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gating the christian religion, from the influence of the philosophers, and sophists of this time; who were in great favour with the Roman emperors, and received from them handsome stipends for instructing youth, and had a great interest with the people in Greece, and at Alexandria, and in many cities in Asia.
Ælius Aristides, from whoin some extracts have been now made, was a fine writer, and a good speaker. He is credalous and superstitious, a true heathen, and a servant of the gods; but, so far as I have observed, he may be supposed a sober man, and serious. There are in his orations many fine sentences in favour of truth and virtue. If he says, hef bad rather be a fine speaker, than be Darius the son of Hystaspes, he joins with it a sober and virtuous life. And again, in another place, where he expresseth his superior value for learning and eloquence above all things, he says: · Norę can be be so stupid as to despise glory if it comes to his share, and so far as it may flow from fine speaking, and a life of virtue suited to his discourses. For he did not desire to obtain it by any other means.'
A character of such eminence must have been an ornament to the popular religion, and its rites; and the charms of eloquence in his hymns to the gods, and in his other orations, cannot but have bad powerful attractions.
V. I do not intend to make any distinct chapter of the sophist Dion; but I shall give a general account of him. Suidas h says, he was the son of Pisicrates, born at Prusa, a sophist, and a philosopher, and called Chrysostom. Both he and Philostratus i say, that he was much favoured by the emperor Trajan, who took him up into his triumphal chariot, and told him, that he loved him as well as himself. Eunapiusk also says, he was of Bithynia, and was called Chry
We still have remaining his eighty Orations, mene The stipends of the philosopliers and sophists, at Athens and other places, by appointment of Vespasian at first, and then of Antoninus the pious, and Marcus Antoninus, he computes to have been ten thousand Attic drachms, or 3201. per annum of our money. See p. 59–61.
Πλην γε τοσοτ' αν ειπoιμι----ως εγω δεξαιμην αν δυνασθαι λεγειν μετα χρης8 βια και σοφρονος εις όσον οιον τε καλλισα ανθρωπων μαλλον, η μυριακές Δαρειος ο Υπασπε γενεσθαι και μικρα μου πανθ' ώς αληθως προς τετ' ηδη Baivetal. Or. Platon. 2da. T. ii. p. 135. al. 224.
5 Αλλα μην υπερ γε της δοξης 8τω διενοήθην, απαντωσαν μεν αυτην δεχεσΟαι και σεργειν, η γαρ αν πανταπασι βλαξ ειην τις πραγματευσθαι δε μηδεν εις αυτην εξω των λογων αυτων, και περι τον βιον ορθοτητος συμφων8 τετοις. Or. contr. Proditores Mysterior. T. ii. p. 421. al. 724.
i De Vit. Sophistar. I. i. cap. vii. Και Διων, ο εκ Βιθυνιας, όν επεκαλεν Χρυσοσομον. Εunap. De Vit. Sophistar. in Pr. p. 11.
h V. Διων. , K
tioned by! Photius, of which a particular account may be seen in Fabricius. Photius" says, he flourished in the time of Trajan. To the like purpose Suidas and Pbilostraus. I therefore place him in the year 98, the first of that emperor's reign; though he was also in favour with Nerva, as we know fromo himself. Whether he be the same as Cocceianus Dion, mentioned by Pliny p in a letter to Trajan, and in Trajan's9 rescript, is not quite certain.
I shall take but one passage from him; for which I am indebted toq Dr. Chapman; but I shall quote it more at large than he has done. In an oration to the Corinthians he speaks with great vehemence: Whom' have not these mer abused,' says he,' who abuse every thing? Have they not abused Socrates, and Pythagoras, and Plato ? Have they not abused Jupiter himself, and Neptune, and Apollo, and the other gods ? Nor liave they spared the female gods, though, as one might reasonably think, they should have more regard for them than the males. Hear then what they say of Ceres, and Venus, and Aurora; nor do they forbear Minerva and Diana.'
