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Effective Mobilization and Integration of Women in Development, under agenda item 77 (Development and International Economic Cooperation).
In her statement to the Second Committee, the U.S. Representative reaffirmed U.S. support for UNDP's 1991 Human Development Report; commended the United Nations for activities undertaken system-wide to further the integration of women in the development process; and noted U.S. efforts to integrate women in development. In her Third Committee statement, the U.S. Representative highlighted what the United States had done to fulfill the priority themes to be discussed at the 1992 CSW session-particularly to eliminate de jure and de facto discrimination against women. Her speech also addressed the CSW communications procedure and the status of women in the Secretariat,
The United States joined consensus in adopting resolution 46/167, which was introduced in the Second Committee, entitled: "Women, environment, population and sustainable development." A key provision of this resolution requested coordination between the CSW and the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).
There were four resolutions under agenda item 95. The United States cosponsored and joined consensus in adopting resolution 46/100, “Improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat," which requested the Secretary General to accord greater priority to the recruitment and promotion of women throughout the UN system, in order to achieve an overall participation rate of 35 percent of the total by 1995, and, to the extent possible, 25 percent in posts at the D-1 level and above. The United States joined consensus in adopting resolutions 46/97, “UN Development Fund for Women" (UNIFEM), which endorsed the Fund's role in promoting economic empowerment of women in the preparations for the 1995 World Conference on Women; 46/98, "Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women," an amalgam of recommendations to advance the status of women; and 46/99, "International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women" (INSTRAW), which commended the work of INSTRAW and invited contributions to it.
Global Assembly on Women and the Environment
The Global Assembly on Women and the Environment, Partners in Life was held in Miami on November 4-8. The U.S. Representative to the Commission on the Status of Women represented the United States on the Government Mentor Group, which drafted recommendations to ensure women's equal participation in actions to achieve ecologically sustainable development.
The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) held its fifth regional conference on the integration of women into the economic and social development of Latin America and the Caribbean, September 16-19 in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. The conference reviewed the status of women in the region and adopted resolutions aimed at integrating women in the economies of their countries, increasing women's political participation, and eliminating violence against women. Although the final document was adopted by consensus,
U.S. reservations were noted on sections of the report that dealt with the "negative impact of the international economic situation of the 1980s on developing countries." The United States believed this statement was untrue. In fact, many developing countries experienced economic growth during the decade.
Expert Group Meetings
Throughout the year, the United States participated in expert group meetings sponsored by the Division for the Advancement of Women. The reports of the expert group meetings form the basis of the Secretary General's reports to the CSW. The United States participated in the Regional Seminar on the Impact of Economic and Political Reform on the Status of Women in Eastern Europe and the U.S.S.R. (April 8–12); Expert Group Meeting on the Role of Women in Public Life (May 21-24); Expert Group Meeting on the Integration of Aging and Elderly Women into Development (October 7–11); Expert Group Meeting on Violence Against Women (November 11-15); and the Seminar on the Integration of Women in Development (December 9-11).
UN Development Fund for Women
The United States pledged $800,000 to the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) for FY 1991. In 1991 UNIFEM developed strategies to work more effectively with refugee women, and worked with the UN Conference on Environment and Development to make the UNCED follow-up program more gender-sensitive and responsive.
The United States pledged $200,000 to the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) for FY 1991. INSTRAW's major effort in the statistical field was to improve statistics on women in the informal sector, with a view to helping countries plan more effectively. INSTRAW continued its work on monitoring and evaluating programs and projects to promote the inclusion of women, with the aim of providing assistance to agencies that recognized the need to include women in their development plans but lacked specific knowledge.
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UN Electoral Assistance
This session of the General Assembly saw the realization of U.S. goals to enhance and coordinate UN efforts in electoral assistance. President Bush laid out those goals in his 1990 address to the General Assembly, when he cited the positive track record of UN electoral assistance in Namibia and Nicaragua and asked the Assembly to formalize the UN role in electoral assistance. U.S. efforts in this field are an extension of its continuing promotion of basic human rights of all persons, as provided in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to take part in the government of their country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
As instructed by the previous year's resolution 45/150, the UN Secretary General in March solicited the views of member states, specialized agencies and other relevant international entities on ways the United Nations could provide electoral assistance to requesting member states. Those views and the views of the Secretary General were published by the United Nations just prior to Third Committee discussion of UN electoral assistance under the agenda item, “Enhancing the effectiveness of the principle of periodic and genuine elections."
In a speech before the Third Committee, Congressman Dan Burton, U.S. Representative, endorsed the criteria for UN electoral assistance elaborated by the Secretary General's report. The report states that:
The requests should pertain primarily to situations with a clear international dimension; the monitoring of an election or referendum should cover the entire electoral process in order to secure conditions of fairness and impartiality; where the induction of a UN presence in the electoral process of a state at a critical point in its political life is sought by the government concerned, it is necessary that there be broad public support in the state for the United Nations assuming
such a role; and finally there should be approval by the competent
The Third Committee debated the item during November and December. There was broad agreement that a resolution on UN electoral assistance should create a mechanism to provide coherent and coordinated direction to requests for electoral assistance. By emphasizing that the United Nations would provide electoral assistance only under sharply defined conditions, the United States and other cosponsors took care of many of the reservations expressed during the 45th UN General Assembly.
The Cuban Delegation attempted to sabotage the resolution during Committee debate by proposing amendments to delete major elements. On December 10 the Third Committee passed a no-action motion on the amendments proposed by Cuba
On December 17 the plenary adopted resolution 46/137 (134 (U.S.) to 3, with 13 abstentions). Twenty-nine nations cosponsored the resolution. The resolution affirmed the value of electoral assistance that the United Nations had provided; commended the work of UN organs which provide electoral and technical assistance, as well as the efforts of nongovernmental organizations; and authorized the Secretary General to designate a senior official to act as focal point, to ensure coordination and consistency in its provision of electoral assistance. Resolution 46/137 also requested the establishment of a voluntary trust fund for electoral verification missions.
UN Environment Program
The UN Environment Program (UNEP) was established in 1973, pursuant to the UN General Assembly resolution implementing recommendations from the UN Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. UNEP, headquartered in Nairobi, evolved from a U.S. initiative, and since its inception the United States has been an active participant. UNEP's extensive mandate is to catalyze and coordinate environmental activities throughout the UN system, and to support efforts by national governments globally to deal with natural resource and environmental problems of universal interest.
The Governing Council is UNEP's program and policy oversight body. Comprised of 58 member countries elected by the UN General Assembly, it reports to the General Assembly through ECOSOC. The Governing Council meets biennially; its 16th session was held in Nairobi on May 20–31. The UNEP Executive Director is Mostafa Kamal Tolba (Egypt).
UNEP's essential Secretariat expenses are financed by the UN regular budget and amounted to $11.96 million for 1990–1991. A separate environment fund, supported by voluntary contributions from member states, provides financing for environmental initiatives undertaken by UNEP. For the 1990–1991 biennium, program activities in UNEP's Governing Council-approved fund amounted to $68 million, with a reserve fund totaling $4 million. The United States provided the largest share for 1991$15 million, or 24.9 percent-of voluntary contributions paid to the fund. The 16th Governing Council approved for the 1992– 1993 biennium a total program budget of $150 million in annual contributions for the environment fund and an additional $30 million in a supplementary appropriation if the level of contributions allows.
The Governing Council approved 45 decisions by consensus. Two rollcall votes were held, on a Governing Council special