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ical Correlation Program (IGCP). The regulations governing these UNESCO-related bodies allow participation by nonUNESCO member states.
The United States made voluntary contributions, through the International Contributions to Scientific, Educational and Cultural Activities (ICSECA) account, of approximately $2 million to selected international scientific, educational or cultural activities in UNESCO's fields of competence considered important to U.S. interests. Among other bodies or activities funded were the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program and international activities in library and information science. A separate contribution of approximately $550,000 was made to the World Heritage Fund, whose Secretariat is provided by UNESCO.
Agreements and Conventions
During 1991, the United States continued to play a leadership role in encouraging international cooperation in combating the illicit movement of cultural property under the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. The United States responded to an emergency request from Guatemala on April 15 by imposing an import ban on Maya artifacts from the Peten region. U.S. action on Guatemala's request was the fourth action taken by the United States under the convention.
Although there are 71 state parties to the convention, the United States remains the only one considered a major importer of art, and the only state to assist another pursuant to Article 9 of the Convention.
Universal Copyright Convention
International copyright activities of UNESCO are undertaken in connection with its role as Secretariat for the Universal Copyright Convention (UCC). As a member state of the UCC, the United States continues to participate in all copyright activities sponsored by UNESCO.
Joint activities are carried out with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), which serves as the Secretariat for the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. These activities involve meetings of the Intergovernmental Copyright Committee of the UCC and the Executive Committee of the Berne Convention, held every 2 years in
odd-numbered years. The joint meeting of the two committees scheduled for 1991, however, was postponed.
The UCC Intergovernmental Copyright Committee held its biennial meeting in June in Paris where the United States was elected to a 6-year term on the Committee.
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) is the UN agency responsible for promoting and coordinating global marine science activities of its 118 member states. It is functionally autonomous within UNESCO, with its own program and budget supported both by UNESCO and its own member states, who contribute over half of the IOC's program funding.
A major U.S. objective being carried out through the IOC is the planning and implementation of a Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) to acquire global ocean data necessary for studies of climate and global change and to monitor the environment. In 1991 the Commission, in cooperation with the WMO and the UNEP Program, made significant progress in planning for this complex system. Three professionals are now seconded to the IOC Secretariat by the United States to help staff the IOC's new Global Ocean Observing System Planning Office.
The GOOS is expected to contribute to the oceanographic component of a Global Climate Observing System, as proposed by the Second World Climate Conference and endorsed by the UN Conference on Environment and Development preparatory committee. It will also include a coastal and nearshore component for fisheries research and management, study of harmful algal blooms, pollution monitoring, and detecting sea-level changes.
Major IOC programs such as the GOOS contribute to the U.S. Global Change Research Program (GCRP), intended to provide the scientific basis for national and international policy regarding natural and human-induced changes in the global earth system. The President's budget for 1991 proposed spending $1.18 billion for global change research by Federal agencies, a 24 percent increase over 1991.
IOC activities that contribute to U.S. goals in climate research include the Joint Committee for Climate Changes and the Ocean (CCCO) (chaired by the United States); Committee for Ocean Processes and Climate (chaired by the United States); Intergovernmental Panel for the World Circulation Experiment (WOCE);
Intergovernmental Board for the Tropical Ocean and Global
Other IOC activities in which the United States was active in 1991 include the following.
• The IOC International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific oversees a program for monitoring undersea earthquakes and issues timely warnings of resulting tsunamis (so-called "tidal waves"). These warnings directly benefited U.S. coastal interests in the Pacific. At the 1991 meeting, significant advances were made in arrangements for realtime exchange of tsunami data and information.
Ongoing U.S. participation in the IOC Technical Committee for International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange, and the ICSU/IOC World Data System for Oceanography, provided U.S. agencies and scientists with foreign-source data at savings valued at over $1 million per year. It also provided a mechanism for agreement among data agencies on international data standards and formats which permit data to be exchanged at lower cost. The United States hosts the World Data Centers for Oceanography (Washington) and for Marine Geology and Geophysics (Boulder).
• The IOC Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) was expanded in 1991 by installation of a number of new stations in the Pacific. Efforts continue to expand the system in the Atlantic, and to overcome technical difficulties in establishing stations in the Southern Ocean, including Antarctic waters.
