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1. Language is any means of communicating ideas. 2. Tongue is a particular means of communicating ideas by arbitrary

sounds produced by the organs of voice and speech. 3. Organs of voice are the vocal chords. 4. Organs of speech are the lips, teeth, tongue, palate, uvula, nose

and larynx. 5. An element of tongue is an indivisible part of it. 6. The number of elements in English tongue is thirty-eight: thirteen

tonics, fourteen subtonics and eleven atonics. Y. A bitonic is the union of two tonics. 8. A tritonic is the union of the three tonics. 9. Subtonics are voice sounds modified by the organs of speech. 10. Atonics are breath sounds, and are all modified by the organs of

speech except h.







1. Point off the given (ude) into periods of twee) figures each, beginning at units.

2. Find the greatest () in the left-hand period, and place its root at the right, for the first figure of the required root.

3. Subtract this ) from the left-hand period, and to the remainder, bring down the next period for a dividend.


1. Take for a divisor (two times

(three times the square ol) the root already found, considered as tens.

2. Find how many times the divisor is contained in the dividend, and place the quotient at the right, for the second figure of the required root.

3. Multiply the divisor by this last root figure: also woulipithe three the preceding part of the root, considered as tens, by the square of the same figure ; also cabe this figures); subtract the sum of these results from the dividend; and to the remainder bring down the next period for a new dividend.

square same figure,

DIRECTION. Continue the operation, as far as may be necessary, by repeativg the second series.

NOTE 1, Second series, 2. As this quotient is only approximative, it will often be ecessary to diminish it by one, two, or sometimes even three units. NOTE 2, Second series, 3. In the square root, both multiplications can be perrmed in one, by first putting the root figure in place of the unit acre of the di



From the appendix to a pamphlet compiled by I. A. Lapham, Levi Blossom and Geo. G. Dousman, committee of the “ Old Settlers' Club,” Milwaukee, we copy dates of important events in the history of the state. These dates wiil be interesting, in connection with the study of the History and Constitution of the State: 1639, Nicolet explored the country as far as the Wisconsin river. 1654, Fur traders occupied the country as far as Green Bay. 1660, Rene Menard penetrated to Chegoimegon Bay, Lake Superior. 1661, Menard crossed the country from lake Superior to Black River

Falls. 1664, Nov. 15. The French Minister officially permits the sale of

brandy to the Indians. 1665, Claude Allouez established a mission at La Pointe, Lake Su

perior. 1667, Louis Nicholas joined Allouez at La Pointe. 1669, Al'ouez established a mission at Des Peres, (Green Bay.) 1670, May 20, Allouez went down the Wisconsin nearly to its mouth. 1671, The French took formal possession of the Northwest. 1673, June 17, Marquette discovered the Upper Mississippi river. 1674, Marquette coasted lake Michigan from Green Bay by Milwaukee

to Chicago. 1676, Allouez voyaged over the same route. 1679, The first sail-craft (the Griffin) arrived at Green Bay, and was

lost on the return voyage. 1679, La Salle coasted Lake Michigan from Green Bay to St. Joseph's. 1679, Capt. De Lut negotiated a peace with the Indians of Lake Superior. 1680, Tonti established a military station at Green Bay. 1681, Marquette's Journal and map published in France. 1683, Le Seur went down the Wisconsin to the Mississippi. 1685, Durantaye erected a forte at Checagua. 1688, La Hontan explored the country. 1688, Fort St. Nicholas built at the mouth of the Wisconsin. 1688, Parrot established a trading post on Lake Pepin. 1688, Fort St. Antoine built at the mouth of the Chippewa river. 1688, Fört Beauharnois built on the north side of Lake Pepin. 1695, Le Sueur built a fort on an island in the Mississippi below the St.

Croix. 1699, John Buisson de St. Comes coasted Lake Michigan, stopping at

Melwarik,November 10th. 1700, Le Sueur's voyage up the Mississippi in search of copper ore. 1714, Le Louvigny's battle with the Fox Indians at Butte des Morts. 1719. Francis Renalt with 200 miners explore Upper Mississippi. 1721, P. De Charlevoix travel d in Wisconsin. 1726, A French fort established at Green Bay. 1726, Prairie du Chien first settled. 1726, June 7, M. De Lignery concluded a treaty of peace with the Indians

at Green Bay.

