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LONDON ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

Wotton.

W'otton.

More's Antid. Athm.

Addison on Medals.

And wish the state of th' world were now undone.

A, is the first letter, and first vowel of the al- They go a begging to a bankrupt's door.

Dryden. phabet in all the modern, and in most of the May peace still slumber by these purling fountains' ancient languages. In English, some gramma- Which we may every year rians have given it three sounds, the broad, open, Find, when we come a fishing here. and slender; others have even added to these;

Now the men fell a rubbing of armour, which a

great while had lain oiled. but, in fact, it has regularly only two sounds pe

He will knap the spears a pieces with his teeth. culiar to itself, a short and a long one; all the other sounds being irregular, varying according Another falls a ringing a Pescennius Niger, and to its combination with other letters.

judiciously distinguishes the sound of it to be moThe broad sound, resembling that of the Ger- dern. man a, is found in many of our monosyllables, as all, wall, malt, salt ; in which a is pronounced

4. A is used in burlesque poetry, to lengthen as au in cause, or uw in law. Many of these words out a syllable, without adding to the sense. were anciently written with au, as fauli, waulk; For cloves and nutmegs to the line-a which happens to be still retained in fault. And even for oranges to China.

Dryden. A open, not unlike the a of the Italians, is

5. A is sometimes in familiar writings, put by found in father, rather, and more obscurely in

barbarous corruption for he ; as, will a come, fancy, fast, &c.

for will he come. A, slender, or close, is the peculiar a of the

6. A, in composition, seems to have sometimes English language, resembling the sound of the the power of the French a in these phrases, a French e masculine, or diphthong ai in puis; or droit, a gauche, &c. and sometimes to be conperhaps a middle sound between them: to this tracted from at; as, aside, aslope, afoot, asleep, the Arabic a is said nearly to approach. Of this

athirst, aware. sound we have examples in the words place, face, waste; and all those that terminate in I gin to be a reary of the sun ; ation, as relation, nation, generation. A is short, as glass, grass ; or long, as glaze,

Shakspeare's Macbeth. graze : it is marked long, generally by an e final, The sailors ship their oars, and cease to row ;

And now a breeze from shore began to blow, plane ; or by an i added, as plain. The short 6

Then hoist their yards a-trip, and all their sails is open, the long a close.

Let fall, to court the wind, and catch the gales. 1. A, taken materially, or for itself, is a noun;

Dryden's Ceyr and Alcyone. as, a great A, a little a.

A little house with trees a row, Truly were I great A, before I would be willing to And like its master very low.

Pope, Hor. be so abused, I should wish myself little a, a thou- 7. A is sometimes redundant; as, arise, arouse,

Wallis's Correction of Hobbes. awake ; the same with rise, rouse, wake. 2. A, an article set before nouns of the singu

A, with the addition of the two Latin words lar number; a man, a tree, denoting the number per se, meaning by itself, is used by our elder one ; as a man is coming, that is, no more than writers to denote a nonesuch. It may have been one ; or an indefinite indication, as, a man may adopted from the custom of the child's school, in come this way, that is, any man. This article which every letter, we may presume, was taught has no plural signification. Before a word be- to be expressed per se. ginning with a vowel, it is written an; as, an ox, AA (Peter Vander), a celebrated bookseller of an egg, of which a is the contraction.

Leyden, flourished in the beginning of the last 3. A is placed before a participle, or participial century, and compiled many useful geographical noun; and is considered by Wallis, as a con- works. He published an Atlas of 200 Charts traction of at, when it is put before a word de- (Galerie Agreable du Monde, 66 vols. folio), noting some action not yet finished; as, I am a editions of the Thesaurus Antiquitatum Græcowalking. It also seems to be anciently con- rum and of the Thesaurus Antiquitatum Italiæ, tracted from at, when placed before local sur- and a Collection of Travels in Europe, 30 vols. names; as, Thomas a Becket. In other cases, 12mo. &c. it seems to signify to, like the French à.

Aa, a river of Semigalila, Courland, which runs A hunting Chloe went.

Prior. into the Gulf of Riga. Vol. I.

sand times.

