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first credit and fundamental authority to the test and rate you and me for ever. But in what part of the testimony of reason. Sound reason is the touchstone world soever I am, I will live mindful of your sincere to distinguish that pure and genuine gold from baser kindness to me; and will please myself with the metals; revelation truly divine, from imposture and thought that I still live in your esteem and affection enthusiasm : so that the Christian religion is so far as much as ever I did; and that no accident of life, from declining or fearing the strictest trials of reason, no distance of time or place, will alter you in that that it everywhere appeals to it; is defended and respect. It never can me, who have loved and valued supported by it; and indeed cannot continue, in the you ever since I knew you, and shall not fail to do it Apostle's description (James i. 27), “pure and unde- when I am not allowed to tell you so, as the case filed' without it. It is the benefit of reason alone, will soon be. Give my faithful services to Dr Arunder the Providence and Spirit of God, that we our buthnot, and thanks for what he sent me, which was selves are at this day a reformed orthodox church: much to the purpose, if anything can be said to be that we departed from the errors of popery, and that to the purpose in a cage that is already determined. we knew, too, where to stop; neither running into the Let him know my defence will be such, that neither extravagances of fanaticism, nor sliding into the in- my friends need blush for me, nor will my enemies differency of libertinism. Whatsoever, therefore, is have great occasion to triumph, though sure of the inconsistent with natural reason, can never be justly victory. I shall want his advice before I go abroad imposed as an article of faith. That the same body in many things. But I question whether I shall be is in many places at once, that plain bread is not permitted to see him or anybody, but such as are breed; such things, though they be said with never absolutely necessary towards the despatch of my 80 much pomp and claim to infallibility, we have private affairs. If so, God bless you both! and may still greater authority to reject them, as being con

no part of the ill fortune that attends me ever purtrary to common sense and our natural faculties; sue either of you. I know not but I may call upon as subverting the foundations of all faith, even the you at my hearing, to say somewhat about my way grounds of their own credit, and all the principles of of spending my time at the deanery, which did not civil life. So far are we from contending with our adversaries racies. But of that I shall consider. You and I have

seem calculated towards managing plots and conspiabout the dignity and authority of reason ; but then spent many hours fogether upon much pleasanter we differ with them about the exercise of it, and the subjects; and, that I may preserve the old custom, extent of its province. For the deists there stop, and I shall not part with you now till I have closed this set bounds to their faith, where reason, their only letter with three lines of Milton, which you will, I guide, does not lead the way further, and walk along know, readily, and not without some degree of conbefore them. We, on the contrary, as (Deut. xxxiv.) Moses was shown by divine power a true sight of the cern, apply to your ever affectionate, &c. promised land, though himself could not pass over to Some natural tears he dropped, but wiped them soon; it, 80 we think reason may receive from revelation The world was all before hin where to choose some further discoveries and new prospects of things, His place of rest, and Providence his guide.' and be fully convinced of the reality of them; though itself cannot pass on, nor travel those regions; cannot

[Usefulness of Church Music.) penetrate the fund of those truths, nor advance to the utmost bounds of them. For there is certainly a wide The use of vocal and instrumental harmony in difference between what is contrary to reason, and divine worship I shall recommend and justify from what is superior to it, and out of its reach.

this consideration: that they do, when wisely em

ployed and managed, contribute extremely to awaken DR FRANCIS ATTERBURY.

the attention and enliven the devotion of all serious

and sincere Christians; and their usefulness to this Dr FRANCIS ATTERBURY (1662–1731), an Oxford end will appear on a double account, as they remove divine and zealous high churchman, was one of the the ordinary hindrances of devotion, and as they combatants in the critical warfare with Bentley supply us fúrther with special helps and advantages about the epistles of Phalaris. Originally tutor to towards quickening and improving it. Lord Orrery, he was, in 1713, rewarded for his

By the melodious harmony of the church, the ordiTory zeal by being named Bishop of Rochester.

nary hindrances of devotion are removed, particuUnder the new dynasty and Whig government, his larly these three; that engagement of thought which zeal carried him into treasonable practices, and, in

we often bring with us into the church from what we 1722, he was apprehended on suspicion of being last converse with ; those accidental distractions that concerned in a plot to restore the Pretender, and may happen to us during the course of divine service; was committed to the Tower. A bill of pains and and that weariness and flatness of mind which some penalties was preferred against him, and he was weak tempers may labour under, by reason even of deposed and outlawed. Atterbury now went into the length of it. exile, and resided first at Brussels and afterwards

