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HEN the BLESSED MESSIAH firft called forth


the immediate followers of his perfon, he declared felf-denial effential to difcipleship, faying, "Whofoever doth not bear his crofs, and come after "me, cannot be my difciple," Luke xiv. 27. This path himself trod before them, fetting all that should come after, an example of the moft perfect patience and refignation. The faithful, in every age, have met with variety of exercises; and many of them, by their more than human conftancy, neither terrified by the rougheft efforts of cruelty and malice on the one hand, nor enticed by the fmootheft allurements of pleasure and vanity on the other, have given convincing proofs to the world, that the GRACE, which fupported them, was DIVINE.

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It was this which gave our author, in his early years, a solid sense of religion, and a taste of that substantial peace, which the world can neither give nor take away: this inftructed him to fee the emptiness and vanity of earthly enjoyments, and to turn his back upon the honours, profits, and pleasures of the world, at an age moft inclinable to embrace them: this enabled him to furmount all oppofition in the fearch of TRUTH; which having found, he valued as a "pearl of price," and laboured in the propagation and defence of it, both by preaching and writing, almost inceffantly for

many years.

It being now thought meet to publish a selection of his works for general fervice, we judge it not im

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proper to retain the following Journal of his Life, chiefly extracted out of his own private memoirs; in which, we doubt not, the judicious reader will find many paffages both exemplary and inftructive.

WILLIAM PENN was born in the parish called St. Catharine's, near the Tower of London, on the 14th day of October, 1644. His father, of the fame name, was a man of good estate and reputation, and, in the time of the commonwealth, ferved in fome of the highest maritime offices, as thofe of rear-admiral, viceadmiral, admiral of Ireland, vice-admiral of England, &c. in all which he acquitted himself with honour and fidelity. After the reftoration, he was knighted by King Charles the Second, and became a peculiar favourite of the then Duke of York: his father's care, and a promising profpect of his fon's advancement, induced him to give him a liberal education; and the youth, of an excellent genius, made fuch early improvements in literature, that about the 15th year of his age, he was entered a ftudent at Chrift's Church College in Oxford.

Now began his ardent defire after pure and fpiritual religion to fhew itself; of which he had before received some taste or relish, through the miniftry of Thomas Loe, one of the people called Quakers; for he, with certain other students of that univerfity, withdrawing from the national way of worship, held private meetings for the exercise of religion, where they both preached and prayed among themfelves: this gave great offence to the heads of the college, and he, being but fixteen years of age, was fined for nonconformity. Which fmall ftroke of perfecution not at all abating the fervour of his zeal, he was at length, for perfevering in the like religious practices, expelled the college.

From thence he returned home, but ftill took great delight in the company of fober and religious people; which his father knowing to be a block in the way to

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preferment, endeavoured both by words and blows to deter him from; but finding thofe methods ineffectual, he was at length fo incenfed, that he turned him out of doors.

Patience furmounted this difficulty, till his father's affection had fubdued his anger, who then fent him to France, in company with fome perfons of quality, that were making a tour thither. He continued there a confiderable time, till a quite different converfation had diverted his mind from the ferious thoughts of religion and upon his return, his father finding him not only a good proficient in the French tongue, but also perfectly accomplished with a polite and courtly behaviour, joyfully received him, hoping his point was gained; and indeed for fometime after his return from France, his carriage was fuch as juftly intitled him to the character of a complete young gentleman.

Great, about this time, was his fpiritual conflict*: his natural inclination, his lively and active difpofition, his acquired accomplishments, his father's favour, the refpect of his friends and acquaintance, did ftrongly prefs him to embrace the glory and pleafures of this world, then, as it were, courting and careffing him, in the bloom of youth, to accept them. Such a combined force might feem almoft invincible; but the earneft fupplication of his foul being to the Lord for prefervation, he was pleased to grant him fuch a portion of his holy power and fpirit, as enabled him in due time to overcome all oppofition, and with an holy refolution to follow Chrift whatfoever reproaches or perfecutions might attend him.

About the year 1666, and the 22d of his age, his father committed to his care and management a confiderable estate in Ireland, which occafioned his refidence in that country. Being at Cork, he was informed by one of the people called Quakers, that Thomas Loe, whom we mentioned before, was to be shortly at a meeting in that city; he went to hear him, who be

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gan his declaration with these words, "There is a "faith that overcomes the world, and there is a faith "that is overcome by the world;" upon which fubject he enlarged with much clearnefs and energy. By the living and powerful teftimony of this man, which had made fome impreffion upon his fpirit ten years before, he was now thoroughly and effectually convinced, and afterwards conftantly attended the meetings of that people, even through the heat of perfecution.

On the third of the 9th month, 1667, being again at a meeting in Cork, he, with many others, were apprehended and carried before the mayor, who obferving that his dress discovered not the Quaker, would have fet him at liberty, upon bond for his good behaviour; which he refufing, was, with about eighteen others, committed to prifon. He had, during his abode in Ireland, contracted an intimate acquaintance with many of the nobility and gentry, and, being now a prifoner, wrote the following letter.

To the Earl of ORRERY, Lord Prefident of Munster.



HE occafion may feem as ftrange, as my cause is juft; but your lordship will no lefs exprefs your charity in the one, than your justice in the • other.'

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Religion, which is at once my crime and mine innocence, makes me a prifoner to a mayor's malice, but mine own free-man; for being in the affembly of the people called Quakers, there came several conftables, backed with foldiers, rudely and arbitrarily requiring every man's appearance before the mayor, and amongst others, violently haled me with them: upon my coming before him, he charged me for being prefent at a tumultuous and riotous affembly; and unless I would give bond for my good behaviour, who challenge the world to accufe me juftly with the contrary, he would commit me. I asked for his authority; for I humbly conceive without an act of parliament, or an act of ftate, it might be



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justly termed too much officioufnefs: his anfwer was, "A proclamation in the year 1669, and new inftruc"tions to revive that dead and antiquated order." I 'leave your lordship to be judge, if that proclamation relates to this concernment; that only was defigned to fupprefs fifth-monarchy killing fpirits; and fince the king's lord-lieutenant and yourfelf, being fully perfuaded the intention of these called Quakers, by 'their meetings, was really the fervice of God, have 'therefore manifefted a repeal, by a long continuance ' of freedom, I hope your lordship will not now begin 'an unusual severity, by indulging fo much malice in one, whofe actions favour ill with his nearest neigh'bours, but that there may be a fpeedy releasement to all, for attending their honeft callings, with the enjoyment of their families, and not to be longer feparated from both.'

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And though to diffent from a national system, impofed by authority, renders men hereticks, yet I dare 'believe your lordship is better read in reafon and theology, than to fubfcribe a maxim fo vulgar and ( untrue; for imagining most visible constitutions ' of religious government fuited to the nature and genius of a civil empire, it cannot be esteemed herefy, but to fcare a multitude from fuch enquiries as may create divifions, fatal to a civil policy, and therefore at worst deferves only the name of dif ' turbers.'

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But I prefume, my lord, the acquaintance you have had with other countries, muft needs have fur'nished you with this infallible obfervation, That di' verfities of faith and worship contribute not to the disturbance of any place, where moral uniformity. is barely requifite to preferve the peace. It is not 'long fince you were a good follicitor for the liberty I now crave, and concluded no way fo effectual to improve or advantage this country, as to difpenfe ' with freedom in things relating to confcience; and, 'I fuppofe, were it riotous or tumultuary, as by fome vainly imagined, your lordship's inclination, as well

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