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our religion forbids men to offer themselves to sufferings, * and since it is contrary to your own laws, they cannot offer * themselves; but they may be found if inquired after. • Paternus the proconsul said; They shall be found by me. . And he added; The emperors have also ordered, that no 6 assemblies should be held in the coemeteries, and that none enter into those places. If therefore any one does
not observe this wholesome command, he shall be put to • death. Cyprian the bishop answered; Do as you are * commanded. Then Paternus the proconsul ordered, that Cyprian the bishop should be carried into exile.'
His deacon Pontius accompanied him to the place of his exile, where he arrived on the thirteenth or fourteenth of September, in the same year, 257.
About the same time many others suffered in Africa, upon account of their profession of christianity. For we have a letter of Cyprian,t written during the time of his being at Curubis, which is inscribed to nine bishops. by
name, and beside them to others, presbyters, deacons, and * the rest of the brethren in the mines, martyrs of God the * Father Almighty, and Jesus Christ our Lord.'
Whilst Cyprian continued at Curubis, Galerius Maximusu succeeded Paternus as proconsul of Africa. He recalled Cyprian from his banishment; who then went to his gardens or country-house near Carthage, by orders, as it seems, of the proconsul.
Moreover, as there were many uncertain reports in Africa, Cyprian' had sent to Rome, and received thence some in
? Ep. 76. al. 77.
Cumque diu ibidem moraretur, successit Aspasio Paterno proconsuli Galerius Maximus proconsul. Act. Pass. p. 12.
Ý Sciatis autem eos venisse, quos ad Urbein propter hoc miseram, ut quomodocumque de nobis rescriptum fuisset, exploratam sibi veritatem ad nos referant. Multa enim varia et incerta opinionibus ventilantur. Quæ autem sunt in vero, ita se habent. Rescripsisse Valerianum ad senatum, ut episcopi, et presbyteri, et diaconi in continenti animadvertantur ; Senatores vero, et viri egregii, equites Ronani, dignitate amissa, etiam bonis spolientur, et, si ademtis facultatibus christiani esse perseveraverint, capite quoque multentur; Matronæ ademtis bonis in exilium relegentur ; Cæsariani, quicumque vel prius confessi fuerant, vel nunc confessi fuerint, confiscentur, et vincti in Cæsarianas possessiones descripti mittantur. Subjecit etiam Valerianus imperator orationi suæ exemplum literarum, quas ad præsides provinciarum de nobis fecit; quas literas quotidie speramus venire, stantes secundum fidei firmitatem ad passionis tolerantiam, et expectantes de ope et indulgentiâ Domini vitæ æternæ coronam. Xistum autem in cæmeterio animadversum sciatis, octavo iduum Augustarum die et cum eodem Quartum. Set et huic persecutioni quotidie ins stunt præfecti in Urbe; ut, si qui sibi oblati fuerint, animadvertantur, et bona eorum fisco vindicentur. Hæc peto per vos ut collegis nostris innotescant, ut ubique hortatu eorum possit fraternitas corrohorari, et ad agonem spiritalem præparari, &c. Cyp. ep. 79. al. 80.
telligence which might be relied upon, and was to this etfect; that the emperor Valerian had ordered, by a re
script sent to the senate, that bishops, presbyters, and deacons, should be put to death without delay; that senators, and persons of quality, and Roman knights, should • be deprived of their dignity and their goods; if after that
they persist in being christians, they should be beheaded; • tbat ladies of quality should be deprived of their goods, * and sent into exile; that the emperor's freedmen, who . have confessed, or shall herenfter confess, shall lose their • goods, which are to be seized by the treasury; and that
they be sent chained to the emperor's estate, and that they • be put in the list of slaves to work there. To his own re
script the emperor Valerian has subjoined copies of letters • to be sent to the presidents of the provinces; which letters we daily expect, standing prepared for the trial, and
hoping to obtain, through the divine aid and goodness, * the crown of eternal life. We are also assured, that Xistus • [the bishop of Rome] was put to death in the cemetery
on the sixth day of August, and with him Quartus. • also learn, that the præfects in the city are intent to exe* cute the emperor's orders; and if any are brought before
them, they are punished, and their goods confiscated. These ' things, says Cyprian in bis letter to Successus, I am de* sirous should be made known by you to my brethren, that 'all may be prepared for the combat that now lies before us.