When we come into the sanctuary immediately at Paris, continuing to correspond with Pope, Boling from any worldly affair, as our very condition of life broke, and his other Jacobite friends, till his death. does, alas! force many of us to do, we come usually The works of this accomplished, but restless and with divided and alienated minds. The business, the aspiring prelate, consist of four volumes of sermons, pleasure, or the amusement we left, sticks fast to us, some visitation charges, and his epistolary, corre and perhaps engrosses that heart for a time, which spondence, which was extensive. His style is easy should then be taken up altogether in spiritual and elegant, and he was a very impressive preacher. addresses. But as soon as the sound of the sacred The good taste of Atterbury is seen in his admira- hymns strikes us, all that busy swarm of thoughts tion of Milton, before fashion had sanctioned the presently disperses: by a grateful violence we are applause of the great poet. His letters to Pope forced into the duty that is going forward, and, as breathe the utmost affection and tenderness. The indevout and backward as we were before, find ourfollowing farewell letter to the poet was sent from selves on the sudden seized with a sacred warmth, the Tower, April 10, 1723 :

ready to cry out, with holy David, My heart is Dear Sir-I thank you for all the instances of fixed, o God, my heart is fixed; I will sing and your friendship, both before and since my misfor- give praise.' Our misapplication of mind at such tunes. A little time will complete them, and sepa- I times is often so great, and we so deeply immersed

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in it, that there needs some very strong and powerful How dreadful is this place! This is none other but charm to rouse us from it; and perhaps nothing is of the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.' greater force to this purpose than the solemn and Further, the availableness of harmony to promote a awakening airs of church music.

pious disposition of mind will appear from the great For the same reason, those accidental distractions influence it naturally has on the passions, which, that may happen to us are also best cured by it. when well directed, are the wings and sails of the The strongest minds, and best practised in holy duties, mind, that speed its passage to perfection, and are of may sometimes be surprised into a forgetfulness of particular and remarkable use in the offices of devowhat they are about by some violent outward im- tion ; for devotion consists in an ascent of the mind pressions; and every slight occasion will serve to call towards God, attended with holy breathings of soul, off the thoughts of no less willing though much and a divine exercise of all the passions and powers weaker worshippers. Those that come to see, and to be of the mind. These passions the melody of sounds seen here, will often gain their point; will draw and serves only to guide and elevate towards their proper detain for a while the eyes of the curious and unwary. object; these it first calls forth and encourages, and A passage in the sacred story read, an expression used then gradually raises and inflames. This it does to in the common forms of devotion, shall raise a foreign all of them, as the matter of the hymns sung gires an reflection, perhaps, in musing and speculative minds, occasion for the employment of them; but the power and lead them on from thought to thought, and point of it is chiefly seen in advancing that most heavenly to point, till they are bewildered in their own imagi- passion of love, which reigns always in pious breasts, nations. These, and a hundred other arocations, and is the surest and most inseparable mark of true will arise and prevail; but when the instruments of devotion ; which recommends what we do in virtue of praise begin to sound, our scattered thoughts pre- it to God, and makes it relishing to ourselves; and sently take the alarm, return to their post and to without which all our spiritual offerings, our prayers, their duty, preparing and arming themselves against and our praises, are both insipid and unacceptable. their spiritual assailants.