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Aa, a river of France, which rises in the de- AANCHE, in music, a name sometimes given
partment of Pas de Calais, beyond Rumilly to wind instruments and organ pipes, with reeds
le Comte, near Taeroune, runs N. E. through or tongues, as the clarionet, hautboy, &c.
Artois, and becomes navigable near St. Omers; AANES, in music, the tones and modes of the
whence it passes N. to Gravelines, below which modern Greeks.
it falls into the English Channel. At St. Omers, AAR, a small island in the Baltic.
the Colme and an inferior branch separate from Aar, a river of Germany, falling into the Rhine,

Aa, a river in Westphalia, which rises near near Sintzig.
Munster, waters that city, and falls into the river Aar, a large river of Switzerland, which has
Ems.

its source in a lake, near Mount Schreckhorn, in
Aa, a river of Switzerland, which rises in the south of the canton of Berne, and running
Underwalden, and empties itself into the Lake N. W. through the whole extent of the lakes of
of Lucerne: also a river of Underwalden, which Brientz and Thun to Berne, takes a circuitous
falls into the Lake of Waldstadten opposite Ger- course to Soleure; whence it flows E. to Arburg,
sau. This is likewise the name of a third river and N. E, to Brugg; below which, being joined
of Switzerland, which rises N. W. of Lucerne, by the Reuss and Limmat, it falls into the Rhine,
and unites itself with the Aar, three miles S. W. opposite Waldschut.
of Brugg; and of a fourth in the canton of Zurich, AARASSUS, in ancient geography, a town of
which rises near Gruningen, and empties itself Pisidia, in Asia, supposed to be the Anassus of
in the Greiffen.

Ptolemy.
Aa, a river of Dutch Brabant, rising on the AARCHET, in music, instruments played
borders of Guelderland, and running into the with a bow, as the violin and violincello.
Dommel, near Bois le Duc. Also, a river of AARGAU, Argovia, or Arcou, anciently
Overyssel, in Holland, falling into the Lake of one of the 45 districts or divisions of Switzerland,
Giter.

receiving its name from the Aar, and composing AABAM, or Aaban, a term used by some the German part of the canton of Berne, with part alchemists to signify lead.

of Solothurn, Lucerne, and Underwalden.' It AACH, a river in Suabia, which falls into the now includes only that part of Berne which in Lake of Constance.

1798 was formed into a separate canton, having Aach, a town in the circle of Suabia, situated Arau for its capital ; but received in 1803 the near the source of the above river, and almost whole of Baden and the Frickthal, in addition to equidistant from the Danube, and the lake Con- its territory. It is bounded by Zug and Zurich stance. Also another river of Suabia, joining on the N. has the Rhine for its boundary E. the the Iller.

cantons of Solothurn and Basil W. and Zug S. AAHUS, a small district of Germany, in the containing 11 districts, and 48 jurisdictions. circle of Westphalia, and bishopric of Munster, Population 132,763. containing twenty parishes and four towns. AARHUUS, a large diocese in N. Jutland, Asuus, the capital, has a good castle, and lies which extends from that of Wiburg to Categat, N. E. of Coesfeldt.

about 65 miles in length, and 33 in breadth. It
AAKIRKE, a town in the island of Bornholm, is intersected by many excellent rivers, and lakes,
Denmark, with the rank and privileges of a city. abounding with fish, and adorned with a variety
The provincial court and synod are held in it. of large forests. It contains five towns, eight

AALBORG, or AALBOURG, a bishopric of royal bailiwicks, and six counties. Population
Denmark, in North Jutland, length and breadth 135,000.
about 75 miles. It occupies the whole northern AARHUS, or Arhusen, the capital of the
part of the peninsula, and contains several flou- bishopric of that name, lies between the sea and
rishing towns and noble manors. Population a lake, from which water is conveyed by a
about 90,000.

