Imagini ale paginilor

12. How many female teachers are actually employed in the State, in the course of a year?-A. WOOD, Prairie du Sac.

12.-Problem-Given, the base of an inclined plane; what must be its altitude in order that a ball may descend down the plane in the shortest possible time?— L. C.

13.-Will some one inform the readers of the JOURNAL, through its columns, of the names of the different state officers?-R. L. D., Trempealeau.

14.-Will some one define "voice," (meaning one of the properties of verbs.) Some authorities say that "voice" is a" property of transitive verbs only," while others say that a few intransitive verbs may take the “passive voice.”—C. A. THOMPSON, Lyndon.

15.-How many tenses ought there be given to the subjunctive mode?—Ib 16.—What president was inaugurated on the 5th of March?-W. H.

17.—Is it right to require scholars to answer “perfect” or “imperfect,” on calling the roll at night?—Ib.

18-What forces hold the earth in its orbit? Why is its orbit not a circle?—Ib. 19.—Are the days and nights at the equator always equal?—Ib.

20.-Why will not a watch, keeping correct or unvarying time, always agree with the sun?—Ib.

21.—Please explain action and reaction and the resulting phenomena, in the case of two perfectly elastic balls; one at rest, and the other raised and let fall on the first through an arc of six inches.--J. E. S., Whitewater.

Editorial Miscellany.


The following Board of Examiners has been appointed, for the issuing of State Certificates the ensuing year: Prof. ROBERT GRAHAM, Prof. SAMUEL SHAW and Miss ETTA S. CARLE. They will examine applicants for both kinds of certificates now provided for by law-the unlimited certificate, good for life, and limited certificate, good for five years. The first examination will be held in connection with the annual session of the State Teachers' Association, which will be in Madison, July 9-11. Other examinations for both of these certificates will be held in other parts of the State, which will be announced in due time.

For the limited certificate, the candidate is examined in all the branches required for a first grade county certificate, with the addition of English Literature and Mental Philosophy. For the unlimited certificate, Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Geology and Political Economy are added.

Further details, as to the Examinations, will be made known in a future number of the JOURNAL.


We give insertion to an article, on this subject, from Mr. BLISS, of West Eau Claire. He proposes another system, of his own, an outline of which we shall give next month.

Dr. F. A. P. BARNARD, President of Columbia College, has published a volume on this subject, in which he elaborately endorses the French system. The Doctor

is considered as high authority on the subject as our country affords. As it is a matter of general-of world-wide interest-we give some extracts from a recent review of Doctor BARNARD's book:

"It is well known that there are two systems of weights and measures, both based on scientific principle, which lay claim to general reception-the English and the French. The former is based upon a carefully ascertained relation, existing between the standard yard and the length of a pendulum vibrating seconds at the level of the sea in vacuo, latitude of Greenwich. The latter is based upon a carefully executed measurement of the length of a quadrant of a great circle of the earth, extending from the equator to the pole, of which one ten millionth part is taken as the standard measure of length, and called the metre. A vertical vessel of the internal dimensions of one-tenth part of the metre, and filled with distilled water at £9° 5' in vacuo, at level of the sea, latitude Paris, constitutes the standard weight, called the kilogramme. It is divided into one thousand equal parts, called grammes.

"The French system is more simple than the English, and is more widely received. It is used generally by scientific men in all nations, and has been adopted as a national standard, and its use made compulsory by law, according to President Barnard, by the following nations: France, French colonies, Holland, Dutch colonies, Belgium, Spain, Spanish colonies, Portugal, Italy, North German Confederation, Greece, Roumania, British India, Mexico. New Granada, Ecquador, Peru, Brazil, Uraguay, Argentine Confederation and Chili, embracing a total population of 336,419,595. Metric values have been adopted by the following nations: Wurtemburg, Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Switzerland, Denmark, Austria and Turkey, embracing a population of 84,039,209. And, finally, the metric system has been legalized and made permissive in Great Britain and the United States, embracing a population of 70,373,091. There may, therefore, be counted as committed to the metric system about 420.000,000 of the most highly civilized portion of the human family. It seems not very unlikely, therefore, that at no distant day a common system of weights and of measures, and perhaps even a common system of money, may prevail among all the civilized peoples of the earth.

