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Which gives men stomach to digest his words Do so conjointly meet, let not men say,
With better appetite.

These are their reasons,-They are natural;
Bru.And so it is. For this time I will leave you: For, I believe, they are portentous things
To-morrow, if you please to speak with me, Unto the climate that they point upon.
I will come hoine to you; or, if you will, 5 Cic. Indeed, it is a strange-disposed time:
Come home to me, and I will wait for you. But men may construe things after their fashion,
Cas. I will do so:-till then, think of the world: Clean from the purpose of the things themselves,

[Erit Brutus. Comes Cæsar to the Capitol to-inorrow? Well, Brutus, thou art noble: yet I see,

Casca. He doth : for he did bid Antonius Thy honourable metal may be wrought 10 Send word to you, he would be there to-morrow. From that it is dispos'd': 'Therefore 'tis meet Cic. Good-night then, Casca: this disturbed sky That noble minds keep ever with their likes : Is not to walk in. For who so tirm, that cannot be seduc'd ?

Cuscu. Farewell, Cicero. [Exit Cicero Cæsar doth bear me hard; but he loves Brutus:

Enter Cassius.
If I were Brutus now, and he were Cassius, 15 Cas. Who's there?
He should not humour me? I will this night, Casca. A Roman.
In several hands, in at his windows throw,

Cus. Casca, by your voice.

[this? As if they came from several citizens,

Casca. Your ear is good. Cassius, what night is Writings, all tending to the great opinion

Cas. A very pleasing night to honest men. That Rome holds of his name; wherein obscurely20

Casca. Whoever knew the heavens menaceso? Cæsar's ambition shall be glance at:

Cas. Those, that have known the carth so full of And, after this, let Cæsar seat bim sure;

faults. For we will shake him, or worse days endure. For my part, I have walk'd about the streets,

[Erit. Submitting me unto the perilous night; SCENE III.

25 And, thus unbraced, Casca, as you see,

Ilave bar'd my bosom to the thunder-stone:
A Street.

And, when the cross blue lightning seem'd to open

The breast of heaven, I did present myself Thunder and Lightning. Enter Casca, his stoord

E'en in the aimn and very flash of it. drawn; and Cicero, meeting him. 30 Casca. But wherefore did you so much tempt Cic. Good even, Casca : Brought you Cæsar

the heavens? home?

It is the part of men to fear and tremble, Why are you breathless ? and why stare you so? When the most mighty gods, by tokens, send Cusca. Are you not mov’d, when all the sway Such dreadful heralds to astonish us.

[life of earth

35 Cas. You are dull, Casca; and those sparks of Shakes, like a thing unfirm? O Cicero,

That should be in a Roman, you do want, I have seen tempests, when the scolding winds Or else you use not: You look pale, and gaze, Have riv'd the knotty oaks; and I have seen And put on fear, and cast yourself in wonder, The ambitious ocean swell, and rage, and foam, To see the strange impatience of the heavens: To be exalted with the threat'ning clouds: 40 But if you would consider the true cause, But never 'till to-night, never 'till now,

Why all these fires, why all these gliding ghosts, Did I go through a tempest dropping fire. Why birds, and beasts, from quality and kind*; Either there is a civil strife in heaven;

Why old men, fools, and children calculate'; Or else the world, too saucy with the gods, Why all these things change, from their ordinance, Incenses them to send destruction.

45 Their natures, and pre-formed faculties, Cic. Why, saw you any thing more wonderful: To monstrous quality; why, you shall find, Casca. A common slave (you know him well by That heaven hath intus'd theni with these spirits, sight)

To make them instruments of fear, and warning,
Held up his left hand, which did flame, and burn Cnto some monstrous state.
Like twenty torches join'd; and yet his hand, 50 Now could I, Casca, name to thee a man
Not sensible of fire, remain’d unscorch'd.. Most like this dreadful night;
Besides, (I have not since put up my sword) That thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars
Against the Capitol I met a lion,

As doth the lion in the Capitol :
Who glar'd upon me, and went surly by, A man no mightier than thyself, or me,
Without annoying me: and there were drawn 55 In personal action; yet prodigious grown,
Upon a heap a hundred ghastly women,

