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Civil Aeronautics Board Continued
Airworthiness requirements for various types of aircraft or equipment-Con.
Airplane airworthiness—Continued
Airplane airworthiness (other than current applications), 14 Part 4a-

Continued
Structure, prod of-Continued

Landing gear, 14 $$ 4a.277, 4a.278
Load tests, 14 $$ 4a.230-4a.232
Tail and control surfaces, 14 $ $ 4a.263, 4a.264
Wings, 14 $ $ 4a.237-4a.253

Beams, 14 $$ 4a.239-4a.246
Covering, 14 § 4a.252
Drag trusses, 14 § 4a.247
Ribs, 14 $ $ 4a.248–4a.251

Wires, nonparallel, 14 § 4a.253
Weights, standard, 14 § 4a.171
Limited category (surplus military) aircraft; type and airworthiness

certificates, 14 Part 9
Normal, utility, and acrobatic categories, 14 Part 3

See also Airplane airworthiness (other than current applications).
Airplane categories, 14 $ 3.20

Maneuvers, acrobatic and nonacrobatic, 14 $$ 3.20-1, 3.20-2
Applicability, 14 $ 3.0
Certification, 14 $$ 3.10~3.19-1
Airworthiness, experimental, and production certificates, 14

$ 3.17
Approval of aircraft materials, parts, processes, and appli-

ances, 14 $$ 3.1843.18-2
Type certificate, eligibility for, 14 $$ 3.10—3.16-1

Type design; changes, etc., 14 $ $ 3.19, 3.19-1
Definitions (atmosphere, design, weights, speeds, loads, power, fire

protection, etc.), 14 $ 3.1
Design and construction:

Control surfaces (fixed and movable, 14 $$ 3.327–3.329
Control systems, 14 $$ 3.335–3.347
Fabrication methods, 14 $ 3.293
Fastenings, standard, 14 $ 3.294
Flutter and vibration, 14 $$ 3.311, 3.311-1
Fuselage, 14 $ $ 3.381-3.393

Emergency provisions, 14 $ $ 3.386–3.388-4
Personnel and cargo accommodations, 14 $$ 3.389-3.393

Pilot compartment, 14 $$ 3.381-3.385
General, 14 $ 3.291
Hulls and floats, 14 SS 3.371-3.373
Inspection provisions, 14 $ 3.296
Landing gear, 14 $ $ 3.351–3.364-1

Brakes, 14 $ 3.363
Retracting mechanism, 14 $$ 3.356–3.360
Shock absorbers, 14 $$ 3.351-3.355
Skis, 14 $$ 3.364, 3.364-1

Wheels and tires, 14 $$ 3.361—3.362-2
Leveling marks, 14 $ 3.401
Materials and workmanship, 14 $ 3.292
Protection, 14 $ 3.295
Structural parts, 14 $ $ 3.301-3.307

Wings, 14 88 3.317–3.118-1
Engines, reciprocating. See Powerplant installation, below.
Equipment:

Accessories for multiengine airplanes, 14 $ 3.725
Basic equipment, 14 $ 3.655
Electrical systems and equipment, 14 $$ 3.681-3.704

Batteries, 14 $$3.682–3.684
Cables, electric, 14 $ 3.693
Generators, 14 $$ 3.685-3.687
Installation, 14 $ $ 3.681, 3.681-1

Civil Aeronautics Board— Continued
Airworthiness requirements for various types of aircraft or equipment-Con.
Airplane airworthiness-Continued
Normal, utility, and acrobatic categories, 14 Part 3—Continued
Equipment-Continued
Electrical systems and equipment, 14 $$ 3.681-3.704—Con.
Lights:

Instrument, 14 $ $ 3.696–3.697
Landing, 14 $ $ 3.698, 3.699
Position, 14 $ $ 3.700–3.703

Riding, 14 $ 3.704
Protective devices, 14 $$ 3.690–3.692

Switches, 14 $$ 3.688–3.689, 3.694, 3.695
Functional and installational requirements, 14 $ 3.652
General, 14 $ 3.651
Hydraulic systems, 14 $$ 3.726–3.728
Instruments; installation, 14 $$ 3.661-3.676
Arrangement and visibility of instrument installations,

14 $ 3.661
Flight and navigational instruments, 14 $$ 3.663–3.669
Instrument panel vibration characteristics, 14 $ 3.662

Power-plant instruments, 14 $ $ 3.670–3.676
Miscellaneous equipment (accessories and hydraulic systems);

installation, 14 $ $ 3.725–3.728
Radio equipment, installation, 14 $$ 3.721, 3.721-1
Safety equipment, installation, 14 $ $ 3.711-3.718

De-icers, 14 $ 3.712
Emergency flotation and signaling equipment, 14 $ $ 3.716–

3.718
Flare requirements and installation, 14 $ $ 3.712, 3.714
Marking, 14 § 3.711

Safety belts, 14 $ 3.715
Flight requirements:
Compliance:

Flight test pilot, 14 $ 3.62
Noncompliance with test requirements, 14 $ 3.63

Policy re proof of compliance, 14 § 3.61
Emergency egress, 14 § 3.64
Flight characteristics, 14 $$ 3.105—3.124–2

