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lated these letters into Latin, and in the main embraced Mr. Moyle's sentiments. But I am assured, by those who are likely to know the truth, “ that Mr. King, who disputed • with Mr. Moyle, was a clergyman, and minister of Topsham near Exeter; which last was the place of his nativity, as well as Sir Peter's. He is the same King to whom Mr. Locke wrote some letters, which are in the post· humous collection of his letters, published by Mr. Collings. He is there styled the Reverend Mr. King:

It is pity that the person who corresponded with Mr. Moyle, upon so curious a subject, should be so little known. Mr. King and Mr. Moyle must have been intimate friends; for Mr. Moyle's Dissertation upon the age of the Philopatris was sent to the saine person in several letters.

Since writing what is above, I have received an authentic account from a gentleman personally acquainted with Mr. Moyle. It is in these words: Mr. Moyle's correspondent • in the affair of the thundering legion was Mr. Richard * King, vicar of Topsbam. Mr. Moyle died in 1721 ; Mr. King survived him many years.

CHAP. XVI.

APULEIUS OF MADAURA IN AFRICA.

1. His history, time, and works. II. Passages relating to

the christians. II). Miracles ascribed to him. IV. The design of his metamorphosis, or golden ass.

I. LUCIUS APULEIUSа of Madaura in Africa, a Platonic philosopher, flourished in the times of the emperors Antoninus the pious and M. Antoninus the philosopher. Madaura was a Roman colony, and his family was considerable. Hec appears to have had an insatiable thirst for

a Vid. Fabr. Bib. Lat. 1. 3. cap. ii. T. i. p. 514, &c. Apuleii Vita et Scripta, ex Wowero, ap. Apul. in usum Delphin. Basnag. Ann. 163. n. v. Tillemont L'Emp. Marc. Aurèle. sect. 32. Bayle Dictionnaire, Apulée.

b In quâ coloniâ patrem habui loco principe Duumviralem, cunctis honoribus perfunctum. Apol. p. 444. And farther see Bayle, as above, note a.

c Vid. Apul. Ap. p. 442. et Florida. I. 4. num. 18. p. 813. et num. 20

p. 831.

knowledge, and studied at Carthage, Athens, and Rome. He was the author of inany works, diversa of which still remain inonuments of great learning and ingenuity.

He had married a rich widow, nained Prudentilla, against the will of her first husband's relations, which occasioned him a great deal of trouble. They accused him of the practice of magical arts to gain her consent. He pleaded for himself before Claudius Maximus, proconsul of Asia, who had been consul of Rome in the year of Christ 144: which has induced learned men to place Apuleius as flourishing about the year 163.

II. Apuleius seems to have had soine knowledge of the christians and their affairs.

The first place which I shall quote will be taken from his Metamorphosis, or the Ass, or the Golden Ass, as it is sometimes called; which is a fabulous story, wherein are represented many events observed by him, and disasters that befell him, whilst in the shape of an ass, enjoying human understanding. He could see, and hear, and observe; but he could not speak with human voice.

1. Among his many adventures in this state one is this : · Hes was sold to a baker; who,' as he says,

was a very good sort of a man, but he had a very bad wife, who so abused her husband, that he could not but lament his unhappy condition as well as his own. She had every vice without any thing agreeable. She was perverse, ill-natured, obstinate, given to drinking, she robbed her husband, was

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a Metamorphosis, sive Lusus Asini. Pro se apud Cl. virum, Cl. Maximum Proconsulem Apologia. De Habitudine Doctrinarum Platonis Philosophi. De Deo Socratis. De Mundo. Florida.

Ego vero, quanquain perfectus asinus, et pro Lucio jumentum, sensum tamen retinebam humanum. Metam. I. 3. p. 95.

f-sed jam humano gestu simul et voce privatus. Ibid.

