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PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH VERSION
HE form in which this Volume now ed exceedingly desirable that a NEW Biappears, is altogether different from any ble, of convenient size for the Pocket, orithing which has before been given to the Pub-ginal in its plan, purpose, and execution, lic, but its originality will be found pre-emi- should be published; in which a MORE APnently to consist in a laborious and entirely PROPRIATE and ACCURATE selection, adap new Selection and Arrangement of Refe- tation, and Arrangement of References might rences, in which it has been endeavoured be introduced; both for the Assistance of faithfully to exhibit the Scripture as its Private Readers, and to facilitate the ready own Expositor. examination and quotation of passages, which the Preacher, or the Biblical Student, may have an immediate occasion to cite, or to consult.
Convenience and utility were, however, to be equally consulted in all the parts of
The greatness of the advantages that must accrue to a sincere and diligent reader of the Sacred Pages, from having constantly before him a reference to similar and illustrative passages, carefully investigated, and suitably applied, must be obvi- the undertaking. If the size of the hook ous to every one; and has been well under- were too large, or the page too crowded, stood by many pious and able men, to so as to be made wearisome to the eye, its whose diligent and useful labours the convenience would be lessened; and if, in Public is unspeakably indebted. the limits which these considerations imReferences, however, have hitherto posed, great care were not employed in been printed, almost exclusively, in the examining and applying the References, its margins of Bibles of a large size; and utility would in a great degree, be destroythe benefit resulting from them has, in ed. On mature deliberation, therefore, it consequence, been very much restrict-appeared best to adopt the plan here preed--the only small Bible with Refe-sented to the notice of the Public; in rences, in the English language, being which the Marginal Readings and Refethat published by Mr. Canne. The defects rences are all contained in a MIDDLE COof which are many; for though he was a LUMN, between two of text; and the numdiligent student of the Scriptures, and his ber introduced is sufficient, except in a few work was at that time eminently service- pages only, completely to fill that column. able, yet, as he was not in possession The Chronology is always placed at the of those helps, for the accomplishment of top of this middle column, where it dethe task which he had undertaken, that notes the Date of the writing or transacare now afforded by many valuable tion contained in the text, at the begineditions and comments, which have been ning of the page. printed in different languages since The Marginal Readings contained in the his time; and being, therefore, under the folio and quarto Bibles are all introduced; necessity of relying chiefly on his own the idioms of the original languages which industry; it is not surprising that he should are preserved in many of them, and also have been less successful than he would the various senses of particular words or otherwise have been. His references are phrases, being in most instances instrucoften only remotely applicable: he seems tive, and in all worthy to be known. But frequently to have been guided more by it has not been thought necessary, in givsimilarity of expression than by illustra- ing these readings, to insert such words as tion: the errors in the letter-press are are repeated in the text, and which would numerous: many of the Marginal Readings therefore have fruitlessly occupied a porare omitted; the Chronology is altogether tion of the space allotted to references. left out: and all the References in this, as The Various Readings are referred to by in the larger Bibles, are placed in the mar- small figures placed immediately before the in of the text; by which they are render- words for which they are to be substituted; ed liable to be cut in binding, or worn and the References by Italic letters, which away by use, or bound so into the back of are generally placed after the first or second the book as not to be easily read. word of a verse, or clause of a verse, when they are intended to illustrate the
On all these accounts, it has long appear
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH VERSION
whole of that verse or clause: but when MAY BE PERFECT, THOROUGHLY FURNISHED the principal force of the illustration UNTO ALL GOOD WORKS." But it must be rests on a single word, the letter reference evident, that the Scripture could not be is placed immediately after that word. effectually profitable for these great ends This has been the general rule; and the nor make the man of God PERFECT, if it exceptions have either been unavoidable, were not perfect itself; if its different parts or are quite immaterial. were at variance with each other: if, notwithstanding all the variety of matter, and multiplicity of detail, which such a book required, the doctrines revealed, and the moral duties enjoined, were not substan
In referring to several relations of the same facts, by different Writers in the Sacred Volume, (as in the histories recorded by the Four Evangelists, and in those contained in the Books of Kings and Chroui-tially and essentially the same throughcles,) the corresponding chapters. or parts out; and if all the parts did not concur in of chapters in each, having been once the plan of the whole. To exhibit, then, noted at the beginning of the history or the harmony of the Sacred Writers, on the subject, it has not been thought necessary subjects of which they treat, has been the to repeat those references in the subse- primary design of this selection. And as quent verses, except wh something here are some subjects of leading impormaterial is to be noticed. That also in tance, in which all the rest are included, the prophecy of Obadiah, which relates and by means of which the harmony and chiedy to the destruction of the Edomites, perfection of the Inspired Pages are writthe prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Eze- ten, as with the beams of the sun; to kiel, and Amos, on the same subject, hav- these, especial care and attention have ing been once pointed out at the com- been devoted. mencement, are not again referred to. And so in the history of our Lord's temptation, given in the fourth chapter of the Gospel by St. Matthew, reference being made from the first verse to the fourth chapter of that by St. Luke, where the same history is recorded, no further reference is made to that chapter in the subsequent verses; the connexion of the whole being obvious, and the comparison easy. More space has been thus retained for the illustration or confirmation of the subjects or sentences individually, which are comprised in the particular parts of the history or discourse.
