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phyry as originally a christian; but having been beaten by some christians at Cæsarea in Palestine, out of resentment and melancholy he was induced to renounce christianity; and afterwards out of hatred against those by whom he had been beaten, he wrote against the christians; and he seems to intimate, that Eusebius had said as much. But nothing of that kind is now to be found in Eusebius; nor do the words of Socrates clearly import that Eusebius had said so. Augustine toob has been referred to as confirming this account; but, as Tillemonte has observed, the connection of the discourse shows, that Augustine intended no more, than that this philosopher was too proud to embrace christianity. Heumand also has considered this story, and rejects it as a mere fable.

If Porphyry bad ever been a christian, it was a thing too remarkable not to have been often and expressly mentioned by christian authors, who have had occasion to speak of him; and he would have been frequently called an apostate as well as Julian.

Porphyry, as cited bye Eusebius, speaks of his having in his yonth seen Origen. Some have hence argued, that Porphyry went to Alexandria to see Origen ; and it is expressly said byf Vincentius Lirinensis. But it must be a mistake; for Origen left Alexandria before Porphyry was born, having removed thences in the year 231. ' But Porphyry may have seen Origen at Cæsarea, or Tyre, where he resided a good while after he had left Alexandria.

Mill, in his Prolegomena, a work which one would not suspect to have been written in haste, calls Porphyry h Origen's schoolfellow. Indeed Eunapius makes mention of an Origen whomi he so calls; but it is not our Origen. That Origen published but two books only, as we learn

απελειπε. Μισει δε των τυπτησαντων αυτον, εις το βλασφημα κατα των χρισιανων γραφειν εξεπεσεν, ώς αυτον Ευσεβιος ο Παμφιλε εξελεγξεν, ανασκευασας τες λογές αυτ8. Socr. 1. iii. c. 23, p. 200.

b Quam (sapientiam] si vere ac fideliter amâsses, Christum Dei virtutem et Dei sapientiam cognovisses, nec ab ejus saluberrimâ humilitate, tumore inflatus vanæ scientiæ, resiluisses. De Civ. Dei, l. x. cap. 28. c Diocletien. art. 28.

a Ubi supr. Epist. Miscell. T. iii. p. 53, &c.

e H. E. I. vi. c. 19. p. 219. C. Namque impius ille Porphyrius excitum se famå ipsius Alexandriam fere puerum perrexisse, ibique eum vidisse, jam senem, sed plane talem tantumque, qui arcem totius scientiæ condidisset. Vinc. Lir. Comm, cap. 23. p. 343. Baluz. 1669.

& See vol. ii. p. 475. h Sub hoc tempore, seu etiam aliquanto post, Origenis condiscipulus, Porphyrius, libros quosdam adversus christianos edidit. Prol. num. 702.

1 Συμφοιτηται μεν εν (ώς αυτος αναγραφει) κρατισοι τινες υπηρχον, Ωριγενης τε, και Αμελιος, και Ακυλινος. Εunap. Vit. Porph. p. 19.


from Porphyry himself in thek Life of Plotinus ; which cannot suit so voluminous an author as our Origen. Moreover Porphyry, in the place where he speaks of his having seen Origen, acknowledgeth, that he was then in great repute among the christians.

Divers other erroneous and groundless opinions concerning Porphyry bave been entertained by some learned moderns; which may be seen confuted in Pagi, and other authors, referred to by me at the beginning of this chapter.

Porphyry's works were very numerous; there is a large catalogue of them in Suidas, though not complete; bis de fects are supplied by Fabricius and Lucas Holstenius. I shall mention but a few of them.

Beside that inscribed to Marcella already mentioned, and bis Life of Plotinus, he wrote Of Abstinence from Animals, in four books, still extant.

A Philosophical History, or History of Philosophers, also in four books, quoted several times by Cyril of Alexandria in his work against Julian; mentioned also byn Socrates in his Ecclesiastical History. From Eunapius we know, that it concluded with the Life of Plato.

And, probably, in the first book of that work was the Life of Pythagoras, which we now have, but not complete.

Against the Christians, in fifteen books: but there is nothing of this work reinaining excepting some fragments, which it is incumbent on me to collect out of several authors in which they are to be found. He was answered by Methodius, Eusebius of Cæsarea, and Apollinarius of Laodicea in Syria. All which confutations of this adversary of the christians are entirely lost.

They were all very prolix, as appears from Jerom's accounts of thein. That of Methodius9 consisted of ten thou


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k Vit. Plotin. cap. 2.

| Concerning this point may be seen Vales. Ann. in Euseb. I. vi. c. 19. p. 120. et Fabr. de Vit. Plotini, Bib. Gr. T. iv. p. 97. in notis.