broad canal, that divides the town into two unAALBORG, the capital of the bishopric of that equal parts. It is large and populous, and has name, lies on the south coast of Lymfurt, on the six gates, two principal churches, two market confines of the bishopric of Wiburg. Next to places, an university, a free school, and a wellCopenhagen and Odensee, it is the richest and endowed hospital. It carries on a good trade in most populous town in Denmark. The name corn. The cathedral, which was begun in 1201, signifies Eel-town, great quantities of eels being is 150 paces in length, 96 in breadth, and nearly caught here. It has an exchange for merchants, 45 German ells in height. a safe and deep harbour, (though the entrance AARON, Heb. a mountaineer, the brother near Hals is somewhat dangerous,) a consider- of Moses, and first high priest of the Israelites, able trade in corn, and herrings, and manufac- was great-grand-son of Levi by the father's side, tories of soap, train oil, guns, pistols, saddles, and grandson by the mother's. His history being and gloves. It was taken by the Swedes, in the fully narrated in the Pentateuch, it needs only to be years 1643 and 1658. Lon. 9. 46. E. lat. 57. N. added here, that he died upon Mount Hor, in the AALEN. See Aulen.

123d year of his age, being the 40th after the AALTEN, a town of Breedevort, in Dutch departure from Egypt; A. M. 2522, of the Julian Guelderland, near Munster, containing 3500 period, 3262, and before the Christian æra, 1452. inhabitants.

See Moses and MAGICIAN. AAM, or Haam, a liquid measure, used by the AARON,(St.) a British martyr,who suffered along Dutch, containing 128 mingles, (a measure with St. Julius, another native of Britain, under weighing nearly 36 ounces avoirdupois,) or 288 Dioclesian, about the same time with St. Alban, pints English, or 1481 Paris measure.

the British proto-martyr.

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AARON, of Alexandria, a learned presbyter and generally shews that they have some relation to physician of the seventh century, in whose works an abbey, as Abingdon. the small-pox is first mentioned.

ABA, or ABAU, Hanifah. See HANIFAH. Aaros, a market town of France, in the de- ABA, ABAS, ABos, or Abus, in ancient geograpartment of Mayenne, having extensive iron phy, a mountain of Greater Armenia; Strabo works.

says, the Euphrates and Araxes both rose in it, AARON HARISCHON. See HARISCHON.

the former running eastward and the latter westAARON, or Haroun, AL RASCHID, a celebrated ward. khalif of the Saracen empire, of whom many ABA, or Abæ, in ancient geography, a town of fabulous legends are told.

Phocis in Greece, near Helicon, famous for an AARSENS, (Francis,) Lord of Someldyck and oracle of Apollo, older than that at Delphi; as Spyck, was one of the greatest statesmen the United well as for a rich temple, plundered and burnt Provinces ever produced. Having been some years by the Persians. See ABANTIS. under M. Mornay, at the court of William I. prince ABABDE, in geography, a tribe of the Beof Orange, Barneveldt sent him, as agent for the douin Arabs, inhabiting, according to M. BurckStates, to Paris, where he acquired for himself hardt, that part of the west shore of the Arabian great reputation under Henry IV. Villeroi, &c. Gulf, which is south of the Kosseir, and in about Being soon after invested with the character of the latitude of Derr. The country is mountainous, ambassador, Henry gave him precedence next and the people faithless and barbarous. to the Venetian minister. He resided at the

ABABILO, or Ababil, in mythology, a fabucourt of France 15 years, and was created a lous bird mentioned in the Koran, who, according kaight and a baron by the king; was after- to the Mahometan doctors, has a foot like that of wards ambassador at Venice; and to several

a dog. princes in Germany and Italy: and in 1620, was ABACA, in botany, an Indian plant, a native appointed the first of three extraordinary ambas- of the Philippine Islands. There are two spesadors to England, where, in 1641, he settled the cies, the white and the grey. The former promarriage between the princess Mary and prince duces lint, of which very fine linen is made; the William, the father of our William III. He died latter hemp, which is used for nothing but corat a very advanced age.

dage. AARSENS, (Peter,) a painter, called Long Peter, ABACÆNUM, or ABACENE, in ancient geoon account of his stature, born at Amsterdam in graphy, a town of Sicily, whose ruins are supposed 1519. He was eminent in altar and kitchen to be those still lying near Trippi, a citadel on a pieces. A lady of Alckmaer offered 200 crowns high mountain, near Messina. to preserve one of his altar pieces, that was ABACAY, in natural history, a species of pardestroyed in the insurrection, in 1566.