At this our religion begins, and at this it ends; it is Lastly, even the length of the service itself becomes the sweetest companion and improvement of it here a hindrance sometimes to the devotion which it upon earth, and the very carnest and foretaste of was meant to feed and raise; for, alas ! we quickly heaven ; of the pleasures of which nothing further is tire in the performance of holy duties; and as revealed to us, than that they consist in the practice eager and unwearied as we are in attending upon of holy music and holy love, the joint enjoyment of secular business and trifling concerns, yet in divine which, we are told, is to be the happy lot of all pious offices, I fear, the expostulation of our Saviour is souls to endless ages. applicable to most of us, What! can ye not watch Now, it naturally follows from hence, which was the with me one hour? This infirmity is relieved, this last advantage from whence I proposed to recommend hindrance prevented or removed, by the sweet har- church music, that it makes our duty a pleasure, and mony that accompanies several parts of the service, enables us, by that means, to perform it with the and returning upon us at fit intervals, keeps our at utmost vigour and cheerfulness. It is certain, that tention up to the duties when we begin to flag, and the more pleasing an action is to us, the inore keenly makes us insensible of the length of it. Happily, and eagerly are we used to employ ourselves in it; therefore, and wisely is it so ordered, that the morn the less liable are we, while it is going forward, to ing devotions of the church, which are much the tire, and droop, and be dispirited. So that whatever Jongest, should share also a greater proportion of the contributes to make our devotion taking, within such harınony which is useful to enliven them.

a degree as not at the same time to dissipate and dis. But its use stops not here, at a bare removal of the tract it, does, for that very reason, contribute to our ordinary impediments to devotion; it supplies us also attention and holy warmth of mind in performing it. with special helps and advantages towards furthering What we take delight in, we no longer look upon as and improving it. For it adds dignity and solemnity a task, but return to always with desire, dwell upon to public worship; it sweetly influences and raises with satisfaction, and quit with uneasineze. And this our passions whilst we assist at it, and makes us do it was which made holy David express himself in so our duty with the greatest pleasure and cheerfulness; pathetical a manner concerning the service of the all which are very proper and powerful means towards sanctuary : “As the hart panteth after the watercreating in us that holy attention and erection of brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, O God. When, mind, the most reasonable part of this our reasonable oh when, shall I come to appear before the presence of service.

God? The ancients do sometimes use the inetaphor Such is our nature, that even the best things, and of an army when they are speaking of the joint deromost worthy of our esteem, do not always employ and tions put up to God in the assembly of his saints. detain our thoughts in proportion to their real value, They say we there meet together in troops to do riounless they be set off and greatened by some outward lence to heaven ; we encompass, we besiege the throne circumstances, which are fitted to raise admiration of God, and bring such a united force, as is not to be and surprise in the breasts of those who hear or withstood. And I suppose we may as innocently behold them. And this good effect is wrought in us carry on the metaphor as they have begun it, and by the power of sacred music. To it we, in good say, that church music, when decently ordered, may measure, owe the dignity and solemnity of our public have as great uses in this army of supplicants, as the worship; which else, I fear, in its natural simplicity sound of the trumpet has among the host of the and plainness, would not so strongly strike, or so mighty mien. It equally rouses the courage, equally deeply affect the minds, as it ought to do, of the slug- gives life, and vigour, and resolution, and unanigish and inattentive, that is, of the far greatest part wity, to these holy assailants. of mankind. But when voice and instruments are skilfully adapted to it, it appears to us in a majestic air and shape, and gives us very awful and reverent impressions, which while they are upon us, it is im Dr SAMUEL CLARKE, a distinguished divine, possible for us not to be fixed and composed to the scholar, and metaphysician, was born at Norwich utmost. We are then in the same state of mind that (which his father represented in parliament) on the the devout patriarch was when he awoke from his ilth of October, 1675. His powers of reflection holy dream, and ready with him to say to ourselves, and abstraction are said to have been developed "Surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not! , when a mere boy. His biographer, Whiston, relates


that 'one of his parents asked him, when he was and to conceive Him as filling the infinite extent of very young, Whether God could do every thing? both with his presence and with his power. Hence He answered, Yes! He was asked again, Whether we associate with the idea of God those awful imGod could tell a lie? He answered, No! And he pressions which are naturally produced by the idea understood the question to suppose that this was the of infinite space, and perhaps still more by the idea only thing that God could not do; nor durst he say, of endless duration. Nor is this all. It is from the 80 young was he then, that he thought there was immensity of space that the notion of infinity is anything else which God could not do; while yet originally derived ; and it is hence that we transfer he well remembered, that he had even then a clear the expression, by a sort of metaphor, to other subconviction in his own mind, that there was one jects. When we speak, therefore, of infinite power, thing which God could not do—that he could not wisdom, and goodness, our notions, if not wholly annihilate that space which was in the room where borrowed froni space, are at least greatly aided by they were.' This opinion concerning the necessary this analogy; so that the conceptions of immensity existence of space became a leading feature in the and eternity, if they do not of themselves demonmind of the future philosopher. At Caius' college, strate the existence of God, yet necessarily enter Cambridge, Clarke cultivated natural philosophy into the ideas we form of his nature and attributes.'* with such success, that in his twenty-second year How beautifully has Pope clothed this magnificent he published an excellent translation of Rohault's conception in verse ! Physics, with notes, in which he advocated the Newtonian system, although that of Descartes was