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1727, The French established a fort on Lake Pepin, commanded by

Sieur de Lapperriere. 1728, Great flood in Mississippi. Fort Beauhairnois submerged. 1728, French expedition under De Lignery from Green Bay, against the

Fox Indians. 1743, Battle between the French and the Sauk and Fox Indians. 1747, October 1, Capt. De Vorcheres takes command at Green Bay. 1754, Sieur Martin in command at Green Bay, secures peace with the

Indians. 1755, A French fort established at Prairie du Chien. 1760, October 12, Cap. Balfour and Lieut. Gorrell, with English troops,

took possession of Green Bay. 1762, Aug. 21, Indians went from Milwaukee to Green Bay to com

plain of dishonest traders. 1763, The English, under Lieut. Gorrell, abandon Green Bay. 1763, Feb. 70, Treaty vf Paris. All new France surrendered to the

English. 1763, The Pontiac Conspiracy. 1764, Green Bay re-occupied by the English, under Capt. Howard. 1764, Louisiana ceded to Spain by the French. 1766, Laws of Canada extended over the Northwest. 1766-8, Jonathan Carver traveled through the country. 1767, Indian grant of land to Carver. 1774, Northwest Fur Company organized. 1774, Civil government established in the Northwest by the “ Québec

Act.” 1777, Indians from Wisconsin joined the British against the Ameri1780, Lieut. Governor Patrick St. Clair of Canada purchased Green

Bay, Prairie du Chien, etc., of the Indians. 1785. April, a great flood in the Mississippi river. 1786, Julian Dubuque explored the lead regions of the Upper Missis

sippi. 1787, July 13, Ordinance of Congress for government of Northwest

Territory. 1788, Sept. 22, Indian council at Green Bay. Permission to work lead

mines given to Dubuque. 1796, July 1, Green Bay, Prairie du Chien, etc., surrendered by the

English to the United States. 1796, Laws of Northwest Territory extended over the country. 1800, July 4, Indian Territory organized, including Wisconsin. 1800, October 1, Louisiana ceded to France by Spain. 1803, Antonie Bath settled at the portage of the Fox and Wisconsin

rivers. 1803, April 30, Louisiana ceded to the United States by France. 1804, November 3, Indian treaty at St. Louis; southern Wisconsin pur

chased. 1805, January 11, Michigan territory organized. 1809, Thomas Natal, the botanist, explored Wisconsin. 1809, Illinois territory organized, including Wisconsin. 1809, first saw mill built near Green Bay. 1812, Indians assembled at Green Bay to join the British. 1814, Governor Clark took possession of Prairie du Chien.


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1814, July 17, Prairie du Chien surrendered to the British. 1815, American Fur Company began to establish trading posts. 1815, United States trading post established at Green Bay. 1816, May 18, Indian treaty confirming that of 1804. 1816, June 21, United States troops took possession of Prairie du Chien. 1816, Col. Miller commenced the erection of Fort Howard at Green

Bay. 1816, August 24, Indian treaty; lands relinquished to Indians, etc. 1816, Jaques Vieux settled at Milwaukee. 1817, March 30, Indian treaty at St. Louis. 1817, Maj. H. S. Long ascended the Mississippi, etc. 1818, April 18, State of Illinois organized, Wisconsin attached to Mich

igan. 1818, September 14, Solomon Juneau built his cabin and trading post

at Milwaukee. 1818, a saw mill built four miles above Prairie du Chien. 1818, October 26, Brown and Crawford counties organized, including

the whole state. 1819, A saw mill erected at Black River Falls, by C. A. Andrews. 1819, Fort Snelling built and occupied. 1820, U. S. Commissioners adjusted land claims at Green Bay. 1821, Oneida and Stockbridge Indians settled near Green Bay. 1821, First post office established at Green Bay. 1821, Fort Crawford built at Prairie du Chien. 1822, The New York Indians purchase lands east of Lake Winnebago. 1822, James Johnson obtained from the Indians the right to dig for

lead by negro slaves from Kentucky. 1822, January, Wisconsin made a separate Judicial District by Con

gress. 1823, First government leases to lead miners. 1823, Land claims at Prairie du Chien adjusted by the government. 1823, Maj. S. H. Long's expedition to the Upper Mississippi, &c. 1823, First steamboat on the Upper Mississippi, with Maj. Taliafero

and Count Beltrami. 1823, Lieut. Bayfield, of the British navy, made a survey of Lake