And fearful, as these strange eruptions are.
Transformed with their fear; who swore, they saw Casca.'TisCæsarthatyou mean: Isitnot,Cassius?
Men, all in fire, walk up and down the streets. Cas. Let it be who it is : for Romans now
And, yesterday, the bird of night did sit,

Have thews' and limbs like to their ancestors ; Even at noon-day, upon the market-place, 00 But, woe the while ! our fathers' minds are dead, Hooting, and shrieking. When these prodigies |And we are govern'd with our mothers' spirits ;

'i.e. The best metal or temper may be worked into qualities contrary to its original constitution. * The meaning is, Cæsar lores Brutus; but if Brutusund I were to change places, his lore should not humour me, should not take hold of my affections, so as to make me forget my principles. 3 The whole weight or momentum of this globe. * i.e. why they deriate from quality and nature. si.c. foretell or prophesy. Prodigious is portentous. Theries is an obsolete word implying nerves or muscular strength.

Our

Our yoke and sufferance shew us womanish. In Pompey's porch: For now, this fearful night, Casca. Indeed, they say, the senators to-morrow

There is no stir or walking in the streets; Mean to establish Cæsar as a king :

And the complexion of the element, And he shall wear bis crown by sea, and land,

It favours 'like the work we have in hand, In every place, save here in Italy.

5 Most bloody, fiery, and most terrible. Cas. I know where I will wear this daggerthen;

Enter Cinna. Cassius from bondage will deliver Cassius :

Casca. Stand close awhile, for here comes one Therein, yegods, you make the weak most strong;

in haste. Therein, ye gods, you tyrants do defeat:

Cas. 'Tis Cinna, I do know him by his gait; Nor stony tower, nor walls of beaten brass, 10 He is a friend.Cinna, where haste you so? Nor airless dungeon, nor strong links of iron, Cin. To find out you : Who's that? Metellus Can be retentive to the strength of spirit;

Cimber? But life, being weary of these worldly bars,

Cas. No, it is Casca; one incorporate Never lacks power to dismiss itself.

To our attempts. An I not staid for, Cinna? If I know this, know all the world besides, 15 Cin. I ain glad on’t. What a fearful night is this! That part of tyranny, that I do bear,

There's two or three of us have seen strange sights. I can shake off at pleasure.

Cas. Am I not staid for? Tell ine. Casca. So can I :

Cin. Yes, So every bondman in his own hand bears You are. O, Cassius, if you could but win The power to cancel his captivity.

20 The noble Brutus to our party:

(per, Cas. And why should Cæsar be a tyrant then? Cas. Be you content: Good Cinna, take this paPoor man! I know, he would not be a wolf, And look you lay it in the prætor's chair, But that he sees, the Romans are but sheep; Where Brutus may but tind it; and throw this He were no lion, were not Romans hinds. |In at his window ; sct this up with wax Those that with haste will make a mighty fire, 25 Upon old Brutus' statue ; all this done, Begin it with weak straws: What trash is Rome, Repair to Pompey'sporch, where you shall find us, What rubbish, and what offal, when it serves Is Decius Brutus, and Trebonius, there? For the base matter to illuminate

Cin. All but Metellus Cimber; and he's gone So vile a thing as Casar? But, 0, grief!

To seek you at your house. Well, I will hie, Where hast thou led me? I, perhaps, speak this 30And so bestow these papers as you bade me. Before a willing bondman: then I know

Cas. That done, repair to Poinpey's theatre. My answer must be made: But I am arm’d,

[Exit l'inn. And dangers are to me indifferent.

Come, Casca, you and I will, yet, ere day,
Casca. You speak to Casca; and to such a man see Brutus at his house: three parts of him
That is no flearing tell-tale. Hold my hand: 35 (s ours already; and the man entire,
Be factious? for redress of all these griefs; L'pon the next encounter, yields him ours.
And I will set this foot of mine as far,

Casca. O, he sits high in all the people's hearts: As who goes farthest.

And that, which would appear ortence in us, Cas. There's a bargain made.