When those orders for the governors of the provinces arrived at Carthage is not certain ; but very probably before the end of August. Galerius Maximus the proconsul, who had succeeded
Cumque diu ibidem moraretur, successit Aspasio Paterno proconsuli Galerius Maximus proconsul, qui sanctum Cyprianum episcopum ab exilio revocatum sibi jussit præsentari
. Cumque Cyprianus sanctus---de civitate Cucurbitanâ, in quâ exilio præcepto Aspasii Paterni tunc proconsulis datus fuerat, regressus esset, ex sacro præscripto in hortis suis manebat.-Et cum illic demoraretur, repente Idibus Septembris, Tusco et Basso consulibus, venerunt ad eum principes duo,-qui et in curriculum eum levaverunt, in inedioque posuerunt, et in Sexti perduxerunt, ubi idem Galerius Maximus proconsul, bonæ valetudinis recuperandæ gratiâ, secesserat.--Cumque oblatus fuisset, Galerius Maximus proconsul dixit : Tu Papam te sacrilegæ mentis hominibus præbuisti ? Cyprianus episcopus respondit : Ego. Galerius Maximus dixit : Jusserunt te sacratissimi imperatores cæremoniari. Cyprianus episcopus dixit: Non facio. Galerius Maximus ait : Consule tibi. Cyprianus episcopus respondit: Fac quod tibi præceptum est. In re tam justá nulla est consultatio. Galerius Maximus, collocutus cun consilio, sententiam vix ægre dixit verbis hujusmodi : Diu sacrilegâ mente vixisti, et plurimos nefariæ tibi conspirationis homines aggregâsti.--Et his dictis, decretum ex tabellâ recitavit; 'Thasicum Cyprianum gladio animadverti placet. Cyprianus episcopus dixit; Deo gratias. Apost. p. 12, 13.
Paternus, was at Sexti, a place about six miles from Carthage, for the sake of his health. On the 13th day ' of September, [A. C. 258,] an officer with soldiers was sent
by the proconsul to Cyprian's gardens, where he bad • been soine while, to bring him before bim. Cyprian's
cause was deferred for that day. The next morning, the • 14th of September, he was led to the proconsul's palace, • surrounded by a inixed multitude of people, and a strong * guard of soldiers. After some time the proconsul came out into the hall, and Cyprian being set before him, he said; Are you Thascius Cypriau ? Cyprian the bishop 6 answered; I am. Galerius Maximus the proconsul said; • The most sacred emperors have commanded you to sacri• fice. Cyprian the bishop answered ; I do not sacrifice.
Galerius Maximus said ; Be well advised. Cyprian the bishop answered ; Do as thou art commanded. In so * just a cause there needs no consultation. The proconsul • having advised with his council, spoke to Cyprian in ' angry terms, as being an enemy to the gods, and a se• ducer of the people. And then read his sentence out of a • tablet; It is decreed, that Thascius Cypriau be beheaded. Cyprian the bishop said; God be praised.'
That is the account in the Acts of his passion, which I have translated literally; and Pontius* writes to the like purpose. Cyprian was then led away to the field of Sexti, a large level spot of ground, encompassed with trees, the boughs of which were theu loaded with spectators. And in the presence of a great multitude of people Cyprian was there beheaded, according to the sentence pronounced upon bim, on Sept. 14, in the year of Christy 258.
VII. I have set before my readers some authentic memoirs of Valerian's persecution from Dionysius of Alexandria, and Cyprian of Carthage. There is another remarkable story in Eusebius, which must not be omitted.
. In the mean time,' says Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History, ' when peace had been restored to all the churches * every where, Marinus, a military man, and eminent upon
account of his birth and riches, suffered martyrdom for · Christ at Cæsarea in Palestine. A centurion's place was • vacant; he put up for that office, to which he had a claim
by the order of his promotions. When he was about to ' receive that honour, another appeared before the tribunal, 'asserting, that according to the ancient laws of the * S. Cyprian. Vit. p. 9, 10.
y If any are desirous to see the history of this bishop of Carthage more at large, they may consult vol. iii. p. 1-15.
L. vii. cap. 15.
Romans, Marinus could not be admitted into that office, • forasınucha as he was a christian, and did not sacrifice to * the emperors; and that the office did of right belong to him. Achæus the judge, being much moved, asked • Marinus what were his sentiments. Perceiving that he . confidently affirmed he was a christian, he allowed bim the space
of three hours to consider of the matter. When the • three hours were expired, he returned to the tribunal. * And when called upon again to deliver his sentiments, he * made a profession of the faith with greater cheerfulness • than before. Whereupon he was immediately had out to * be put to death, and so was perfected.'
Eusebius adds,“ Then Asturius, who is still celebrated • for religious zeal and courage, a Roman senator, and in * esteem with the emperors, who was present at the death * of the martyr, taking up the body, laid it upon his shoul
ders, and covering it with a rich cloth carried it off, and 6 interred him in a decent manner.'
