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to that point, and invited all governments, specialized agencies, regional commissions and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations to participate in preparation for and observance of the year.

Aging and Elderly

The United States considers this issue one of the most important in the UN social affairs area, and recognizes the global implications of a growing, aging population. The 46th General Assembly adopted two separate resolutions on aging. The first, entitled “Implementation of the International Plan of Action on Aging and Related Activities” (Resolution 46/91), was forwarded from ECOSOC. It recommended the General Assembly devote four plenary meetings at its 47th session to an international conference on aging, both to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the adoption of the “International Plan of Action on Aging,

" and to consolidate a set of targets for the year 2001. The second resolution, “Implementation of the International Plan of Action on Aging: Integration of the Elderly in Development” (Resolution 46/94), focused on the elderly in development. It called for celebrating October 1 as International Day for the Elderly.


The United States supports UN programs for the disabled and traditionally cosponsors a resolution on the disabled. At the 46th UN General Assembly, the United States cosponsored the resolution entitled "Implementation of the World Program of Action Concerning Disabled Persons and the UN Decade of Disabled Persons" (Resolution 46/96), which was adopted without a vote. The resolution welcomed the offer of the U.S. Government (National Council on Disability) to host an international conference on disability, entitled "Setting National Disability Policies—An Agenda for Action." In addition, to mark the end of the UN Decade of Disabled Persons, the General Assembly decided to devote four of its plenary meetings at the 47th General Assembly to disability.

UN Educational and Training Program for Southern Africa

The UN Educational and Training Program for Southern Africa (UNETPSA) was established by the UN General Assembly in 1967 by integrating earlier special programs to assist persons from Namibia, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia and Territories under Portuguese administration in Africa. Its mandate is to provide comprehensive financial assistance for education and training of students. Program headquarters are in New York, and it is administered by the Secretary General in consultation with the Advisory Committee on the UN Educational and Training Program for Southern Africa. The Advisory Committee, to which the United States belongs, has 13 members.

UNETPSA is financed from a trust fund made up of voluntary contributions by member states, organizations and individuals. For the 1-year period ending August 31, contributions and pledges totaled $5.9 million. The principal donors were: Japan, $960,000; Norway, $953,623; and United States, $800,000. The Program now grants scholarship assistance only to students from South Africa and, for a transitional period, to students from Namibia.

During 1991 UNETPSA continued to sponsor awards jointly with the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Assistance, which agreed to administer scholarship awards in British Commonwealth countries at a reduced cost to the Program. As a result, 276 students received awards to complete courses through the South African Extension Unit's programs in the Republic of Tanzania. In addition, UNETPSA expanded cooperation on new programs, such as short term training for trade union organizing, administration and management, community development and small business development, for a total of 187 participants.

The Education Development Trust of South Africa and UNETPSA worked together to identify, select and sponsor 68 students from South Africa to pursue studies in Zimbabwe. To increase the number of students in India, UNETPSA initiated arrangements with Educational Consultants Limited of India to administer the placement and counseling of up to 20 students.

The Commonwealth Secretariat has agreed to arrange for vocational training for approximately 75 students through the South African Extension Unit. This includes practical training experience and degree or diploma courses, as well as teacher training of Namibians in India.

UNETPSA has initiated arrangements with the Council on International Programs (CIP), which brought workers and community development professionals to the United States for a 4month and 12-month work experience with social welfare agencies. CIP has proposed a special program for approximately 20 South Africans to undertake professional work experience.

The United States is a member of the Advisory Committee on UNETPSA, which held two meetings on the development of the Program.

On June 4 the Committee took note of the work plan for 1991–1992, based to a large extent on recommendations of a 1989 evaluation report. In addition, it considered a report by the ad hoc Sub-Committee of current and future priority fields of study under the Program. The Sub-Committee found, among other things, that the recommendation that the Program continue to train qualified applicants who are refugees and members of liberation movements, but encourage them to obtain skills that will lead to employment in South Africa and the region, could be implemented without financial implications. It also found that the recommendation that awards for study in Europe and North America should be generally reserved for study at postgraduate level and for other specialized training not available in African and other low-cost countries had no financial implications and might be implemented immediately.

At the meeting, the U.S. Delegation initiated discussion of the purpose of UNEPTSA's existence, and its historical performance, noting that there may soon be no basis for its mandate once apartheid ends in South Africa. New awards were phased out over a 1-year period for former Portuguese colonies as they became independent, and over a 2-year period for Zimbabwe. The phase-out period for Namibia extends until the end of 1992. After that, no new grants will be awarded to Namibians, but current students will continue to be funded until they finish their studies.

Part 5

Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

At its 1991 annual spring session in Geneva, ECOSOC adopted 48 resolutions on human rights questions referred to it by subsidiary bodies, in particular the Human Rights Commission. The majority of these were adopted by consensus, but the United States continued to oppose the flawed resolutions it had also opposed in the Commission.

Ambassador J. Kenneth Blackwell was appointed by the President to serve as U.S. Representative to the UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) and to head the U.S. Delegation to the 47th UNHRC annual session held January 28–March 8. ECOSOC considered the Commission's report at its first regular session in New York May 13–31. The General Assembly considered a lengthy agenda of human rights issues. The 43rd session of the Commission's expert Subcommission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities was held in Geneva August 5-30.

Violations of Human Rights in
Specific Countries

Examination of violations of human rights in any part of the world is an important recurring topic on the agenda of the Human Rights Commission. Coming as it did at the height of the Gulf crisis, the Commission paid particular attention to the human rights situation in Iraq and occupied Kuwait. The Commission adopted strong condemnatory resolutions on human rights in occupied Kuwait and in Iraq itself. The resolution on occupied Kuwait cited the many human rights violations committed by Iraqi forces during their occupation of Kuwait and called for a special rapporteur to be named to study and report on the situation to the General Assembly and the next Commission session. It was adopted by a vote of 41 (U.S.) to 1. (Resolution 1991/67.) Resolution 1991/74, which called for a special rapporteur to prepare reports for the General Assembly and the next Commission session on Iraqi Government violations of the

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