rot in the Philippine Islands, called also CalanAARTGEN, or AERTGens, a painter of merit, gay. the son of a wool-comber of Leyden, born in ABACH, or WELTENBURG, a market town in 1498. He studied painting under Engelbrechtz, Lower Bavaria, seated on the Danube ; nine but was devoted to the bottle, and was drowned miles from Ratisbon. It is defended by a citadel, in 1564.

and is remarkable for Roman antiquities, as well AASAR, in ancient geography, a town of Ju- as for its mineral waters, which are celebrated for dæa, in the tribe of Judah, between Azotus and curing various diseases. Lon. 11. 56. E. lat. 48. Ascalon. In St. Jerome's time it was a hamlet.

53. N. AAVORA, in natural history, the fruit of a ABACINARE, in archæology, Ital. from large species of the palm tree, that grows in bacino, a basin, or bacio, a dark place, a punAfrica and the West Indies. It is of the size of a ishment, described by writers of the middle age, hen's egg, and several are included in one shell. wherein the criminal was blinded, by holding a

AB, in the Hebrew calendar, the 11th month red hot basin, or hot irons before his eyes. of the civil year and the 5th of the ecclesiastical. ABACISCUS, in ancient architecture, the It answers to the moon, which begins in July square compartments of Mosaic pavements. and ends in August, and consists of 30 days. The ABACISTA, 0. L. an arithmetician. Jews fast on the 1st of this month in memory of ABACK', on back, backwards. Aaron's death; on the 9th, because on that day, so that the white was aboue, as the folk y seye, both the first and second temples were burnt; And drof the rede al abak out of the put ney and on the 18th, because the sacred lamp in the The rede, as for sorinesse, by turnede hym atten ende, sanctuary was that night extinguished, in the And asailede the wyte, and made hym abac wende. reign of Ahaz. The 9th of this month was also

R. Gloucester, p. 131. remarkable for the publication of Adrian's edict, But when they came where thou thy skill didst show, which prohibited that unfortunate people, not They drew abacke, as half with shame confound. only from continuing in Judæa, but even from

Spenser': Pastorals, June. looking back to Jerusalem to lament its desola

A noble heart ought not the sooner yield, tion.

Not shrink abacke for any weal or woe. AB, in the Syriac Calendar, is the last of the

Mir. for Mag. p. 359. summer months. The eastern Christians called Yet Albert new resources still prepares, the first day of this month Suum Miriam, the Conceals his grief, and doubles all his cares ; fast of Mary, and fasted from that to the 15th, “ Away there ! lower the mizen-yard on deck,” which they called Fathr-Miriam, the cessation of He calls, “ and brace the foremost-yards aback !the fast of the Virgin.

Falconer's Shipwreck. AB, at the beginning of the names of places, ABACK, of ABAKE, in sea-language signifies

14.

the situation of the sails, when their surfaces are Abacus Pythagoricus, the multiplication table Aatted against the mast by the force of the wind. of Pythagoras, similar to the common one, which This may be either by a sudden change of the has also been attributed to him. wind, or an alteration in the ship's course to avoid Abacus Logisticus, is a rectangled triangle, some imminent danger.

whose sides, forming the right angle, contain the ABACO, one of the most considerable of the numbers from 1 to 60; and its area, the facta of Bahama islands, lying in N. Lat. 26. 22. W. each two of the numbers perpendicularly oppoLong. 77 Some writers have conjectured site. This is also called a canon of serugesimals. that this was the first spot of the western world Abacus & Palmula, in the ancient music, deupon which Columbus touched. See BaHaMa. note the machinery, whereby the strings of Poly

ABACOOCHE, or Coosee, a river of N. plectra, or instruments of many strings, were America, which rising in the S. W. territory, and struck with a plectrum made of quills. flowing through Georgia, unites with the Oakfus- ABACUS Harmonicus, is used by Kircher for kee, and forms the Alabama.

the structure and disposition of the keys of a ABACOT, a cap of state, worn in ancient musical instrument, whether to be touched with times by the kings of England, the upper part the hands or the feet. of which was in the form of a double crown. Abacus Major, in metallurgic operations, the

ABACTED, from abactus, L. drawn away by name of a trough used in the mines, wherein the stealth or violence.

ore is washed. ABACTUS, or ABIGEATUS, among ancient Abacus, apaļ, Gr. Ben Jonson uses aback medical writers, an abortion procured by the to denote simply a square surface. force of medicines. See ABORTION.