6 Pistor ille, qui me pretio suum fecerat, bonus alioqui vir, et apprime modestus, pessimam et ante cunctas mulieres longe deterrimam sortitus conjugem, pænas extremas tori larisque sustinebat; ut, hercule, ejus vicem ego quoque tacitus frequenter ingemiscerem. Nec enim ullum vitium nequissimæ illi feminæ deerat : sed omnia prorsus, ut in quandam conosam latrinam, in ejus animum flagitia confluxerant. Scæva, sæva, vitiosa, ebriosa, pervicax, pertinax, in rapinis turpibus avara, in sumtibus turpibus profusa, inimica fidei, hostis pudicitiæ. Tunc spretis, atque calcatis divinis numinibus, in vicem certæ religionis, mentitâ sacrilegâ præsumtione Dei, quem prædicaret unicum, confictis, observationibus vacuis, fallens omnes homines, et miserum maritum decipiens, inatutino mero et continuo stupro corpus manicipârat. Talis illa mulier miro me persequebatur odio. Nam et anteluculo recubans adhuc, subjungi machinæ novitium clamabat asinum ; et statim, ut cubiculo primum processerat, insistens jubebat incoram sui plagas mihi quamplurimas irrogari; et cum tempestivo prandio laxarentur jumenta cætera, longe tardius applicari præsepio jubebat. Metam. 1. 9. p. 282

at noon.

profuse in her expenses, and unchaste; and moreover, slighting the immortal gods and their worship, instead of the true religion she adopted a false and sacrilegious opinion concerning the Deity, which she said was one only, and practised vain observances, deceiving all men, and especially her miserable husband, and devoting herself to drinking and lewdness from morning to night. The mistress being such a woman, she was very severe to the new-bought ass. She took care he should be early put to the mill; nor would she let him be released when the other cattle were

And what follows.' There can be no doubt that Apuleius here designs to represent a christian woman. And, as he was pleased to prolong his fiction with a great variety of incidents, we are not to wonder that he brought in this character. The christians at that time, being under persecution, often had their religious solemnities, and particularly the eucharist, early in the morning. Therefore Apuleius charges this woman with • getting up early to drink. And as their assemblies for divine worship were then private, and sometimes in the night season, he charges her with lewdness. It is also very likely that christian people were often charged with “ robbing their husbands—to give to poor christians or their ministers. It cannot be thought very strange that, in such a work as this, Apuleius should gratify his own malice, and divert his reader with the character of a christian, dressed up agreeably to the common reports which prevailed among their enemies.

2. I now proceed to another place, which is in the apology; where Apuleius, having mentioned his own initiations into the mysteries of several deities, be goes on : · Buth I know some, and especially that Emilian, brother of Prudentilla's first husband, by whom the present accusation was carried on, who laughs at all these things and derides them; for, as I hear, from the accounts of those who know them well, he has never yet made supplication to any god,

h Atqui ego scio nonnullos, et cum primis Æmilianum istum, facetiæ sibi habere res divinas deridere. Nam, ut audio, percensentibus iis qui istum novere, nulli Deo ad hoc ævi supplicavit : si fanum aliquod prætereat, nefas habet, adorandi gratiâ, manum labris admovere. Iste vero nec Diis rurationis, qui enim pascunt ac vestiunt, segetes ullas, aut vitis aut gregis primitias impartit. Nullum in villâ ejus delubrum situm, nullus locus aut lucus consecratus. quid ego de luco et delubro loquor ? Negant vidisse se, qui fuere, unum saltem in finibus ejus aut lapidem unctum, aut ramum coronatum. Igitur agnomenta ei duo indita : Charon, ut jam dixi, ob oris et animi diritatem: sed alterum, quod libentius audit, ob Deorum contemtum, Mezentius. Quapropter facile intelligo, hasce ei tot initiorum enumerationes nugas videri, &c. *Apol. p. 496, 497

Et

nor worshipped in any temple. When he passes by a consecrated place, he esteems it a crime to put his hand to his mouth, by way of adoration; nor does he consecrate to the gods of agriculture, who feed and clothe him, any firstfruits of grain, or of the vine, or of his flocks. Nor is there in his country seat any chapel, nor indeed any consecrated grove or other place whatever. But why do I talk of groves and chapels? They who have been there say they never saw in his territories so much as a stone anointed with oil, or a crowned bough. Insomuch that there are two surnames given him; Charon, as I said before, because of the fierceness of his look and temper; the other is Mezentius, upon account of his contempt of the gods; which lastmentioned name, possibly, he likes the best of the two.