• All are but parts of one stupendous whole, taught by Rohault, whose work was at that time the

Whose body nature is, and God the soul ; text-book in the university. And this certainly,

That, changed through all, and yet in all the same ; says Bishop Hoadly, 'was a more prudent method

Cireat in the earth as in the ethereal frame; of introducing truth unknown before, than to at

Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze,

Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees; tempt to throw aside this treatise entirely, and write a new one instead of it. The success answered

Lives through all life, extends through all extent, exceedingly well to his hopes ; and he may justly

Spreads undivided, operates unspent.'t be styled a great benefactor to the university in this The followers of Spinoza built their pernicious attempt. For by this means the true philosophy theory upon the same argument of endless space; but has, without any noise, prevailed; and to this day Pope has spiritualised the idea by placing God as the translation of Rohault is, generally speaking, the the soul of all, and Clarke's express object was to standard text for lectures, and his notes the first show that the subtleties they had advanced against direction to those who are willing to receive the religion, might be better employed in its favour. reality and truth of things in the place of inven- Such a mode of argument, however, is beyond the tion and romance.' Four editions of Clarke's trans- faculties of man; and Whiston only repeated a comlation of Rohault were required before it ceased mon and obvious truth, when he told Clarke that in to be used in the university; but at length it was the commonest weed in his garden were contained superseded by treatises in which the Newtonian better arguments for the being and attributes of the philosophy was avowedly adopted. Ilaving entered Deity than in all his metaphysics. the church, Clarke found a patron and friend in Dr The next subject that engaged the studies of Moore, bishop of Norwich, and was appointed his Clarke was a Defence of the Immateriality and Immor, chaplain. Between the years 1699 and 1702, he tality of the Soul, in reply to Mr Henry Dodwell and published several theological essays on baptism, Collins. He also translated Newton's Optics into repentance, &c., and executed paraphrases of the Latin, and was rewarded by his guide, philosopher, four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. and friend, with a present of L.500. In 1709 he obThese tracts were afterwards published in two tained the rectory of St James's, Westminster, took volumes. The bishop next gave him a living at his degree of D.D., and was made chaplain in ordi. Norwich; and his reputation stood so high, that in nary to the queen. In 1712 he edited a splendid 1704 he was appointed to preach the Boyle lecture. edition of Cæsar's Commentaries, with corrections His boyish musings on eternity and space were now and emendations, and also gave to the world an elarevived. He selected as the subject of his first borate treatise on the Scripture Doctrine of the Tricourse of lectures, the Being and Altributes of God; nity. The latter involved him in considerable trouble and the second year he chose the Evidences of with the church authorities; for Clarke espoused the Natural and Revealed Religion. The lectures were Arian doctrine, which he also advocated in a series published in two volumes, and attracted notice and of sermons. He next appeared as a controversialist controversy from their containing Clarke's cele- with Leibnitz, the German philosopher, who had brated argument a priori for the existence of God, represented to the Princess of Wales, afterwards the the germ of which is comprised in a Scholium an- queen consort of George II., that the Newtonian nexed to Newton's Principia. According to Sir Isaac philosophy was not only physically false, but injuand his scholar, as immensity and eternity are not rious to religion. Sir Isaac Newton, at the request substances, but attributes, the immense and eternal of the princess, entered the lists on the mathematiBeing, whose attributes they are, must exist of cal part of the controversy, and left the philosophinecessity also. The existence of God, therefore, is a cal part of it to Dr Clarke. The result was triumtruth that follows with demonstrative evidence from phant for the English system; and Clarke, in 1717, those conceptions of space and time which are inse- collected and published the papers which had passed parable from the human mind. Professor Dugald between him and Leibnitz. In 1724, he put to press Stewart, though considering that Clarke, in pursu- a series of sermons, seventeen in number. Many of ing this lofty argument, soared into regions where them are excellent, but others are tinctured with he was lost in the clouds, admits the grandness of his metaphysical predilections. He aimed at renthe conception, and its connexion with the prin- dering scriptural principle a precept conformable to ciples of natural religion. For when once we have what he calls eternal reason and the fitness of things, established, from the evidences of design everywhere and hence his sermons have failed in becoming popumanifested around us, the existence of an intelligent and powerful cause, we are unavoidably led to apply * Stewart's Dissertation, Encyclopædia Britannica. to this cause our conceptions of immensity and eternity, + Essay on Man.-Ep. L

