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I must add, that Longinus is quoted by Eusebius in his Evangelical Preparation, where he calls him a writer of our time. By Photius," in the place before referred to, he is called Longinus the critic. He is also mentioned by Jeroms and Theophylact ;t and with a view to his distinguishing excellence, his critical skill, upon whose judgment the sentences of all others depended. Not now to repeat any thing of Suidas, I take notice of this as a proof of the taste and candour of our christian ancestors; among whom, as well as among others, a judgment according to Longinus was a proverbial expression, denoting a right judgment.

Zenobia queen of the Palmyrens, who also called herself queen of the east,' contended with the Roman emperors after the death of her busband Odenatus, which happened year

267. In the end she was overcome, Palmyra was taken, and she also was taken prisoner; Aurelian" then sat in judgment upon her and her people in a place near the city Emesa ;" when he determined to give Zenobia her life, and reserve her to do honour to his triumph. Many of her officers and counsellors were condemned to suffer death, and among them Longinus, who was supposed to have dictated a letter of Zenobia to Aurelian, written, as the emperor thought, in a haughty strain. It is manifest from Vopiscus, that this judgment of Aurelian was disliked by many. However, at this time Longinus showed himself to be not a philologer only, but a pbilosopher, and * so died as to comfort those who bewailed his fate.

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ta mapa Aoyyive TW kad suas. Pr. Ev. lib. xv. p. 822, &c. Vid. et lib. x. cap. 3. p. 464.

Γ Ου το προοιμιον Λογγινος μεν ο κριτικος αγωνιςικον νομιζει. Cod. 265. p. 1470.

s Criticum diceres esse Longinum, Censoremque Romanæ facundiæ. Ad Rusticum, ep. 95. [al. 4.] p. 776.

* Μη μοι τας Λογγινε κρισεις περιαστε, μη και δοξης τισιν αυτος γε και kata Toyyivov Kpivelv. Theophyl. ep. xvii.

-επανελθων εις την Εμισαν, εις κρισιν ηγαγε Ζηνοβιαν τε και τ8ς ταυτη ovvapaueves. Zos. l. i. p. 659. in.

İngens tamen strepitus militum fuit omnium, Zenobiam ad pænam poscentium. Sed Aurelianus, indignum existimans mulierem interimi, occisis plerisque, quibus auctoribus illa bellum moverat, paraverat, gesserat, triumpho mulierem reservavit, ut populi Romani esset ostentui. Grave inter eos qui cæsi sunt, de Longino philosopho fuisse perhibetur, quo illa magistro usa esse ad Græcas literas dicitur ; quem quidem Aurelianus idcirco dicitur occidisse, quod superbior illa epistola ipsius dictata consilio, quamvis Syro esset sermone contexta. Vopisc. Aurelian. cap. 30. p. 486.

w I allude to a passage in Porphyry's Life of Plotinus : avayvwodevtos de αυτω τ8 τε περι αρχων Λογγινε, και τα Φιλαρχεια, φιλολογος μεν, εφη, ο Aoyylvos, piloooons de edauws. De Vit. Plotin. cap. 14. p. 116.

* Zos. I. i. p. 659.


II. I now proceed to observe some testimonies in the writings of this great critic.

1. In his Treatise of the Sublime, which we still have, but not complete, he says; .Soy the lawgiver of the Jews, • who was no ordinary man, having formed a just sentiment * concerning the power of the Deity, he also declared it in ' a suitable manner, thus writing in the beginning of his • Jaws: “ God said : Let there be light, and there was light. • Let the dry land appear, and it was so.'

Undoubtedly Longinus refers to the first chapter of the book of Genesis; and as he was convinced, that Moses

was no ordinary man,' and openly declared his high opinion concerning him, it may be reckoned not unlikely that he had read over his Pentateuch,

From this passage Casaubon, in his notes upon Vopiscus, argues, that Longinus? was a christian, or much inclined to

But that does not appear; for Longinus a swears by the gods as other heathens did ; we have proofs of it in some of his fragments undoubtedly genuine.

2. Beside this, there is a fragment of a work ascribed to him, which was first published by Dr. Hudson, and has been since repeated in the bishop of Rochester's edition of Longinus. It is to this purpose.

* And h for a conclusion of this whole discourse concerning Greek orators, and their manner of writing, I now just * mention Demosthenes, Lysias, Eschines, Aristides, Isæus, • Timarcbus, Isocrates, Demosthenes, Crithinus, and Xeno• phon, to whom must be added Paul of Tarsus, of whom I

may say, that he first excelled in an argument which is • not of the demonstrative kind.'

This fragment was received by Dr. Hudson from L. A.

be so.



Υ Ταυτη και ο των Ιεδαιων θεσμοθετης, εχ ο τυχων ανηρ, επειδη την τ8 θειο δυναμιν κατα την αξιαν εγνωρισε, καξεφηνεν, ευθυς εν τη εισβολη γραψας των νομών. .