His countenance, like richest alchymny, Now know you, Casca, I have mov'd already 40 Will change to virtue, and to worthiness. [him, Some certain of the noblest-minded Romans, Cas. Him, and his worth, and our great need of To undergo, with ine, an enterprize

You have right well conceited. Let us go, Of honourable-dangerous consequence ; For it is after midnight; and, ere day, And I do know, by this, they stay for me We will awake him, and be sure of hin. [Ereunt.

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55)

SCENE I.

Bru. Get me a taper in my study, Lucius :
Enter Brutus in his Orchard.

When it is lighted, come and cali ine here.
Luc. I will, my lord.

[Exit. Bru. WHAT, Lucius! ho !

Bru. It must be by his death; and, for my part, I cannot, by the progress of the stars, I know no personal cause to spurn at him, Give guess how near to day.- Lucius, I say!

But for the general. He would be crown'd:I would it were my fault to sleep so soundly.

How that might change his nature, there's the When, Lucius, when? Awake, I say: What,

question. Lucius!

60 It is the bright day, that brings forth the adder; Enter Lucius.

And that craves wary walking. Crown him? Luc. Call’d you, my lord ?

That ;-
* i.e. here's my band. Factious seems here to mean active. ij. e. resembles.

And

And then, I grant, we put a sting in him, Like to a little kingdom, suffers then
That at his will he may do danger with.

The nature of an insurrection. .
The abuse of greatness is, when it disjoins

Re-enter Lucius. Remorse'from power:And, to speaktruth of Cæsar, Luc. Sir, 'tis your brother Cassius at the door, I have not known when his aflections sway'd

5 Who doth desire to see you. More than his reason. But 'tis a common proof?, Bru. Is he alone? That lowliness is young ambition's ladder,

Luc. No, sir, there are more with him. Whereto the climber-upward turns his face: Bru. Do you know them?

[ears, But when he once attains the upmost round, Luc. No, sir ; their hats are pluck'd about their He then anto the ladder turns his back;

10 And half their faces bury'd in their cloaks,
Looks in the clouds, scorning the base degrees! That by no means I may discover them
By which he did ascend: So Casar may; By any mark of favour,
Then,lest he may, prevent. And, since the quarrel Brii. Let them enter.

[Exit Lucius. Will bear no colour for the thing he is,

They are the faction. O conspiracy! Fashion it thus; that what he is, augmented, 15 Sham’st thou to shew thy dangerous brow by night, Would run to these, and these extremities: When evils are most free: 0, then, by day, And therefore think him as a serpent's egg, Where wilt thou find a cavern dark enough (racy; Which, hatch'd, would, as his kind, grow mischie- Tomask thy monstrous visage. Seek none, conspiAnd kill him in the shell.

[vous : Hide it in siniles, and affability : Re-enter Lucius.

20 For if thou path, thy native semblance on“, Luc. The taper burneth in your closet, sir.

Not Erebus itself were dim enough Searching the window for a flint, I found To hide thee from prevention. This paper, thus seal'd up; and, I am sure, Enter Cassius, Casca, Decius, Cinna, Metellus,and It did not lie there, when I went to bed.

Trebonius. Bru. Get you to bed again, it is not day. 25 Cas. I think, we are too bold upon your rest: Is not to-morrow, boy, the ides of March? Good morrow, Brutus; Do we trouble you? Luc. I know not, sir.

Bru. I have been up this hour; awake,all night, Bru. Look in the kalendar, and bring me word. Know I these men, that come along with you? Luc. I will, sir.

[Exit. Cas. Yes, every man of them; and no man here, Bru. The exhalations, whizzing in the air, 30 But honours you': and every one doth wish, Give so much light, that I may read by them. You had but that opinion of yourself,

[Opens the letter, and reads. Which every noble Ronian bears of you. “ Brutus, thou sleep’st; awake, and see thyself. This is Trebonius. “ Shall Rome-Speak, strike, redress !

Bru. He is welcome hither. “ Brutus, thou sleep'st; awake,–

135 Cas. This, Decius Brutus. Such instigations have been often dropp'd

Bru. He is welcome too. Where I have took them up.