Περι αποχης εμψυχων, δ. Suid. Πορφυριος μεν γαρ τ8 κοροφαιοτατα των φιλοσοφων Σωκρατες τον βιον διεσυρεν εν τη γεγραμμενη αυτη φιλοσοφη ισορια. Socr. 1. iii. c. 23. p. 197. D.

Την φιλοσοφον ισοριαν, και τες των φιλοσοφων αναγων βιες, ο Πορφυριος και Σωτιων ανελεξαντο αλλ' ο μεν Πορφυριος, 8τω συμβαν, εις Πλατωνα ετελευτα, και τες εκεινο χρονες. Εunap. Ρr. p. 10. P Kατα χρισιανων λογες ιε. Suid.

4 See a passage before cited from Jerom, in the general account of the early adversaries of the Christians, p. 206, to which I now add here some others.

Let contra Porphyrium, qui eudem tempore scribebat in Siciliâ, ut quidam putant, libri triginta ; de quibus ad me viginti tantum pervenerunt. Hieron. de V. I. cap. 81.

Extant ejus [Apollinar. Laod.] adversus Porphyrium triginta libri, qui inter cætera opera ejus vel maxime probantur. Id. de V. I. cap. 104.


sand lines; Eusebius's of twenty books, or more ; Apollinarius's thirty books; and the twenty-sixth book, which was taken up in answering Porphyry's objections against the book of Daniel, was very long.

It is generally supposed, that Porphyry's work against the christians was written in Sicily, as is intimated by Eusebius, ands Jerom. And by Cave, Porphyry is placed as flourishing in the year 270, where I also place him; and I do so partly out of regard to Suidas, who, as before seen, says be Hourished in the time of Aurelian; whose reign commenced before the end of the year 270. Porphyry was then almost forty years of age; at that time he was in Sicily; but I do not recollect any thing that should determine the exact time when be published his work against the christians; for he might reside in Sicily some while; nor is there any reinaining evidence, that immediately after coming into that island he set about this work. But we know that it was answered by Methodius, whot is supposed to have suffered martyrdom in the year of Christ 311 or 312, near the end of Dioclesian's persecution, if not sooner. Eusebius flourished from the year 315, and after; but when his confutation of Porplıyry was published cannot be said exactly; I think itu was one of his first works, and might be published before he was bishop. Porphyry's long stay in Sicily was so well known, or so much talked of, thať Augustine seems to have thought it to be his native country.

Socrates, the ecclesiastical historian, has preserved a letter of Constantine, written soon after the council of Nice, which was held in 325. It is to this purpose :

• As Arius has • imitated the impious and profane, it is but just, that he should undergo the same infamy with them. As therefore Porphyry, that enemy of true piety, has received a fit reward for his impious writings against religion; so that . he is made infamous to all future times, and covered with "reproach, and his impious writings have been destroyed; so now it is decreed, that Arius and his followers should

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Apollinarius quoque uno grandi libro, hoc est, vicesimo sexto, &c. Præf. in Dan. T. iii. p. 1071. · H. E. I. vi. cap. 19. p. 219.

s De V. I. cap. 81. | See vol. iii. p. 184. u See, vol. iv. p. 73, 74.

-quia quidam philosophi eorum, sicut in libris suis Porphyrius Siculus prodidit, &c. De Consensu Evang. I. i. cap. 15. T. iii. p. 2.

-præsertim qui nonnullas earum a Porphyrio philosopho propositas dixit. Sed non eum esse arbitror Porphyrium Siculuin illum, cujus celeberrima est fama. Retract. I. ii. cap. 31. Tom i.

» Socr. l. i. cap. ix. p. 32.

be called Porphyrians, that they may bear the denoinina* tion of those whom they have imitated. And if any

writing of Arius is found, it should be burnt.' And what follows.

From which I think it may be concluded, that before that time there had been an order for destroying all the books of Porphyry against the christian religion. But that edict had not its full effect; for Apollinarius, who wrote so voluminous a confutation of Porphyry, did not flourish till after the middle of the fourth century; and Libanius, who lived at the same time, was pleased to give a preference to Julian's work against the christians to that of Porphyry, • the Tyrian old man,' as he calls him. Which implies a supposition, that he had read what Porphyry had written upon that subject, or at least that it was then extant. And Jerom, in his works written in the latter part of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth century, has made large extracts out of some parts of that work of Porphyry. Finally, there was a new edict y of Theodosius the younger in 449, for abolishing the works of Porpliyry ; which affords reason to believe, that they subsisted, and were in being, till that time.