"The advatages of such a unification are obvious. All the higher results of all the sciences, from astronomy to chemistry, depend upon the usse of accurate measures and weights, which admit of being described, and of being reproduced if destroyed. Until the introduction of the French system, all the scientific knowledge of the world stood upon a very insecure basis, depending, as it did, upon certain fixed standards, made of metal preserved in the tower at London. If these arbitrary standards were destroyed, as no one could tell how they originated, or what they represented, the scientific knowledge based upon them would become, to a certain degree, uncertain, and its value proportionably diminished. Since the introduction of the metric system, if the standards were all destroyed, they would be reproduced of exactly the same dimensions as before, and the value of the scientific knowledge based upon them would remain unimpaired. Hence proceeds, perhaps, the highest use of this system-that it renders fixed and certain the most profound knowledge of man.

"A second advantage, not much inferior, consists in its furnishing a common language expressive of quantity, to the scientific men of all nations, and that it obviates the necessity of an immense amount of reduction, and to a corresponding degree diminishes the liability of mistakes.

"Another obvious advantage consists in the facilities it gives for the transaction of business, and the carrying out of mercantile operations among different nations, and in simplifying accounts. A still further advantage would be gained if the same system of unification could be extended to money. And inasmuch as the effect of this additional faculty imparted to the scientific and commercial intercourse of nations tends to draw them more closely together, and by making them more dependent upon each other, to exert a powerful influence in the interest of peace, it is apparent that that subject is is one of the greatest interest, both to the philanthropist and to the Christian.

* * *

"The object of President Barnard's book is to represent what has already been done in connection with this system, and to extend a knowledge of its merits, and it cannot fail of exerting a powerful influence in this direction. It may not be generally known that no nation has done so much toward the improvement of weights and measures as our own. The wonderful scientific work, the survey of

our immense sea-coasts, extending for thousands of miles, both upon the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, depends for its foundation upon accurately constructed measure of length, called Troughton's scale, preserved with sacred care in the cellar of the building of the Coast Survey at Washington. There is an intimate connection between measures of length and measures of weight, and for this reason to the administrators of the Coast Survey has been committed by the Government the subject of weights, and the preparation of accurate weights and the equally accurate balances-marvels of scientific precision-which have been distributed by act of Congress to all the States, for the purpose of producing uniformity throughout the whole extent of the country. A set of metric measures and weights are now in process of preparation, and will be soon distributed through all the States. These must have a powerful effect in calling attention to this subject, and render the publication of works explanatory of their origin, merits and use extremely useful."

Educational Intelligence.


WAUKESHA COUNTY.-The opening Institute of the Spring series commenced Monday, March 25, in the Union School-house at the pleasant village of Waukesha, enrolling in all over 150 members, and embracing evidently the bone and sinew of the teaching force of the county. If any Institute of the season does better, it will need to be up early in the morning. Superintendent NORTH is determined bis county shall march in the van, and his teachers do no: lag behind. He has a knack for finding their tender places, and pricking them, but they thank him for it, as he puts them in the way of healing them.

Prof. MCGREGOR, of the Platteville Normal School, worked a couple of days, till Prof. ALLEN could arrive, and the teachers may consider themselves fortunate to have benefitted by his happy elucidation of some of the tangled places in arithmetic and algebra, as well as by his admirable address on "Enthusiam." His best argument on that subject is himself. Messrs. STUART, POWERS and other teachers helped as needed, and the Superintendent kept all alive, and the State Superintendent delivered the closing address Friday night. Altogether the Institute was a marked success-not overlooking nearly sixty subscriptions to the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, as one of its good signs and good works.

THE UNION SCHOOL, at Waukesha, as we learn, is prospering finely, under the management of Mr. I. N. STUART and his assistants, including Mrs. Stuart. The building has been much enlarged and improved, since our last visit seven years ago.

[ocr errors]

By the way, Mr. Stuart should be credited with conducting the Institute a year ago in Waukesha county, at Oconomowoc, in the report of the State Superintendent, instead of Mr. Graham, whose name is repeated by mistake of the printer. THE REFORM SCHOOL, where we were most hospitably entertained, seems to be in healthy condition. Industry, cheerfulness and good order pervade the Institution. A reasonable amount of labor at "willow work," cane seating," etc., is required of the boys, out of school hours-a rule contrasting very strongly with the state of things, in this respect, at the Soldiers' Orphans' Home. If the Trustees of that Institution will call down at Waukesha and spend a day at the Reform School, we think they may get one two good ideas. The Superintendent, Mr. HENDRICKSON, by the way, seems to us to be overworked, and under-paid, considering his arduous and responsible duties, and it would not be easy to find a suitable man to take his place, should he break down.