Cas. This, Casca; this, Cinna ; * Shall Rome-"Thus must I piece it out ; And this, Metellus Cimber. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? What! Bru. They are all welcome. My ancestors did from the streets of Rome [Rome: 40 What watchful cares do interpose themselves The Tarquin drive, when he was call'd a king. Betwist your eyes and night? * Speak, strike, redress!"-Am I entreated Cas. Siiall I entreat a word? [They whisper. To speak, and strike? O Rome, I make thee pro- Dec. Here lies the east: Doth not the day break If the redress will follow, thou receivest (mise, Casca. No,

[here? Thy full petition at the hand of Brutus !

Cin. O, pardon, sir, it doth; and yon grey lines, Re-enter Lucius.

That fret the clouds, are messengers of day: Luc. Sir, March is wasted fourteen days.

Casca. You shall confess, that you are both de [Knocks within

ceiv'd. Bru. 'Tis good. Go to the gate; somebody Here, As I point my sword, the sun arises ; knocks.

[Exit Lucius. 50 Which is a great way growing on the south, Since Cassius first did whet me against Cæsar, Weighing the youthful season of the year. I have not slept.

Sometwomonths hence, up higher toward thenorth Between the acting of a dreadful thing,

He first presents his fire; and the high east And the first motion, all the interim is

Stands, as the Capitol, directly here. Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream:

55 Bru. Give me your hands all over, one by one. The genius, and the mortal instruments,

Cas. And let us swear our resolution. Are then in council*; and the state of man,

Bru. No, not an oath ; If not the face of men, ?i, e. pity. ?i. e. common observation, or experience. 3 j. e. low steps. * Shakspeare here describes what passes in a single bosom, the insurrection which a conspirator feels agitating the little kingdom of his own mind; when the genius, or power that watches for his protection, and the mortal instruments, the passions which excite him to a deed of honour and danger, are in council and debate; when the desire of action, and the care of safety, keep the mind in continual fluctuation and disturbance. Cassius married Junia, Brutus' sister. • i. e. if thou walk in thy true form.

The sufferance of our souls, the time's abuse,- 10, that we they could come by Cæsar's spirit,
If these be motives weak, break off betimes, And not dismember Cæsar! But, alas !
And every mi hence to his idie bed;

Cæsar must bleed for it; And, gentle friends, So let high-siglated tyranny range on,

Let's kill him boldly, but not wrathfully; "Till each man drop by lottery'. But if these, 5 Let's carve him as a dish tit for the gods, As I am sure they do, bear tire enough

Not hew him as a carcase fit for hounds: To kindle cowariis, and to steel with valour And let our hearts, as subtle masters do, The melung spirits of women; then, countryinen,

Stir up their servants to an act of rage, What need we any spur, but our own cause,

And after seem to chude them. This shall make To prick us to redress? What other bond, 10 Our purpose necessary, and not envious : Than secret Romans, that have spoke the word, Which so appearing to the common eyes, And will not palter? and what other oath, We shall be call'd purgers, not murderers. Than honesty to honesty engag'd,

And for Mark Antony, think not of him ;
That this shall be, or we will tall for it?

For he can do no more than Cæsar's arm,
Swear priests, and cowards, and men cautelous?, 15 When Cæsar's head is off.
Old feeble carrions, and such suffering souls

Cas. Yet I fear him :
That welcome wrongs; unto bad causes, swear For in the ingrafted love he bears to Cæsar,-
Such creatures as men doubt : but do not stain Bru. Alas, good Cassius, do not think of him :
The even virtue of our enterprize,

If he love Cæsar, all that he can do Nor th' insuppressive mettle of our spirits, 20 Is to himself; take thought ', and die for Cæsar : To think, that, or our cause, or our performance, And that were much he should; for he is given Did need an oath; when every drop of blood, To sports, to wildness, and much company. That every Roman bears, and nobly bears,

Treb. There is no fear in him ; let hiin not die; Is guilty of a several bastardy,

For he will live, and laugh at this hercafter If he do break the smallest particle

25

[Clock strikes. Of any promise that hath past from himn.

Bru. Peace, count the clock.
Cas. But what of Cicero? Shall we sound him? Cas. The clock hath strucken three.
I think, he will stand very strong with us.