A highlight of the March IOC meeting was the report and discussion of regional cooperation connected with a scientific cruise of the NOAA research vessel Mt. Mitchell to investigate the impact of the Gulf War on the marine environment. This 100day investigation, initiated under the IOC/UNEP program for Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment (GIPME), was jointly sponsored by NOAA, IOC and the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME), a consortium of Gulf states.
The International Geological Correlation Program
The International Geological Correlation Program (IGCP) promotes cooperative research on global geologic problems. In recent years the program has expanded from its traditional
themes to encourage a more cooperative, multidisciplinary approach and emphasize the present-day geologic environment, including geologic hazards and global change. The work is carried out through 59 research projects (56 funded) that last from 4 to 10 years.
The United States has played a prominent role in IGCP since its establishment in 1973. U.S. geoscientists helped design the program and are members of the IGCP Board and Advisory Scientific Committee. U.S. funding of $80,000 for 1991, provided through the National Academy of Sciences, serves as a catalyst to stimulate additional support from universities, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and private industry. UNESCO cut its contribution to IGCP by 21 percent for 1992-1993, which increases its dependence on voluntary contributions.
Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program
Scientists from the United States, as members of the U.S. Man and the Biosphere (U.S. MAB) Program and as individuals, continued to collaborate with the UNESCO MAB Program and other UN programs and agencies during 1991. Funds provided through the Foreign Assistance Act, and through the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, were granted to U.S. MAB to provide support for specific international projects of U.S. scientists that would normally have been funded by UNESCO.
In arctic science affairs, U.S. MAB funds were utilized for a study grant to examine the atmospheric delivery and transformation of toxaphene (organochlorine pesticides and poly chlorinated biphenels) particularly in their accumulation in the human food chains in the arctic regions. The researchers will attempt to distinguish between toxaphenes originating from Canadian, U.S. and eastern European sources. Also in arctic scientific affairs, U.S. MAB agreed to support and host an international workshop of managers of UNESCO-recognized and designated biosphere reserves to focus on compatible scientific database formulation and key scientific protocols relevant to global change research.
Funds were also used to continue the support of a Fellowship position at the Secretariat headquarters of the Northern Sciences Network at the University of Lapland in Rovaniemi, Finland.
In tropical ecology, U.S. MAB allocated funds for the support of several international projects that are coordinated with
projects of UNESCO and other UN organizations. U.S. MAB awarded a grant through Yale University to develop alternative options for the sustainable management of the Macara I, II and III Extractive Reserves in collaboration with the Brazilian Rural Works Union of Amapa and the National Council of Rubber Tappers. U.S. MAB funds were awarded to examine the benefits to tropical coastal environments provided by mangrove forests in Jamaica and to a UNESCO-designated biosphere reserve in the U.S. Virgin Islands. U.S. MAB funds were also competitively awarded to studies on the role of nontimber forest products in maintaining the health of the Venezuelan Yanomami Amerindians and the effects which settlement and deforestation may have on the availability, use and management of these products. A project concerning the land-use practices in northern Thailand was funded with U.S. MAB funds to support development of a database using aerial photographs and satellite remote sensing information to investigate forest fragmentation patterns and losses in tropical forest landscapes near Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Assisting the international MAB research program to focus on more problem-oriented specific programs, U.S. MAB established a second major U.S. core program area in the MAB Directorate on Human Dominated Systems. This program will develop management options for preserving ecological sustainability in three UNESCO-designated biosphere reserve sites along the eastern coast of the United States: the Everglades, the Virginia Coast and the Pinelands Reserve of New Jersey. Development of this second core program area in the U.S. MAB program will, in part, be translatable to development of international programs to utilize comparable methodologies for programs on sustainable development.
U.S. MAB scientists were invited to participate in the third EuroMAB Congress-a geopolitical organization of the MAB programs of 21 nations of Europe and North America. The U.S. Delegation of four U.S. scientists-two from federal agencies, two from public universities—was designated by the Congress to take the leadership role in development of a network of environmental and ecological databases on the 168 biosphere reserves in the EuroMAB region. The U.S. Delegation was assigned the follow-up role on augmenting the social science component in the research planning for the EuroMAB countries. At the Congress, the U.S. Delegation also introduced a U.S. MAB-funded project on "Networking the Networks," to