I. It has appeared an object of the first magnitude, that the reader of the Holy Scriptures should be assisted by references from text to text, to have constantly in view the connexion of all the divine attributes, and the holy uniformity of God in his government, both of his Church, and of the world. A display of the true character and perfections of God is, without dispute, one chief design of the Inspired Volume. Here, as in Isaiah's miraculous vision, may Jehovah be seen, sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; his train fills the temple, and the Sacred Writers, like the Seraphim, cover themselves, and cry one to another, and say, HOLY, HOLY, HOLY IS THE LORD OF HOSTS, THE WHOLE EARTH IS FULL OF HIS GLORY, It is this which gives to the Scripture its superlative grandeur. By it, God is known; his will is promulgated; his purposes are revealed: his mercy is announced; and he is every where exhibited as worthy of the supreme adoration, love, service, and praise, of all his intelligent creatures. Little do those who neglect their Bibles think what refined delight they lose, by thus turning away their eyes from the most sublime, the most glorious, and the most beatifying object of contemplation, that the whole universe affords.
II. But this manifestation of the Divine
character and government is not presented to us as a matter of mere speculation, in which we have no immediate and personal interest. The Holy Scriptures are designed to promote the Glory of God BY THE SALVATION OF MAN. The peculiar purpose of the whole is, to turn men from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan
In that grand enunciation of the dignity and design of the Sacred Volume, which is given by the Apostle Paul, (2 Tim. iii. 16.
17,) we are told, that "ALL SCRIPTURE IS to God; to raise them from the ruins of GIVEN BY INSPIRATION OF GOD, AND IS PROFITABLE FOR DOCTRINE, FOR REPROOF,
For a similar reason, where the same identical words, or nearly so, might be found in a great number of texts, a few of these only have been selected ;---illustration, not repetition, having been the object
The references, therefore, which fill the middle column, have all been diligently considered and applied with a particular attention to this specific end, that none which were superfluous might be introduced, while the most material purposes to be answered by References might nevertheless be effectually secured.
WHETHER the latitude or the limits of such an undertaking be considered, it is proper that the principles on which it has been conducted should be so far explained, as that the Reader may be apprised of what he is to expect from it, and in what branches of religious inquiry it may most inaterially assist him.
*'APTIO, perfectus, integer, sanus, inco
FOR CORRECTION. FOR INSTRUCTION IN limis, consentaneus, consummatus.
OF THE POLYGLOTT BIBLE.
the Fall, and to put them in possession of the blessings of Redemption; to lead them from sin to holiness; to conduct them through a state of conflict and trial on earth, to a state of rest and felicity in heaven; and so to assist and direct them in all possible conditions in life, that they may not fail of these great ends, except by their own wilful rejection of the counsel of God against themselves. The salvation of his own soul should therefore be the grand concern of every reader of the Scripture. Here the immortality of the soul is brought to light, and placed in unquestionable evidence. Here, its defection from original purity is clearly demonstrated; the means of its restoration are set forth, and its future destiny is declared. It is an awful re-ed sufferings, his vicarious death,the verity sponsibility which they incur who wilfully of his resurrection and ascension into heaneglect this holy book, and devote all their ven, the sufficiency of his righteousness, time, and the powers of their minds, to the prevalence of his intercession, the terrestrial, and subordinate objects. They spirituality of his kingdom, his sovereignty slight the pearl of greatest price, which is in the Church, his constant care and love no where else to be found; and seem as if of his people, and the certainty of his sethey were determined to frustrate, as far cond coming to raise the dead and judge as respects themselves, all that Divine wis- the world in righteousness;---grand and dom and goodness have done to rescue the sublime truths, in which every individual immortal mind of man from spiritual igno- of the human race is deeply and eternally rance, error, vanity, vice, and ruin. Those, interested. however, who are seeking to enjoy the IV. The chief purpose of Christ's mission blessings which the Gospel reveals,will, as being that such as believe on him might they are able, search the Scriptures; and be saved from sin, which is the transsuch persons will receive great help from gression of the Divine law, and from the having references at hand to assist their punishment due to it; it has been thought inquines. "It were to be wished," says important frequently to connect those Bishop Horsely, "that no Bibles were texts which speak of transgressions, with printed without References. Particular those in which the law concerning them diligence should be used in comparing the is to be found, and in which punishment parallel texts of the Old and New Testa- is threatened; and