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lar or useful. “He who aspires,' says Robert Hall, tosh, that Dr Clarke was a man .eminent at once as 'to a reputation that shall survive the vicissitudes a divine, a mathematician, a metaphysical philoof opinion and of time, must aim at some other cha- sopher, and a philologer; and, as the interpreter racter than that of a metaphysician.' In his prac- of Homer and Cæsar, the scholar of Newton, and tical sermons, however, there is much sound and the antagonist of Leibnitz, approved himself not admirable precept. In 1727, Dr Clarke was offered, unworthy of correspondence with the highest order but declined, the appointment of Master of the Mint, of human spirits.' vacant by the death of his illustrious friend, Newton. The situation was worth £1500 a-year, and the dis- (Natural and Essential Difference of Right and Wrong.) interestedness and integrity of Clarke were strikingly evinced by his declining to accept an office of The principal thing that can, with any colour of such honour and emoluments, because he could not reason, seem to countenance the opinion of those who reconcile himself to a secular employment. His deny the natural and eternal difference of good and conduct and character must have excited the admi- evil, is the ditficulty there may sometimes be to de. ration of the queen, for we learn from a satirical fine exactly the bounds of right and wrong; the allusion in Pope's Moral Epistle on the Use of variety of opinions that have obtained even among Riches (first published in 1731), that her majesty understanding and learned men, concerning certain had placed a bust of Dr Clarke in her hermitage in questions of just and unjust, especially in political the royal grounds. “The doctor duly frequented matters ; and the many contrary laws that have been the court,' says Pope in a note; 'but he should made in divers ages and in different countries conhave added,' rejoins Warburton, with the inno-cerning these matters. But as, in painting, two very cence and disinterestedness of a hermit.' In 1729, different colours, by diluting each other very slowly Clarke published the first twelve books of the Iliad, and gradually, may, from the highest intenseness in with a Latin version and copious annotations; and either extreme, terminate in the midst insensibly, and Homer has never had a more judicious or acute

so run one into the other, that it shall not be possible commentator. The last literary efforts of this inde- even for a skilful eye to determine exactly where the fatigable scholar were devoted to drawing up an

one ends and the other beyins; and yet the colours may Exposition of the Church Catechism, and preparing really differ as much as can be, not in degree only, but several volumes of sermons for the press. These entirely in kind, as red and blue, or white and black: were not published till after his death, which took so, though it may perhaps be very difficult in some nice place on the 17th of May 1729. The various talents and perplexed cases (which yet are very far from ocand learning of Dr Clarke, and his easy cheerful curring frequently) to define exactly the bounds of disposition, earned for him the highest admiration right and wrong, just and unjust (and there may be and esteem of his contemporaries. As a metaphy

some latitude in the judgment of different men, and the sician, he was inferior to Locke in comprehensive laws of divers nations), yet right and wrong are neverness and originality, but possessed more skill and theless in themselves totally and essentially different; logical foresight (the natural result of his habits even altogether as much as white and black, light and of mathematical study); and he has been justly their youth to steal, mav, as absurd as it was, bear

darkness. The Spartan law, perhaps, which permitted celebrated for the boldness and ability with which much dispute whether it was absolutely unjust or no; he placed himself in the breach against the Neces, because every man, having an absolute right in his sitarians and Fatalists of his times. His moral doctrine (which supposes virtue to consist in the

own goods, it may seem that the members of any regulation of our conduct according to certain fit- society inay agree to transfer or alter their own pronesses which we perceive in things, or a peculiar if it could be supposed that a law had been made at