Superior. 1823, An Episcopal Mission established near Green Bay. 1824, James D. Doty appointed Juuge by President Monroe-held the

office nine years. 1724, July 12, First court held in Brown county. 1834, October 4, first term of U. S. circuit court held at Green Bay. 1822, August 1st and 19th, Indian treaties at Prairie du Chien. 1825, The Carver grant of land rejected by Congress. 1826, First steam boat on Lake Michigan. 1826, Indian treaty at St. Louis. 1886, Great flood in the Mississppi; 26 feet above low water at Prairie

du Chien. 1827, A rush of speculators to the lead mines. 1827, Difficulties with the Indians. Troops sent to settle them. 1827, August 11. Treaty with the Menomonee Indians at Butte des

Morts. 1828, Fort Winnebago built at “the portage. 1828, Indian treaty at Green Bay; the lead region purchased.

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1828, Lead ore discovered at Mineral Point and Dodge ville. 1829, Jul 29. Winnebago treaty at Prairie du Chien. 182!!, A Methodist mission established at Green Bay. 1850, A Methodist mission established at La Pointe. 1830, May. The Sioux killed seventeen Sauks and Foxes near Prairie

du Chien. 1831, February 8. Menomonee treaty at Washington. 1831, Public lands in the lead region surveyed by Lucius Lyon and

utliers. 1832, June 16. Battle with the Sauk Indians and Pekatonica. 1832, July 21. Battle on the Wisconsin river. 1832, August 2. Battle at the mouth of the Bad Axe; Black Hawk

defeated. 1832, First arrival of a steamboat at Chicago. 1832, Schoolcraft discovered the true source of the Mississippi. 1832, September 14. Wirnebago treaty at Fort Armstrong. 1832, October 27. Treaty w th the Menomonees. 1832, High water in the Mississippi. 1833, A Methodist mission established at Ottawa Lake, (Chippewa

river.) 1833, September 26, Indian treaty at Chicago. Lands south and west

of Milwaukee ceded to the government. 1833, December 11, first newspaper (Green Bay Intelligencer) published. 1834, Public lands near Green Bay surveyed by A. G. Ellis. 1834, Land offices established at Mineral Point and Green Bay. 1834, Population by census taken, 4,795. 1835, First settlement at Milwaukee, Samuel Brown and family. 1835, Geo. W. Jones elected delegate to congress. 1835, J. N. Nicollett commenced scientific exploration. 1835, Public lands at Milwaukee surveyed by Wm. A. Burt. 1836, January 9, The legislative council of Michigan met at Green Bay. 1836, April 30, Henry Dodge appointed governor by President Andrew

Jackson. 1836, July 4, Territory of Wisconsin organized. 1836, July 14, Milwaukee Advertiser published at 371 Third street. 1836, September 3, Treaty with the Nenomonees at Green Bay. 1836, October 10, George W. Jones elected delegate to congress, 1836, October 25, First legislature of Wisconsin convened at Belmont,

Wisconsin. 1836, December 3, Seat of government established at Madison. 1 36, First school opened in Milwaukee (at No. 371 Third St.) 1836, United States land office opened at Milwaukee. 1837, Jan. 26. Michigan admitted as a state. 1837, Jly 29. Chippewa treaty at Fort Snelling. 1837, Sep. 29. Sioux treaty; lands east of the Mississippi ceded. 1837, Nov. 6. Legislature met at Burlington, Iowa. 1838, June 11. Special session of the Legislature at Burlington, Iowa. 1838, Sep. 10. James D. Do'y elected delegate to Congress. 1838, Nov. 26. First session of the Legislature at Madison. 1839, Jan. 21. Legislative session. Statutes enacted.

, 1339, Indian (Sioux and Chippewa) battle; 200 killed. 1839, Sept. James D. Doty re-elected to Congress. 1839, Dec. 6. Legislative session commenced.

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