sometimes with those ments.... It is incredible," he adds, "to in which the atonement is set forth, and any one who has not made the experiment, pardon is proclaimed; or in which sanctiwhat a proficiency may be made in that fication is promised, or enforced; and knowledge which maketh wise unto salva- these again with such as relate to the fution, by studying the Scriptures in this ture happiness and glory which is promismanner,WITHOUT ANY OTHER COMMENTA-ed to the faithful, or punishment and miseRY, OR EXPOSITION, THAN WHAT THE DIF- Fy denounced against the impenitent. A FERENT PARTS OF THE SACRED VOLUME small body of divinity is sometimes comMUTUALLY FURNISH FOR EACH OTHER. Let prised in a few texts connected together the most illiterate Christian study them in in this way. Thus, from those words in this manner, and let him never cease to Ezek. xxiii. 49. Ye shall bear the sins of pray for the illumination of that Spirit by your idols, the Reader is referred first to which these books were dictated: and the Numb. xiv. 31, as a parallel passage, whole compass of abstruse philosophy, showing God visiting sin upon the transrecondite history, shall furnish no argu- gressors themselves; then to Numb. xviii. ment with which the perverse will of man 23. to show the typical visitation of it shall be able to shake this learned Chris-upon the Levitical priesthood; then to tian's faith." So great and perfect is the saiah liii. 11. to show the prophetic decoincidence of every part of the Word of claration of its being laid on Christ; and, God in the grand and merciful design of lastly, to 1 Pet. ii. 24. to show the actual the whole! fulfilment of that prophecy, and the end to be answered by it for there we are told, that He that judgeth righteously, "his own self, bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sin, should live to righteousness."
Ill. This is more apparent, and the harmony and perfection of the Holy Scriptures are rendered more peculiarly evident and distinct, by the constant reference of all its writers to our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. TO HIM GIVE ALL THE PRO
Horsely's Nine Sermons, p. 224-238.
PHETS WITNESS. Acts x. 43. The things which were written in the law of Moses, and in all the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concern HIM; (Luke xxiv. 27, 44;) and would come to nothing if he were separated from them. He is the bright and morning star; the true light that must lighten every man who comes to see the glory of Divine Revelation. Rev. xxii. 16. John 1. 9. It has therefore been a chief design of this Work to connect and to exhibit the testimony which all the Sacred Penmen bear to the adorable Immanuel; to the proper and unequivocal Divinity of his nature, the necessity of his mediation, the reality and design of his incarnation. his spotless and exemplary life, his unparallel
V. The concurrence of the Old and New Testament with each other, and the relation of the types before and under the Mosaic law, to their completion under the
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH VERSION
Gospel, have been studiously regarded, so the circumstances recorded by St. Luke, as to render it evident, that whatever va- in his book of the Acts. Prophecies are riations may have been made in the form connected with their accomplishments, as and administration of external worship, far as those accomplishments are included true religion, under the former dispensa- in the Scripture History. Promises and tions, was always essentially the same as threatenings are connected with their retrue religion under the present; that "he spective fulfilment; precept with examis not a Jew which is one outwardly; nei- ple, and with supplication; and the prayers ther is that circumcision which is out of believers with the answers they have ward in the flesh: but he is a Jew which received. All these relations have been is one inwardly; and circumcision is that carefully regarded in this compilation. of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God. For in every nation, he that feareth God, and worketh righteousness, is accepted of him." Rom. ii. 28. 29. Acts x. 35. In this, the revelation made before the mistitution of the Levitical priesthood, that made during its continuance, and that which has been made since its termination, all agree. The Mosaic ritual was the shadow of good things to come; so were the priesthood and kingdom of Melchisedec and the body is Christ, who is essentially the same, both in his person and in his government, yesterday, to-day, the occurrences which gave rise to them, and for ever. Heb. xii. 8. as far as they can be ascertained. Thus
VIII. Further, the Scriptures are not merely intended to lead men to godliness: they are intended also to exemplify it. Repentance, Faith, Hope, Charity, and Devotion, are here exhibited in the most perfect models; and it has therefore entered into the design of this Work to show the corresponding emotions and conduct of the Saints, both of the Old Testament and the New, when under the influence of those dispositions, contemplations, and emotions, which are most peculiarly characteristic of true piety; and also to connect the devotional parts of Scripture with