Treb. "Tis time to part.
Casca. Let us not leave him out.

Cas. But it is doubiful yet, Cin. No, by no means.

130/ Whe'r Cæsar will come forth to-day, or no : Met. 0, let us have him ; his silver hairs For he is superstitious grown of late; Will purchase us a good opinion,

Quite from the main opinion he held once
And buy men's voices to commend our deeds: Of fantasy, of dreams, and ceremonies :
It shall be said, bis judgement rul'd our hands ; It may be, these apparent prodigies,
Our youths, and wildness, shall no whit appear, 35 Che unaccustoin’d terror of this night,
But all be bury'd in his gravity. [him ;) And the persuasion of his augurers,

Bru. O, naine him not: let us not break with May hold him froin the Capitol to-day.
For he will never follow any thing

Dec. Never fear that : If he be so resolv'd, That other men begin.

I can o'ersway him: for he loves to hear, Cas. Then leave him out.

40 hat unicorns may be betray'd with trees“, Casca. Indeed, he is not fit. [Cæsar : And bears with glasses, elephants with holes, Dec. Shall no man else be touch'd, but only Lions with toils, and men with flatterers :

Cas. Decius, wellurg'd:-1 think, it is not meei, But, when I tell him, he hates tlatterers, Mark Antony, so well belov'd of Cæsar,

He says, he does; being then most flatter'd. Should out-live Cæsar: We shall find of himi 45 Let me work: A shrewd contriver; and, you know, his means, For I can give his humour the true bent; If he improve them, may well stretch so far, And I will bring him to the Capitol. As to annoy us all: which to prevent,

Cas. Nay, we will allof us be there to fetch him. Let Antony and Cæsar fall together. [Cassius, Bru. By the eighth hour: Is that the uttermost?

Bru. Our course will seem too bloody, Caiu-50 Cin. Be that the uttermost, and fail not then. To cut the head off, and then hack the limbs ; Met. Caius Ligarius doth bear Cæsar hard , Like wrath in death, and envy afterwards : Who rated him for speaking well of Pompey; For Antony is but a limb of Cæsar.

wonder, none of you have thought of him. Let us be sacrificers, but not bucthers, Caius. Bru. Now, good Metellus, go along to him: We all stand up against the spirit of Cæsar; 55 He loves me well, and I have given him reasons ; And in the spirit of men there is no blood: Send him but hither, and I'll fashion him.

· Perhaps the poet here alludes to the custom of decimation, i.e. the selection by lot, of every tenth soldier, in a general mutiny, for punishment. ? i. e. cautious. * That is, turn melancholy. * Unicorns are said to have been taken by one who, running behind a tree, eluded the violent push the animal was making at him, so that his horn spent its force on the trunk, and stuck fast, detaining the beast till he was dispatched by the hunter.-Bears are reported to have been surprised by means of a mirror, which they would gaze on, affording their pursuers an opportunity of taking the surer aimn. --Elephants were seduced into pitfalls lightly covered with hurdles and turf, on which a proper bait to tempt them was exposed. si. e, hates Cæsar.

Cas,

you, Brutus ;

mans.

Cas. The morning comes upon us: We'll leave i charm you, by myonce-commended beauty,

By all your vows of love, and that great vow And, friends, disperse yourselves:but all remember Which did incorporate and make us one, What you have said, and shew yourselves true Ro- That you untold to me, your self, your half,

5 Why you are heavy; and what men to-night Bru. Good gentlemen, look fresh and merrily; Have had resort to you: for here have been Let not our looks put on our purposes ;

Some six or seven, who did hide their faces But bear it as our Roman actors do,

Even from darkness. With untir'd spirits, and formal constancy:

Bru. Kneel not, gentle Portia. And so, good-morrow to you every one. [Exeunt. 10 Por.Ishould not need, if you were gentle Brutus, Alanet Bruius.

Within the bond of marriage, tell me, Brutus, Boy! Lucius ! Fast asleep? It is no matter; Is it excepted, I should know no secrets Enjoy the honey-heavy dew of slumber : That appertain to you ? Am I yourself, Thou hast no figures, nor no fantasies,

But, as it were, in sort or limitation ; Which basy care draws in the brains of men;" 15 To kcep with you at meals, comfort' your bed, Therefore thou sleep'st so sound.