perties upon what conditions they shall think fit. But congruity of certain relations to each other) being Sparta, or at Rome, or in India, or in any other part inconsequential unless we have previously distin- of the world, whereby it bad been commanded or guished the ends which are morally good from those allowed that every man might rob by violence, and that are evil, and limited the conformity to one of murder whomsoever he met with, or that no faith these classes, has been condemned by Ir Thomas should be kept with any man, nor any equitable com. Brown and Sir James Mackintosh..* His specula- pucts performed, no man, with any tolerable use of tions were over-refined, and seem to have been co-his reason, whatever diversity of judgment might be loured by his fondness for mathematical studies, in among them in other matters, would have thought forgetfulness that mental philosophy cannot, like that such a law could have authorised or excused, physical, be demonstrated by axioms and definitions much less have justified such actions, and have male in the manner of the exact sciences. On the whole, them become good : because 'tis plainly not in men's we may say, in the emphatic language of Mackin-power to make falsehood be truth, though they may

alter the property of their goods as they please. Now * See Brown's Philosophy and the Dissertations of Stewart if, in flagrant cases, the natural and essential differe and Mackintosh. Warburton, in his notes on Pope, thus sums ence between good and evil, right and wrong, cannot up the moral doctrine: 'Dr Clarke and Wollaston considered but be confessed to be plainly and undeniably evident, moral obligation as arising from the essential differences and the difference between them must be also essential and relations of things; Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, as arising unalterable in all, even the smallest, and nicest and from the moral sense; and the generality of divines, as arising most intricate cases, though it be not so easy to be solely from the will of ciod. On these three principles practi- discerned and accurately distinguished. For if, from cal morality has been built by these different writers. Thus the difficulty of determining exactly the bounds of right: has Gol been pleased,' adds Warburton, to give three differ- and wrong in many perplexed cases, it could truly be ent excitements to the practice of virtue: that men of all ranks, concluded that just and unjust were not essentially constitutions, and educations, might find their account in one different by nature, but only by positive constitution or other of them; something that would hit their palate, and custoin, it would follow equally, that they were satisfy their reason, or subdue their will. provision for the support of virtue hath been in some measure

not really, essentially, and unalterably different, eren defeated by its pretended advocates, who have sacrilegiously in the most fagrant cases that can be supposed; untwisted this threefold cord, and each running away with which is an assertion so very absurd, that Mr Hobbes the part he esteemed the strongest, hath affixed that to the himself could hardly vent it without blushing, and throne of God, as the golden chain that is to unite and draw discovering plainly, by his shifting expressions, his all to it.'-Divine Legation, book i.

secret self-condemnation. There are therefore certain

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But this admirable



necessary and eternal differences of things, and cer- took up loadly's works with warmth, and passed a tain fitnesses or unfitnesses of the application of dif- censure upon them, as calculated to subvert the ferent things, or different relations one to another, not government and discipline of the church, and to depending on any positive constitutions, but founded impugn and impeach the regal supremacy in matunchangeably in the nature and reason of things, and ters ecclesiastical. The controversy was conducted unavoidably arising from the differences of the things with unbecoming violence, and several bishops and themselves.

other grave divines (the excellent Sherlock among the number) forgot the dignity of their station and the spirit of Christian charity in the heat of party

warfare. DR WILLIAM Lowth (1661-1732) was distin- sermon in the 'Dunciad'

Pope alludes sarcastically to Hoadly's guished for his classical and theological attainments, and the liberality with which he communicated his Toland and Tindal, prompt at priests to jeer, stores to others. He published a Vindication of the

Yet silent bowed to Christ's no kingdom here. Divine Authority and Inspiration of the Old and New The truth, however, is, that there was nothing

Testaments (1692), Directions for the Profitable Read- whatever in Huadly's sermon injurious to the estaing of the Holy Scriptures, Commentaries on the Pro-blished endowments and privileges, nor to the disphets, &c. He furnished notes on Clemens Alexandrinus for Potter's edition of that ancient author, çipline and government of the English church, even

in theory. If this had been the case, he might have remarks on Josephus for Hudson's edition, and annotations on the ecclesiastical historians for Read been reproached with some inconsistency in becoming's Cambridge edition of those authors. He also ing so large a partaker of her honours and emolu. assisted Dr Chandler in his Defence of Christianity for open immoralities, though denying all church

ments. He even admitted the usefulness of censures from the Prophecies. His learning is said to have authority to oblige any one to external communion, been equally extensive and profound, and he accompanied all his reading with critical and philological condition of men with respect to the favour or dis

or to pass any sentence which should determine the remarks. Born in London, Dr Lowth took his de