SAUK COUNTY.—The superintendent elected last fall, Mr. Young, resigned a short time since, and Prof. J. H. TERRY, of Spring Green, formerly of the Platteville Normal School, has been appointed to fill the vacancy. Mr. TERRY will, we doubt not, carry on the good work inaugurated by Mr. VIEBAHN, and keep Sauk in the front rank of progressive couuties.

As an illustration of Mr. VIEBAHN's activity it may be stated that during the last school year, he held and conducted nine institutes in his county-so many in fact, that as the ordinary blank would not contain his report, the transcribing clerk in the office of the State Superintendent, overlooked the report sent, and no credit was given him.

PLATTEVILLE-A note from Platteville informs us that the" highest valuation of a school-honse and site in that village is not less than $10,000, instead of $6,100 as returned.

PALMYRA.—The school at this place is in fine working order, and parents and board seem to take considerable interest in its advance and improvement. Mr. E. S.Tilson has charge of the higher department, Miss A. Ward of the intermediate and Miss J. Kinney of the primary. Mr. T. is an excellent disciplinarian, and everything moves forward without friction and steadily. We have rarely seen better order in a school room than during a short visit to Mr. T's room; the recitations in all the departments showed good preparation and real understanding of the different subjects, and teachers and scholars gave earnest of certain success in the future.

WM. ELDEN, formerly Principal at Palmyra, is filling a similar post at Jefferson, Iowa, as we see by the Bee. The county superintendent speaks well of him. MAZOMANIE.-Dropping into the Graded School here, in charge of M. E. WADSWORTH successor to W. H. A. DE LAMATYR, we found it the first day of the Spring Term. The attendance in the previous term, in the higher room, was 122; in the whole school 429. Mr. Wadsworth is seeking to introduce a regular graded course of study. The other teachers are Miss Julia Bartholomew, from Lodi, Assistant; Miss L. D. Park, formerly teacher in Madison, Grammar; Miss Anna Greening, Intermediate, and Miss Lizzie Greening and Nettie Schildt, Primary rooms, We heard Mr. Wadsworth and his corps of assistants are very favorably spoken of.


We avail ourselves of a page of items gathered by the industrious editor of the Mississippi Educational Journal, H. R. PEASE:

TROY proposes to establish a college for women, to cost $500,000.

THE Michigan Agricultural College, at Lansing, has 141 students.

THERE are 6,000,000 scholars and 1,000,000 teachers in the Sunday schools of the United States.

ALL the States entitled to Agricultural College Land Scrip have received their quota, except Arkansas and Florida.

SUPERINTENDENT MCCARTY, of Kansas, says that a large majority of the teachers in that State, favor compulsory education.

MINNESOTA employed last year, in her public schools, 4,385 teachers, their salaries amounting in the aggregate to $540,488.12.

HON. J. L. PICKARD, Superintendent of Chicago Public Schools, reports an attendance of 24,065 scholars; only about 2,000 less than before the fire.

[blocks in formation]

re can

1 it is

re; but

d mess

s and it I am

[Read before the Teachers' Institute, Fountain City, Sept. 27, 17... Speaking of the final results of education, Pestalozzi sa、s: not be two good methods of instruction; there is only one that which in all its parts is based upon the e ernal laws o of faulty methods there is an indefinite number, and t increases proportionally to their deviation from Nature's decreases proportionally to their compliance with those i w well aware that this only perfect method is neither in mi e act in the hands of any mortal, and that all we can do, is to approach it. But to work out its perfection must ever be the aim of all those whe base instruction on truth and try to gratify yearning, aspiring nure, and to satisfy all its noblest demands. It is from this standpoint nt I say I am striving to approach the method with all my might, and in judging my own work as well as the work of others, whose aim is the same as mine, I have but one rule. By their fruits ye shall know them.. Talents developed to full power, a humane disposition, and an excelent common sense, as results of any method, are to me the so e indicators of the degree of its internal worth; but any method—no matter what other excellencies it may possess any method is condemned by me that leaves upon the face of the pupil the impress of stifled faculties and of an absence of humanity and ready observation. I do not deny that such a method may perhaps produce equally wel good tailors, shoemakers, merchants and soldiers; but I do deny that it will produce a tailor or merchant who is a man in an eminent sense of the word. If men would only open their eyes once to the fact that the final result of instruction is nothing else, and in eternity can be nothing else than humanity brought to life through the harmonious education

« ÎnapoiContinuă »