Mr. Mosheim'so observations upon this remarkable history are to this purpose. • Marinus was not condemned by • the edict of Valerian, which had been abrogated by Gallienus, but by the ancient law of Trajan; for an accuser was received. The man who confessed bimself to be a * christian was required to renounce the faith: when he
would not, he was without delay led out to punishment. • Ind this instance therefore it is apparent, that the ancient laws of the emperors against the christians still retained their force, though milder had been enacted; And therefore under merciful emperors, who were lovers of peace, the presidents might punish christians, who were accused, and • confessed theinselves such. The body of Marinus was * carried off by Asturius, a Roman senator, and buried
nor did he suffer for it; the reason is, that by Trajan's • law the judge had no right to punish any but such as were accused; and there was nobody wlio was willing, or who
dared, to accuse so considerable and honourable a man as 6 Asturius was.'
Χρισιανω γε οντι, και τους βασιλευσι μη θυοντι. Ιb. p. 263. C. b Ibid. cap. 16.
c De Reb. &c. p. 557. d Ex hoc igitur exemplo liquet, antiquas imperatorum in christianos leges, aliis etiam et mitioribus latis, vim suam retinuisse, et præsides propterea etiam sub clementibus imperatoribus, pacisque temporibus, in christianos accusatos et fassos animadvertere potuisse. Cadaver Marini Asturius, Senator Romanus, vir maxinæ auctoritatis, humeris suis auferebat, et sepulturæ tradebat; idque faciebat impune ac sine periculo. Ratio in promptu est. Sine accusatore judici non licebat punire ex Trajani lege. Tanti autem nominis et dignitatis virum, amicum præterea imperatoruin, nemo accusare vel volebat vel audebat. Moshem. ibid.
I. His history and time. II. His testimony to St. John's
gospel, with remarks.
1. THE next testimony will be the noted passage of Anelius, a Platonic philosopher, fellow-disciples and intiinate acquaintance of Porphyry, who wrote against the christians. Amelius, as Suidas says, was of Apamea. Porphyry in the Life of Plotinus calls him a Tuscan ; but then he expressly says, thatd when Plotinus died, Amelius was at Apamea in Syria; which may give occasion to think, that he was originally of that place, though perhaps he was born in Tuscany. Moreover Porphyry mentions a book of his inscribede to Hesychius of Apamea, whom he had adopted for his son. His proper name, as we also learn from Porphyry, was Gentilian; and he chose to have his surname written with an r, Amerius, as indeed it is in Eunapius, and not Amelius; the last in Greek denoting negligence, the former integrity. According to Porphyry's account, he was the most studious and laborious of all the disciples of Plotinus,s with whom he spent twentyfour years at Rome, from the third year of Pbilip to the first of Claudius, that is, from the year of Christ 246, to the beginning of the year 269. . Ameliusli was a diligent oba Vid. Eunap. de Vita Porphyr. p. 19, 20.
Αμελιος, Απαμεος, φιλοσοφος, μαθητης Πλωτινό, διδασκαλος Πορφυριε, συγχρονισας Αμμονιμ και Ωριγενη. Suid.
ακροατας μεν πλειες ζηλωτας δε και δια φιλοσοφιαν συνοντας, Αμελιoν τε απο της Τυσκιας, και το ονομα ην Γεντιλιανος το κυριον αυτος δε δια το Ρ Αμεριoν αυτον καλει, απο της Αμεριας η της Αμελειας πρεπειν αυτω καλεισθαι λεγων. Porph. de Vita Plotin. cap. vii. ap. Fabr. Bib. Gr. Τ. iv. p. 104.
Τελευτωντι δε αυτω, εγω μεν ο ΙΙορφυριος ετυγχανον εν Λιλυβαιη διατριβων, Αμελιος δε εν Απαμεια της Συρίας. Ιb. cap. 2. p. 95. . τα Ιεσινω Ησυχιω τω Απαμει, όν υιον εθετο, κεχαρισαι. Ιb. cap. 3. Ρ
-φιλοπονια δε υπερβαλλομενος, των κατ' αυτον παντων. Ιb. cap. 3.
8 Προηλθε δε αυτώ ο Αμελιος, τριτον ετος αγοντι εν Ρωμη κατα το τριτον της Φιλιππε βασιλειας ετος, και αχρι το πρωτο της Κλαυδια βασιλειας παραμεινας, ετη όλα συγγεγονεν εικοσι και τεσσαρα. Ιbid.
Φιλοθυτε δε γεγονότος τα Αμελιά, και τα ιερα κατα νεμενιαν, και τας εορτας εκπεραιοντος και ποτε αξιεντος τον Πλωτινον συν αυτω παραβαλέειν, εφη" εκεινες δει προς εμε ερχεσθαι, εκ εμε προς εκεινος. κ. λ. Ιb. cap. x. 111, 112.