Ειπεν ο θεος, φησι. Τι, Γενεσθω φως, και εγενετο γενεσθω γη, Kai eyeveto. De Sublim. cap. 9. p. 60. Toll.

2 Extat hodieque Longini Tepi ipes libellus vere aureolus, ex quo semichristianuin fuisse, non male fortasse colligas, propter illud quod facit de Mosis scriptis judicium. Casaub. ad Vopisc. cap. 30. p. 486.

-úsvn 785 Desc. Ep. Ad. Porph. De Vitâ Plotini, cap. 19. p. 122. Et inter Fragment. ap. Tollium, p. 250. Tu yap w mpos Dewv. Ap. Euseb. Pr. Ev. l. xv. p. 823. et inter Fragm. p. 254. Toll.

Κορωνις δ' εςω λογο παντος και φρονηματος Ελληνικα Δημοσθενης, Λυσιας, Αισχίνης, Αριστειδης, Ισαιος, Τιμαρχος, Ισοκρατης, Δημοσθενης ο και Κριθινος, Ξενοφων, προς τατους Παυλος ο Ταρσευς, ον τινα και πρωτον φημι προϊσαμεvov doyuaros avatOČELKT8. Longini Fragm. 1. apud Pearce. p. 259.

c Hoc Longini de Rhetoribus testimonium extat in præstantissimo codice Evangeliorum Bibliothecæ Vaticanæ Urbinatis, signato Num. 2. Quod mecum communicavit Laur. Alex. Zacagnius. Hudson.



Zacagni, wlio transcribed it from a very good manuscript of the gospels preserved in the Vatican library. But Fabricius plainly declares his opinion concerning this last clause relating to Paul of Tarsus, that it is not genuine; nor have I any thing to say in favour of its genuineness ; probably it was added by a christian.

3. However, I shall here insert some curious observations upon this fragment ascribed to Longinus, in which a testimony is given to St. Paul's abilities as an orator. I have received them from the learned Mr. James Merrick without any prohibition to publish them; and I believe my readers will be pleased with seeing them here.

• I transmit to you,' says Mr. Merrick, ' an observation • communicated to me in conversation some years since by

a very ingenious friend, which may deserve to be con• sidered in any future disquisition concerning the authen« ticity of the fragment. Δημοσθενης ο και Κριθινος is one of • the orators mentioned in it; by which person my friend • understood Dinarchus to be meant, alleging, that a con* mentator on Hermogenes (Syrianus, if I rightly remem• ber) affirms, that Dinarchus was called Ampoo evys Kpiovos, . whích name, as the above-mentioned gentleman supposed,

was designed to intimate, that the eloquence of Dinarchus • bore the same proportion to that of Demosthenes, that • barley bears to wheat. From this curious discovery, (for * such it seems) made by my learned friend, who also

added, that hordeaceus rhetor occurs in Suetonius de • Illustr. Rhetor. cap. 2. I am inclined to draw this con·clusion, That we owe the words, Anuo odevns o kao Kp.Ovos,

if they originally stood in the fragment, of which I ain speaking, not to Longinus, but to some less knowing • critic, who having somewhere met with Ampoc evns Kpioivos, was not aware, that it was a name given to Dinarchus, but thought that it had belonged to an orator whose real name was Demosthenes, and who was also called Kpiðivos, in order to distinguish himn from the more celebrated orator • of that name. If, therefore, we admit the fragment as

genuine, we should, I imagine, read Aelvapxos, o kai Anuocθενης Κριθινος.' · P. S. Not having an opportunity of consulting the com

IIĘPI OVVOEGEWS Noywv. Lib. de sublimi oratione, sect. 39. Longinus ipse testatur se de hac satis copiose tractâsse in duobus commentariis.---Extat et similis argumenti liber inter Dionysii Halicarnassei opera, de quo, lib. 3. cap. 32. Ex illis Longini petitum videtur testimonium de Rhetoribus, quod ex codice MSS. Vaticano Evangeliorum cum Hudsono Zacagnius communicavit.—Postrema de Paulo apostolo a christiano homine adjecta sunt. Fabric. Bib. Gr. 1. iv. cap. 31. T. iv. p. 445.

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*ments on Hermogenes, I have looked into Fabricius's • Bibliotheca Græca, and find there, Vol. iv. p. 434, Dinar• cbus mentioned in the Index of Authors quoted by Her

mogenes, and styled Hordeaceus Demosthenes. Again, in the same volume, p. 467, I find him inentioned in the • Index of Authors taken notice of in the Comments of · Hermogenes, (but placed by mistake after Diodorus,) by • the title of Kpiduos Demosthenes.'

Whether this fragment be rightly ascribed to Longinus or not, these observations will be allowed to be curious.




His testimony to the scriptures of the Old Testament. • NUMENIUS, of Apamea in Syria,' says Suidas, a

Pythagorean philosopher. This is the man who charged • Plato with stealing from the writings of Moses bis senti* ments concerning God, and the original of the world, saying: “ What is Plato, but Moses in Greek ?"!!