Dr. Chapınan makes no doubt that by these men Dion ineant the christians, who, it seems, had talked contemp
tuously of the gods of the first rank. I am also inclined to be of the same opinion. And I think, that this passage of Dion, together with some others which we have seen, may satisfy us, that the christians were better known in those times than some have imagined. And we cannot help thinking therefore, that the silence of Epictetus about our ancestors, or his disregard of them, was designed and affected, as was also intimated formerly. Indeed the words of St. Paul concerning himself, and other apostles, were often verified in other followers of Jesus after their times. “ As deceivers, yet true; as unknown, yet well known-as poor, yet making many rich," 2 Cor. vi. 8–10. Again : “ Always bearing about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus; that the life of Jesus might be made manifest in our body," 2 Cor. iv. 10, and see also ver. 11.
i Cod. 209. p. 530.
in Bib. Gr. T. iii. p. 305. Π Ηκμαζε δε κατα τας χρονες το βασιλεως Τραιανε. Ut supr. p. 530. • Or. 44. p. 512. Or. 45. p. 513.
1 Lib. x. ep. 85. 9 Ep. 86.
" As before, p. 63. 8 Τινας γαρ οτοι και διαβεβληκασιν οι παντα διαβαλoντες ; 8 Σωκρατης ; 8 ΙΠυθαγοραν; 8 Πλατωνα και 8κ αυτον τον Δια; και τον Ποσειδω; και τον Απολλω, και τες αλλες θεες; Απτονται δε και των θελειων θεων, ών εικος ην ετι μαλλον, η των αρρενων εντρεπεσθαι. Νυν ακgετε γαρ ά λεγεσι την Δημητρα, και την Αφροδιτης, και την Εω. Απεχονται δ' εδε της Αθηνας, 8δε της ApTEmdoc. Corinthiac. Or. 37. p. 463.
I. His time. II. Passages concerning Moses, and Christ,
and the christians.
I. CLAUDIUS GALENUS, or GALEN, the celebrated physician, according to Suidas, was a native of Pergamus, and flourished in the times of the Roman emperors, Marcus, Commodus, and Pertinax, and died in the seventieth year of his age. Philip Labbe in his life, or Elogium Chronologicum of Galen, inserted by Fabriciusb in the third tome of his Bibliotheca Græca, computes, that he was born in the 131st year of the christian epoch, and in the 14th or 15th year of the emperor Adrian, anda that he died in the seventh year of Severus, of Christ 200, when he was seventy years of age.
Some other learned mene have been inclined to protract his life to the year of our Lord 210, near the end of the reign of Severus.
I shall place him at the year of our Lord 180, and the last year of the emperor Marcus Antoninus, to whom he was well known, and by whom he was esteemed ; at which time he must have been about fifty years of age.
II. This great author has mentioned Moses, Christ, and his followers.
1. He has twice nientioned our Saviour.
a Suid. V. rainvoç. Photius. Cod. 164. p. 349. Tillem. L'Emp. Sévère. art. 31. Moreri, Dictionnaire, et Supplement. Gallien.
b Bib. Gr. 1. iv. cap. 17. T. iii. p. 509, &c.
c Claudius Galenus, omnium medicorum, post Hippocratem, facile princeps, atque optimi Imperatoris judicio, γνησιος ιατρος και μονος φιλοσοφος, Niconis eruditissimi--filius, natus est Pergami in Asiâ, -----anno reparatæ per Christum salutis, circiter cxxxi. Hadriani Imperatoris xiv. vel. xv. labente. Labb. Elog. Chronolog. Galeni. num. i. ap. Fabric. B. G. T. iii. p. 510.
eam opinor, ex omnibus de obitu Galeni probabiliorem videri sententiam, quæ illum addicit anno imperii Severi vii. Christi cc. vitæ illius lxx. Id. ib. num. xx. p. 527.
Basnag. Ann. 210. num. v. And see Tillemont, as referred to at note a.
demonstration, nor so much as a probable reason of some things advanced by him. So that, says he, we seem rather to be in a school of Moses, or Christ, where we must receive laws without any reason assigned, and that in a point where demonstration ought not by any means to be omitted.'
Here is a just description of Christ's delivering his precepts without any long deduction of reasons and arguments; and he allows, that reasons were not there absolutely necessary, or however not so requisite, as in the points treated of by the author whom be censures. I think, we may be hence disposed to think it probable, that Galen was not unacquainted with our gospels.
2. In another place he says: “Its is easier to convince the disciples of Moses and Christ, than physicians and philosophers, who are addicted to particular sects.