Another great question in this grees at Oxford, and experiencing the countenance

pleasure of God. and support of the bishop of Winchester, became controversy was that of religious liberty as a civil the chaplain of that prelate, a prebend of the right, which the convocation explicitly denied. And

another related to the much debated exercise of cathedral of Winchester, and rector of Buriton.

private judgment in religion, which, as one party meant virtually to take away, so the other perhaps

unreasonably exaggerated.'* The style of Hoadly's Dr BENJAMIN HOAdly, successively bishop of controversial treatises is strong and logical, but Bangor, Hereford, Salisbury, and Winchester, was a

without any of the graces of composition, and hence prelate of great controversial ability, who threw the they have fallen into comparative oblivion. He was weight of his talents and learning into the scale of author of several other works, as Terms of AccepWhig politics, at that time fiercely attacked by tunce, Reusonableness of Conformity, Treatise on the the Tory and Jacobite parties. Hoadly was boru Sacrament, &c. A complete edition of his works in 1676. In 1706,* while rector of St Peter's-le-Poor, was published by his son in three folio volumes; London, he attacked a sermon by Atterbury, and his sermons are now considered the most valuable thus incurred the enmity and ridicule of Swift portion of his writings. There can be no doubt and Pope. He defended the revolution of 1688, that the independent and liberal mind of Hoadly, and attacked the doctrines of divine right and aided by his station in the church, tended materially passive obedience with such vigour and perse

to stem the torrent of slavish submission which then verance, that, in 1709, the House of Commons re- prevailed in the church of England. commended him to the favour of the queen. Her

The first extract is from loadly's sermon on The majesty does not appear to have complied with this Nature of the Kingdom or Church of Christ, preached request ; but her successor, George I., elevated him before the king on 31st March, 1717, and which, to the see of Bangor. Shortly after his elevation to

as already mentioned, gave rise to the celebrated the bench, Hoadly published a work against the Bangorian controversy. nonjurors, and a sermon preached before the king at St James's, on the Nature of the Kingdom or [The Kingdom of Christ not of this World.] Church of Christ. The latter excited a long and vehement dispute, known by the name of the Ban

If, therefore, the church of Christ be the kingdom gorian Controversy, in which forty or fifty tracts

of Christ, it is essential to it that Christ himself be were published. The Lower House of Convocation the sole lawgiver and sole judge of his subjects, in all

points relating to the favour or displeasure of Almighty * Hoadly printed, in 1702, · A Letter to the Rev. Mr Fleet. God; and that all his subjects, in what station soever wood, occasioned by his Essay on Miracles.' In the preface to they may be, are equally subjects to him; and that a volume of tracts published in 1715, in which that letter was no one of them, any more than another, hath authoreprinted, the eminent author speaks of Fleetwood in the fol. rity either to make new laws for Christ's subjects, or lowing terms :- This contains some points, relating to the to impose a sense upon the old ones, which is the subject of miracles, in which I differed long ago from an ex.

same thing; or to judge, censure, or punish the sercellent person, now advanced, by his merits, to one of the

vants of another master, in matters relating purely to highest stations in the church. When it first appeared in the conscience or salvation. If any person hath any other world, he had too great a soul to make the common return of notion, either through a long use of words with inconresentment or contempt, or to esteem a difference of opinion, sistent meanings, or through a negligence of thought, expressed with civility, to be an unpardonable affront. So far from it, that he not only was pleased to express some good let him but ask himself whether the church of Christ li king of the manner of it, but laid hold on an opportunity, be the kingdom of Christ or not; and if it be, whether which then immediately offered itself, of doing the writer a

this notion of it doth not absolutely exclude all other very considerable piece of service. I think myself obliged, legislators and judges in matters relating to conscience upon this occasion, to acknowledge this in a public manner,

or the favour of God, or whether it can be his kingwishing that such a procedure may at length cease to be uncommon and singular.'

* Hallam's Constitutional History of England.

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