The same saying is in Clement of Alexandria. And b Numenius, the Pythagorean philosopher, writes expressly : 66 What is Plato, but Moses in Greek ?" ;

The same is also quoted from Clement by Eusebius c in his Evangelical Preparation.

Eusebius presently afterwardsd quotes the first and the * third book of Numenius concerning What is Good; Where • Numenius speaks of the rites and institutions of several * nations, particularly the Brachmaus, the Jews, the Ma'gians, and the Egyptians; and mentions Jaunes and • Jambres, two sacred Egyptian scribes, who, when the • Jews were expelled Egypt, being reckoned very skilful • in the magical art, were by common consente chosen to

Νεμηνιος, Απαμεος, απο Συριας, φιλοσοφος Πυθαγορειος. Ούτος εσιν το ΙΙλατωνος εξελεγξας διανοιαν, ώς εξ Μοσαϊκων τα περι θες και κοσμε γενέσεως αποσυλησασαν, και δια τετο φησι τι γαρ εσι Πλατων, η Μωσης αττικιζων και Suid. V. Neunvios.

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b Clem. Str. l. i. p. 342. Pa. p. 411. Oxon.

d Ib. cap. 7, et 8. p. 411. e Μεσαιω γεν, τω Ιεδαιων εξηγησαμενώ, ανδρι γενομενο, θεω ευξασθαι δυνατωτατω. 15.

c L. ix. cap.



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oppose Musæus, (meaning Moses,] who was very power'ful in his prayers with God, that they might remove the • calamities brought by him upon that country.'

Numenius is quoted several times by Origen in his books against Celsus; I shall take notice of those places by and by. He is also quoted twice or thrice by Theodoret. I do not recollect that he is at all quoted by Augustine in any of his works, nor by Cyril of Alexandria in his answer to the emperor Julian. Porphyry, as quoted by Eusebius, chargeth Origen with reading and borrowing from Plato, and Numenius, and Cronius. Porphyry says, thats the Commentaries of Severus, Cronius, Numevius, Gaius, and Atticus, Platonic philosophers, were read in the school of Plotinus. He likewise says in the same work, the Life of Plotinus, thath Amelius was very diligent in learning the opinions of Numenius, and out of them composed Commentaries of near an bundred books. Finally, Porphyry, in his book De Antro Nympharum, quotes i Numenius and his friend Cronius.

From Macrobius' we learn, that Numenius was reproached by some with having divulged or exposed the Eleusinian mysteries, and to be avenged of him, Ceres and Proserpine appeared to him in a very strange manner.

We now return to Origen; who quotes! the first book of Nomenius the Pythagorean, concerning What is Good, or Concerning the Good; andm a book of his concerning the Immortality of the Soul. And still once more after this manner: . In know also that Numenius, a skilful commen

tator upon Plato, and well acquainted with the Pythagorean . doctrines, in many places of his writings has quoted the


συνην γαρ αει το πλατωνι-τοις τε Νομηνια και Κρονια. Η. Ε. 1. vi. cap. 19. p. 220.

8 De Vita Plotini, cap. xiv. Ibid. cap. iii.

Νομηνιος και ο τοτε εταιρος Κρονιος. De Antro Nymph. p. 263. Vid. et p.

271. k Numenio denique inter philosophos occultorum curiosiori offensam numinum, quod Eleusinia sacra interpretando vulgaverit, somnia prodiderunt, visas sibi ipsas Eleusinias Deas habitu meretricio ante apertum lupanar ludere prostantes, &c. Macrob. Somnium Scip. I. i. cap. 2. p. 9. | Contr. Cels. I. i. p. 13. sect. 15. in Ibid. I. v. p. 269. sect. 57.

Εγω δ' οιδα και Νομηνιον τον Πυθαγορειον-.-πολλαχε συγγραμμάτων αυτά εκτιθεμενον τα Μωϋσεως και των προφητων, και εκ απιθανως αυτα τροπoλoγοντα, ώσπερ εν τω καλεμενη, Εποπι, και εν τοις περι Αριθμων, και εν τοις

Εν δε τριτο περι τ' αγαθα εκτιθεται και περι τ8 Ιησε ισοριαν τινα, το ονομα αυτ8 8 λεγων, και τροπολογει αυτην ποτερον δ' επιτετευγμενως, η αποτετευγμενως, αλλα καιρ8 εςιν ειπειν. Αλλ' 8κ εν εκεινη σεμνυνομεθα ' αποδεχομεθα δ' αυτον μαλλον Κελσα και αλλων Ελληνων, βεληθεντα φιλομαθως και τα ημετερα εξετασαι, και κινηθεντα ώσπερ τροπολογεμενων, και 8 μωρων ovyypaypatwv. Ib. 1. iv. p. 198. sect. 51.


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