Here is an acknowledgment of the steadiness of christians in the profession of their principles; of which he may have seen many instances in the persecuting reign of Antoninus the Philosopher.
3. There is a work concerning Nephritic Disorders, which is ascribed to Galen, in which the author mentions the christians, and ranks himself with them; but as it is not Galen's, I do not choose to take any thing from it.
4. And in his celebrated work, concerning the use of the parts of the human body,' he has mentioned Moses. It will be sufficient, that I transcribe below the accounti which Fabricius has given of the passages of that work relating to Moses; whence it may be argued, that Galen had read the Pentateuch, or at least the book of Genesis. παραμυθιαν γεν ικανην, τω λογω, περι των οκτω ποιοτητων, ίνα μητις ευθυς κατ' αρχάς, ώς εις Μωϋσε και Xρισα διατριβην αφικμενος, αναποδεικτων ακεη, kai Taura xv ois raisa xpy. De Differentiâ Pulsuuin. I. ii. p. 22. Basil. 1538.
και θαττον γαρ αν τις τ8ς απο Μωϋσε και Χρισ8 μεταδιδαξειν, η τες ταις αίρεσεσι προςετηκοτας ιατρός τε και φιλοσοφες. Ιd. ib. lib. iii. p. 34.
Διαγνωσις των εν νεφροις παθων, και θεραπεια. Liber Galeno ascriptus. Dignotio morborum in renibus, eorumque curatio--Christiani scriptoris est, forte Demetrii Pepagomeni ad Imperatorem, cujus archiatrum ovvdelov suuin vocat, &c. Fabric. B. G. T. iii. p. 531.
De Usu Partium Corporis humani.] Möysem melius Epicuro scripsisse fatetur. xi. 14. Etsi persuadere sibi homo ethnicus non potuit, Deum facere posse quæcumque velit, ex cinere equum et bovem, ex lapide hominem, e materiâ corruptibili animalia immortalia, xiv. 2. Fabric. ib. p. 549, 550.
CONCLUSION OF THE SECOND CENTURY.
1. Heathen sayings of the christians. II. Anecdotes con
cerning divers heathen governors of provinces, who persecuted the christians, or were favourable to them. III. Remarks concerning the number of ancient heathen writers, who have mentioned the christians.
I. I THINK it not amiss to put down in this place, at the end of the second century, some sayings and observations of heathen people concerning christians; which may be of use to show how far the heathens were acquainted with them, their character, their principles, or their sufferings.
Tertullian, who flourished about the year of Christ 200, in his Apology observes to this purpose: Sucha are your prejudices,' says he,' that though you cannot but acknow
ledge the good character of a christian, yet you will re• proach him for his religion. “ Truly," says one,“ Caius . Seius is a good man, only he is a christian.' Another will say:
“ I wonder that Lucius, who is so wise a man, should on a sudden turn christian.";
II. I will also put down here some anecdotes concerning divers heathen governors of provinces, who had some concerns with christians,
1. In his book addressed to Scapula, the proconsul of Africa, Tertullian expresseth himself in this manner : . Web
can set before you,' says he, “the deaths of several go• vernors of provinces, who at the end of their days were
* Quid? quod ita plerique clausis oculis in odium ejus impingunt, ut bonum alicui testimonium ferentes admisceant nominis exprobrationem : Bonus vir Caius Seius, tantum quod christianus. Item alius : Ego miror Lucium, sapientem virum, repente factum christianum. Ap. cap. 3. p. 4.
• Possumus æque et exitus quorundam præsidum tibi proponere, qui in fine vitæ suæ recordati sunt deliquisse, quod vexâssent christianos. Vigellius Saturninus, qui primus hic gladium in nos egit, lumina amisit. Claudius Herminianus in Cappadociâ, cum indigne ferens uxorem suam ad hanc sectam transisse, christianos crudeliter tractasset, solusque in Prætorio suo vastatus peste cum vivis vermibus ebullîsset ; Nemo sciat, aiebat, ne spe gaudeant christiani. Postea, cognito errore suo quod tormentis quosdam a proposito suo excidere fecisset, pene christianus decessit. Cæcilius Capella, in illo exitu Byzantino, Christiani, gaudete, exclamavit. Sed et qui videntur sibi impune Tulisse, venient in diem divini judicii. Ad. Scap. cap. 3. p. 86.