In the centre or midst of the Pegm, there was an ABACUS, among the ancients, was a kind of aback or square in which this elegy was written. cup-board or buffet. Livy, describing the

Jonson's Coronation Pageant. luxury into which the Romans degenerated after the conquest of Asia, says they had their abaci,

ABADDON, the name which St. John in the beds, &c. plated over with gold. See also Juv. Revelation gives to the angel of the bottomless Sat. iii. 203.

pit. The inspired writer says, this word is Abacus, signified also a table covered with Hebrew, and in Greek signifies Atollvwv, i. e. a dust on which mathematicians drew their dia- destroyer. See Rev. ix. 11. grams, and a draft or chess board, on which the ABADE, or Scueck Abade, in Egypt. See ancients played games of chance. Macrob. v.

ANTINOE.

. Stuck. Ant. Conviv. xi. 16.

ABADEH, a town of Persia, in the district The Abacus, in architecture, Vitruvius tells us, of Fars, which is celebrated in the Persian civil was originally intended to represent a square tile wars of the last century. Its fortifications are laid over an urn, or rather over a basket.-An in decay, but the neighbourhood is fruitful. Poold woman of Athens happening to place a basket pulation

5000. covered thus, over the root of an acanthus, the ABADIR, a title which the Carthaginians plant, shooting up the following spring, encom- gave to gods of the first order. In the Roman passed the basket all around, till meeting with mythology, it is the name of a stone which Sathe tile, it curled back in a kind of scroll. Cal- turn swallowed, by the contrivance of his wife limachus, an ingenious sculptor, passing by, Ops, believing it to be his new born son Jupiter : took the hint, and immediately executed a ca

hence it ridiculously became the object of repital on this plan; representing the vile by the ligious worship. abacus, the leaves by the volutes, and the basket

ABE, or ABA. See Apa. by the vase, or body of the capital.—The form ABA'FT, adv. abastan, Sax. behind. From of the abacus is not the same in all orders: in the fore part of the ship, towards the stern; in the Tuscan, Doric, and Ionic, it is generally opposition to afore. square; but in the Corinthian and Composite, ABAFT THE BEAM, in maritime affairs, signifies its four sides are arched inwards, and embellished the position of an object somewhere between a in the middle with some ornament, as a rose or line at right angles with the keel, and the points other flower. Scammozzi uses abacus for a con- to which the ship's stern is directed. cave moulding on the capital of the Tuscan ABAGI, a silver coin of Persia, worth about pedestal ; and Palladio calls the plinth above the 36 sols, French money. Four chaouris, which echinus, or boultin, in the Tuscan and Doric are also called sains, make one abagi. orders, by the same name.

ABAGUN, in ornithology, an Ethiopian bird ABACUS is also the name of an ancient instru- of great beauty, having a crested horn on its ment for facilitating operations in arithmetic. It head, adding much to its appearance and giving is variously contrived. That chiefly used in Eu- it perhaps its name, which signifies lordly abbot. rope is made by drawing any number of parallel Lobo. 71. lines at the distance of two diameters of one of ABAI'SANCE, n. s. from the French abaiser, the counters used in the calculation. A counter to depress, to bring down. An act of reverence, placed on the lowest line, signifies 1; on the 2d, a bow. Obeysance is considered by Skinner as a 10; on the 3d, 100; on the 4th, 1000, &c. In corruption of abaisance, but is now universally the intermediate spaces, the same counters are es- used. timated at one half of the value of the line im- ABAISIR, in chemistry, a name sometimes mediately superior, viz. between the 1st and 2ů, given to spodium. 5; between the 2d and 3d, 50, &c.

ABAISSED, ABAISSE', in heraldry, an esiABACUS, the Chinese. See SWANPAN. thet applied to the wings of eagles, &c. when the

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