VI. But the instruction diffused through is Religion known by its fruits: not as a the Scriptures, respecting the gracious thing merely of times and circumand indispensable operations of the Holy stances: but a living principle in the Ghost the Sanctifier, has not been forgot- mind, which times and circumstances ten: and the references on this article will call into action, and contribute to display. show, that, as to his sacred influence on IX. The aphoristic and poetical parts of the minds of the Inspired Penmen, we are the Sacred Writings are also connected, so indebted for all the truths they have as to illustrate and enforce each other; taught us; so to his influence on the that the Reader may be constantly imminds of those who receive and regard pressed with those momentous truths, them, must such persons be indebted for and that sublime language with which all they have learned, or can learn, of they abound, and which afford perpetual them. His work completes the great de- food for the best exercises of the unsign of the whole; and his assistance and derstanding, and the finest emotions of blessing are distinctly promised to all who the heart; at once furnishing materials sincerely ask them. for the most rational entertainment, and the most solid instruction. In this respect, the Scriptures will be found to resemble the garden of Eden, in which the Lord GOD has made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for spiritual food. But no Cherubim or flaming sword are here to prohibit access to the Tree of Life. The children of the second Adam may freely, and without fear or interruption, now put forth their hands to its soul-reviving fruit, and take, and eat, and live for ever.
VII. As the Scriptures harmonize in their primary and general objects, so do they with regard to the particular subjects comprehended in their plan. Historical accounts are verified by other coincident ones, or by accounts of the persons or places to which they refer. The prophecies of one Prophet, concerning events which were to take place, relating either to kingdoms, families, individuals, or the world at large, are consistent with those pronounced by other Prophets. The accounts of the Jewish polity under its various vicissitudes, are confirmed by the writings of the Prophets who lived during or after those vicissitudes; while the former but to extend to their own individual chatend reciprocally to establish the authen-racters. It will appear that they were all ticity of the latter. The histories of the animated by the same Spirit; that they Four Evangelists have a regular connec- were all holy men, speaking as they were tion and parallelism, especially those of moved by the Holy Ghost, calling men Matthew, Mark, and Luke. The recital of to holiness, as the indispensable requisite the transactions of the Apostles, after the to the enjoyment of everlasting happiness, ascension of our Lord, strongly authenti-men, nevertheless, of like passions with cates the Apostolic Epistles; and Archdea- ourselves, conscious of their own natural con Paley has well shown the confirmation infirmity and sinfulness, and of the mercy which the Epistles of St. Paul derive from of God through Christ Jesus, as their only
X. The agreement of the Sacred Writers with each other will be found not only to exist in the subjects on which they treat,
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refuge from his just displeasure. In short, rusals, like gathered flowers, wither in our they were men fearing God; loving God; hands, and lose their fragrancy; but these loving his character, his laws, his will; ad- unfading plants of Paradise become, as we miring his great and wonderful purposes, are accustomed to them, still more and and voluntarily, deliberately, and determi- more beautiful; their bloom appears to be nately devoting themselves to his service, daily heightened, fresh odours are emitted, whatever it might cost them, and to what- and new sweets extracted from them. He ever it might expose them. On all these who hath once tasted their excellencies, accounts, they are held forth as examples, will desire to taste them yet again; and whose faith, patience, and practice, Chris he who tastes them oftenest will relish tians are to follow. 1 Cor. xi. 1. Heb. xiii. them best." 7. Ja. v. 10.
Happy in having laboured to facilitate the acquaintance of the Christian with this invaluable treasure, the Editor has now only to implore the blessing of Him by whom its exhaustless stores have been bestowed on sinful man; and to hope that his feeble endeavours may be instruinental in advancing the Reader's edification, and,
It is thus that the Scriptures are PROFITABLE to all the purposes for which they are destined, and are calculated to make the man of God PERFECT, and thoroughly furnished unto all good works. To the Inspired Pages at large may be applied the remarks of the excellent Bishop Horne (on the Psalms.) "Indited under the influence in their humble measure, tend to promote of Him, to whom all hearts are known, and that happy state of things, so long foretold all events foreknown, they suit mankind and so ardently to be desired, in which in all situations, grateful as the manna THE EARTH SHALL BE FILLED WITH THE which descended from above, and con- KNOWLEDGE OF THE GLORY OF JEHOVAH formed itself to every palate. The fairest AS THE WATERS COVER THE SEA. Heb. i. productions of human wit, after a few pe-14. Is. xi. 9.