There is very little here that needs explication. But it may be proper to observe that Mezentius is the name of a king of the Tyrrhenians, who is several times spoken of by Virgil asi a contemner of the gods.

The place first alleged by me has been taken notice of by all commentators upon Apuleius in general. But this other was first observed by the learned Dr. Warburton, now bishop of Gloucester; \ who, from what Apuleius had said, concludes that Licinius Æmilianus, his wife's brother-inlaw, was a christian ; and that the accusation of magic, brought by him before the proconsul of Africa, did not a little contribute to inflame our author's bigotry for Gentilism, and increase his aversion to christianity.

3. I shall allege one place more in the same apology, where he wards off the charge of magic in procuring the marriage with Prudentilla in this manner : If,' says he, • they can show any particular advantage which I could propose to myself in this marriage, let me then be esteemed Carinondas, Damigeron, or that Moses, or Jannes, or Apollonius, or Dardanus, or any other, who since Zoroaster and Hostanes have been most celebrated among magicians.'

i Primus init bellum Tyrrhenis asper ab oris,
Contemtor divům Mezcntius, agminaque armat.

Virg. Æ. I. 8. ver. 647, 648. Contemtorque Deüm Mezentius. Ib. 1. 8. ver. 7. k See the Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated. B. 4. sect. 4. p. 120. in the notes, the second vol. edit. 1741.

| Si una causa, vel minima, fucrit inventa, cur ego debuerim Pudentillæ nuptias, ob aliquod meum coinmodum, appetere; si quamlibet modicum emolumentum probaveritis, ego ille sim Carinondas, vel Damigeron, vel is Moses, vel Jannes, vel Apollonius, vel ipse Dardanus, vel quicumque alius, post Zoroastrem et Hostanem, inter magos celebratus est. Apol. p. 544.

In 2 Tim. iii. 8, mention is made of “ Jannes and Jambres, who withstood Moses." I do not say that Apuleius had read this text, or any book of the New Testament; but the passage is a proof that Moses was well known in the world as a person of great eminence; and doubtless hem was esteemed the Jewish lawgiver.

III. I have not observed any more passages in Apuleius relating to the christians. In the fourth and fifth centuries miracles were ascribed to him ; of which I say nothing now; but I propose to consider that point hereafter in the chapter of Hierocles.

IV. But, if it might not be reckoned too presuming, I would now consider the judgment passed upon the Metamorphosis, the principal remaining work of this author, by Dr. Warburton, now bishop of Gloucester ; who supposes that his design was to recommend the Pagan religion as . the only cure for all vice in general.

Against that interpretation, it seems to be no small objection that the author himself calls it a Milesian tale, and av Greek fable; and the ancients always so understood it, as our great author himself acknowledges.

• The Metamorphosis,' says he, p. 117, even from its • first appearance, hath had the character of a trifling fable. • Capitolinus, in Clodius Albinus, tells us that Severus • could not bear with patience the honours which the senate • had conferred on Albinus, especially the distinguishing * title of learned, who was grown old in the study of oldwives' fables, such as the Milessian Punic tales of his countryman and favourite Apuleius. Major fuit, (says • Severus in bis letter to the senate on this occasion,) dolor, • quod illum pro literato laudandum plerique duxistis, quum * ille næniis quibusdam anilibus occupatus inter Milesias · Punicas Apuleii sui et ludicra literaria consenesceret. That

poor, modern-spirited critic Macrobius, talks too of Apu• Jeius in the same strain, lib. 1. cap. 2.' Again, p. 118, The • ancients, who stuck in the outside, considered it without

refinement as an idle fable.' And p. 123, . The author in• troduces his Metamorphosis in this manner: At ego tibi ser• mone isto Milesio varius fabulas conferam, auresque tuas be

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m Vid. Strabon. 1. 16. p. 760. [al. 1103.] Tacit. Hist. 1. 5. cap. 4.

^ See the Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated, book iv. sect. 4. vol. 2. p. 117, &c. in the notes, ed. 1741.

• At ego tibi sermone isto Milesio varias fabulas conferam, auresque tuas bibulas [al. benevolas] lepido susurro permulceam. Apul. Met. lib. i. p. 1.

p Fabulam Græcam incipimus. Lector intende, lætaberis. ib. p. 4.

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