There is another work which is now generally ascribed to Porphyry, and is quoted as his by Eusebius in bis Evangelical Preparation and Demonstration. It is entitled, • Of the Philosophy from Oracles.' I formerly declared my opiniona concerning it, that it is not genuine; before we conclude this chapter we shall bave occasion to speak more distinctly about that work.

II. The tirst passage of Porphyry which I shall transcribe, will be taken from Eusebius; who, in the sixth book of his Ecclesiastical History, speaking of Origen, says, that many

of the Greek philosophers, who were bis contemporaries, had made honourable mention of him, and some bad dedicated books to him. . But, as he adds, what need I • to insist on them, when Porphyry, who in our time, wbilst · he was in Sicily, wrote against us, and endeavoured to

disparage our scriptures, speaking of those who had inter'preted them, for want of arguments betakes himself to

railing, and reviles those interpreters, and among them • especially Origen; whom, as he says, when he was young, ' he was acquainted with. But let us hear his own words,



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* Vid. Socrat. H, E. I. iii. cap. 33. in. y See before, p. 206. Περι της εκλογιων φιλοσοφιας.

2 Vol. iv. p. 81. 6 “Οτε και ο καθ' ημας εν Σικελια κατασας, Πορφυριος, συγγραμματα καθ' ημων ενσησαμενος, κ. λ. Η. Ε. 1. vi. c. 19. p. 219



as he

* which are these: « Some,” says he, « determined not to * see the depravity of the Jewish scriptures, but to find out * a solution of objections that may be brought against them, « have adopted forced interpretations, inconsistent in thern* selves, and unsuitable to those writings, and such as • should not only be a vindication of those absurdities, but * afford likewise a recommendation of their own particular opinions. For having given out, that the things delivered plainly by Moses are types and allegories, and pretending • that those writings are inspired, and to be looked upon as oracles full of bidden mysteries; and having by this means captivated the judgments of men, they with a critical pride and vanity set forth their expositions." And after• wards d

goes on :

“ An example of this absurd • method may be observed in a man, whom I saw when I

was very young, who was then in great esteem, and is so still, for the writings which he has left bebind him; I * mean Origen, whose authority is very great with the teach

ers of this doctrine. For he being a bearer of Ammonius, • who was so eminent in our time for skill in philosophy, in

point of learning made great improvements by the instruc• tions of that master, but with regard to the right way of life took a quite different course from him. For Ammonius, a christian by birth, and brought up by christian * parents, as soon as he was arrived to maturity of age, and · bad gained a taste of philosophy, returned to the way of

life prescribed by the laws. But Origen, a Greek, and • educated in the Greek sentimnent, went over to the barba* rian temerity; to which the devoted himself, and corrupted * bimself, and the principles of literature which he had re“ ceived; as to his life, living as a christian, and contrary • to the laws ; with regard to his sentiments concerning things, and the Deity, a Greek, and joining Greek senti

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Της δε μοχθηριας των ιαδαϊκων γραφων . αποσασιν,

λυσιν δε

τινες εύρει: προθυμηθεντες, επ' εξηγησεις ετραποντο ασυγκλωσες και αναρμονες τους γεγραμμενοις απολογιας μαλλον υπερ των oθνειων, παραδοχην δε και επαινον τοις οικειοις φερεσας. Αινιγματα γαρ τα φανερως παρα Μωϋσει λεγομενα ειναι κομπασαντες, και επιθειασαντες ως θεσπισματα πληρη κρυφιων μυςηριων, δια τε τα τυφε το κριτικον της ψυχης καταγοητευσαντες, επαγεσιν εξηγησεις. Ιb. p. 219, 220.

Ακροατης γαρ ετος Αμμωνιά----εις μεν την των λογων εμπειριαν, πολλην παρα τα διδασκαλε την ωφελειαν εκτησατο εις δε την ορθην τ8 βια προαιρεσιν την εναντιαν εκεινω τ8 βια πορειαν αποιησατο. Αμμωνιος μεν γαρ--ευθυς προς την κατα νομες πολιτειαν μετεβαλετο. Ωριγενης δε, “Ελλην εν Ελλησι, παιδευθεις λογους προς το βαρβαρον εξωκειλε τολμημα και δε φερων αυτον τε και την εν τοις λογους έξιν εκαπηλευσεν κατα μεν τον βιον, χρισιανως ζων, και παρανομως κατα δε τας περι των πραγμάτων, και το θες δοξας, ελληιζων τε και τα Ελληνων τοις οθνειoις υποβαλλομενος μυθοις. Ιb. p. 220.

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