And talk to you sometimes ? Dwell I but in the Enter Portia.

suburbs Por. Brutus, my lord !

(now Of your good pleasure?: If it be no more, Bru.Portia, what mean you!Wherefore rise you Portia is Brutus' harlot, not his wife. It is not for your health, thus to commit 1201

Bru. You are my true and honourable wife; Your weak condition to the raw cold morning. As dear to me as are the ruddy drops Por. Nor for yours neither. You have ungently, That visit my sad heart.

[secret. Brutus,

Por. If this were true, then should I know this Ştole from my bed: And yesternight, at supper, I grant, I am a woman; but, withal, You suddenly arose, and wark'd about, 125.4 woman that lord Brutus took to wife : Musing, and sighing, with your arms across : I grant, I am a woman; but, withal, And when I ask'd you what the matter was, A woman well-reputed; Cato's daughter. You star'd upon me with ungentle looks : Think you, I am no stronger than my sex, I urg'd you further; then you scratch'd your head, Being so father'd, and so husbanded And too impatiently stamp'd with your foot: 30 Tell me your counsels, I will not disclose them: Yet I insisted, yet you answer'd not;

I have made strong proof of my constancy,
But, with an angry wafture of your hand, Giving myself a voluntary wound
Gave sign for me to leave you: So I did; Here, in the thigh : Can Ibear that with patience,
Fearing to strengthen that impatience,

And not my husband's secrets ?
Which seein's too much enkindled; and, withal, 35) Bru. () ye gods,
Hoping it was but an effect of humour,

Render me worthy of this noble wife! [Knock.
Which sometime hath his hour with every man. Hark, hark! one knocks : Portia, go in a while;
It will not let you eat, nor talk, nor sleep; And by-and-by thy bosom shall partake
And, could it work so much upon your shape, The secrets ot' my heart.
As it hath much prevail'd on your condition, 40 All my engagements I will construe to thee,
I should not know you, Brutus, Dear my lord, All the charactery’of my sad brows :-
Make me acquainted with your cause of grief. Leave me with häste.

[Exit Portia. Bru. I am not well in health, and that is all.

Enter Lucius and Liyarius. Por. Brutus is wise, and, were he not in health, Lucius, who is that knocks?

[you. He would embrace the means to come by it, 45 Luc. Here is a sick man that would speak witlı

Bru. Why, so I do:-Good Portia, go to bed. Bru. Caius Ligarius, that Metellus spake of.--. Por. Is Brutus sick ; and is it physical

Boy, stand aside. -Caius Ligarius! how? To walk unbraced, and suck up the humours Lig. Vouchsafe good morrow from a feeble Of the dank morning? What, is Brutus sick;

tongue,

[Caius, And will be steal out of his wholesome bed, 501 Bru. O, what a time have you chose out, brave To dare the vile contagion of the night?

To wear a kerchief? Would you were not sick! And tempt the rheumy and unpurged air

Lig. I am not sick, if Brutus have in hand To add unto his sickness, No, my Brutus ; Any exploit worthy the name of honour. You have some sick offence within your mind, Bru, Such an exploit have I in hand, Ligarius, Which, by the right and virtue of my place, 53 Had you a healthful ear to hear of it. I ought to know of: And, upon my knees, Lig. By all the gods, that Romans bow before,

* Comfort your bed, “is but an odd phrase, and gives as odd an idea,” says Mr. Theobald. He therefore substitutes, consort. But this good old word, however disused through modern refinement, was not so discarded by Shakspeare. Henry VIII, as we read in Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, in commendation of queen Katharine, in public said, “She hath beene to me a true obedient wife, and as comfortuble as I could wish. In our marriage ceremony, also, the husband promises to comfort his wife; and Barrett's Alrearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1582, says, that to comfort is, “ to recreate, to “ solace, to make pastime.” Perhaps here is an allusion to the place in which the harlots of Shakspeare's age resided. 3 i, e, all that is character'd on, &c.

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