pupils reading in the second and third readers in writing, though I do not think it is necessary for a teacher to realize her sense of duty by the approval or disapproval of her actions by pupils or parents.-D. M.

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32.—Which member of the convention which met to form a constitution for the State of Wisconsin, has since been Superintendent of Public Instruction? Which member now holds a high public position in the state?

ELEAZER ROOT was a member of the convention to form the state constitution, and also first State Superintendent of Public Instruction, in the years 1848–50. Associate Justice Orsamus Cole, was also a member of the convention.-J. W. WEST, Juda, and D, M. 33.-Section 3 of ariicle 2, constitution of the United States, says:

“ the president shall receive ambassadors and other public minsters.” What does this mean?

I think there can be no misunderstanding respecting the import of the above sentence. Ambassadors and public ministers are persons employed by one government or sovereign to manage or represent its public affairs at the court of another. Whenever such are received at the capital of this country it is only by the president, and it is his duty to receive them if he wishes to hold relations with a foreign country, if not he has the power to refuse to receive them.-D. M.

34. What class of words are changed in meaning by change accent?
First answer.-Nouns.-H. NEILL, Alloa.
Second answer.-Nouns and verbs.-OLD MAID and D. M.:

35.—What part of speech is good in the sentence, “ Mary is good.” Good is an adjective complementary of the neuter verb is.-D. M.

36.--In the sentence, “ Mary is exceedingly polite,” how are exceedingly and polite to be parsed?

Polite is an adjective complementary of the neuter verb is, and excedingly is an adverb modifying polite.--Ib.

Other answers, to 35 and 36.

Good is a verbal noun, the complement of the sentence, and strictly speaking an adjunct of the subject. I should parse it as an adnoininal word or adjective, giving its office in the sentence. In the sentence, “ Mary is exceedingly folite,” exceedingly should be parsed as an adverbial word or adverb, adjunct of polite. Polite should be disposed of in the same way as “good.”-OLD MAID.

Good is an adjective attribute to the sentence, and relates to Mary. “ Exceedingly” is an adverb, qualifies polite. Polite” is an adjective, relates to Mary, and is attribute to the sentence.-H. NEILL.

39.—Required a frame (of uniform dimensions), for a piece of glass 18 inches by 12; the area of the frame must be equal to the glass. What width must the frame be?

Let x=width of frame. There are four squares, a side of each being equal to the width, and two times (18+12) by the width: therefore,

4x° +60x=18 x 12=216.
xo +15x=54.
2° +152 +(19)=54+25=441.

-T. CASSIN, Milwaukee. Let x=width of frame. Then for the entire length of frame we have 60 inches, the distance around plate plus 4x the width of frame, which gives in all 60+ 4x,

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