Controllability, 14 $$ 3.106–3.111
Requirements, 14 $ 3.105
Spinning, 14 $$ 3.124—3.124–2
Stability, 14 $$ 3.113–3.118-3
Stalls, 14 $$ 3.120-3.123

Trim, 14 $$ 3.112, 3.112-1
Flight test pilot, 14 $ 3.62
Flutter and vibration, 14 $ 3.159
Ground and water characteristics, 14 $$ 3.143–3.147
Performance requirements, 14 $$ 3.80–3.87

Climb, 14 $$ 3.85-3.85a
Landing, 14 8 $ 3.86–3.87
Performance, and alternate performance requirements, 14

$$ 3.80, 3.81
Stalling speeds, 14 $$ 3.82–3.83

Take-off, 14 $$ 3.84-3.84a
Report, 14 $ 3.65

Weight range and center of gravity, 14 $$ 3.71–3.76–1
Identification data; identification plate, airworthiness certificate

number, 14 $$ 3.791, 3.792
Loads. See Strength requirements.
Operating limitations and information:

General, 14 $ 3.735
Limitations, 14 $$ 3.737–3.750

Air speed, 14 88 3.738–3.743
Airplane weight, 14 $ 3.748

Civil Aeronautics Board-Continued
Airworthiness requirements for various types of aircraft or equipment-Con.
Airplane airworthiness Continued
Normal, utility, and acrobatic categories, 14 Part 3—Continued
Operating limitations and information-Continued
Limitations, 14 $ $ 3.737–3.750—Continued

Flight crew, minimum, 14 $ 3.749
Operation, types of, 14 $ 3.750

Power plant, 14 $$ 3.744–3.747
Manual, airplane flight, 14 $$ 3.777—3.780–3
Markings and placards, 14 $ $ 3.755–3.771

Airplane category placard, 14 $ 3.770
Airspeed placards, 14 $ 3.771
All airplanes, requirements for (including airplanes cer-

tificated in more than one category), 14 $$ 3.755—

3.755-2
Approved flight maneuvers, 14 $ 3.769
Baggage compartments, ballast location, and special seat

loading limitations, 14 $ 3.766
Control markings, 14 $$ 3.762–3.765
Emergency exit placards, 14 $ 3.768
Fuel, oil, and coolant filler openings, 14 $ 3.767

Instrument markings, 14 $$ 3.756–3.761
Performance. See Flight requirements.
Power-plant installations; reciprocating engines:

Accessories, 14 $$ 3.635, 3.636
Components, 14 $ 3.411
Controls, 14 $$ 3.627–3.634
Cooling, 14 $$ 3.581–3.596

Liquid cooling, 14 $$ 3.588–3.596

Tests, 14 $$ 3.582—3.587–1
Engines and propellers, 14 88 3.415—3.422–2
Exhaust system, 14 $$ 3.615-3.618
Fire protection, 14 $ 3.637
Fire wall and cowling, 14 $ $ 3.623–3.625
Fuel system, 14 $$ 3.429–3.554

Arrangement, 14 $$ 3.430–3.432
Drains and instruments, 14 $$ 3.553, 3.554
Fuel pumps, 14 $ 3.449
Fuel tanks, 14 $$ 3.440-3.448
Lines, fittings, and accessories, 14 $$ 3.550—3.552

Operation, 14 $$ 3.433-3.439
Induction system, 14 $$ 3.605–3.612
Limitations, 14 $$ 3.744–3.747
Oil system, 14 $$ 3.561-3.577

Capacity, 14 $ $ 3.561, 3.561-1
Lines, fittings, and accessories, 14 $$ 3.570–3.577
Oil cooling, 14 $ 3.562

Oil tanks, 14 $$ 3.563-3.569
Strength requirements; loads:
Control surface loads, 14 $$ 3.211-3.225

Ailerons, wing flaps, tabs, etc., 14 $$ 3.222–3.225
General, 14 $8 3.211, 3.211-1
Pilot effort, 14 88 3.212, 3.212–1
Tail surfaces:

Horizontal, 14 $$ 3.214-3.218

Vertical, 14 $$ 3.219-3.221
Trim tax effects, 14 $ 3.213
Control system loads, 14 $$ 3.231-3.234
Flight loads, 14 $ $ 3.181-3.196
Flight conditions:

Flaps extended, 14 $$ 3.190, 3.190–1
Symmetrical (flaps retracted), 14 88 3.183-3.189
Unsymmetrical, 14 $ 3.191

Civil Aeronautics Board—Continued
Airworthiness requirements for various types of aircraft or equipment Con.
Airplane airworthiness-Continued
Normal, utility, and acrobatic categories, 14 Part 3—Continued
Strength requirements; loads—Continued
Flight loads, 14 $$ 3.181-3.196—Continued

Flight load factor, definition of, 14 $ 3.182
General, 14 $ 3.181

Supplementary conditions, 14 $$ 3.194–3.196
General, 14 $$ 3.171-3-174-8

Loads, 14 $ $ 3.171, 3.171-1
Proof of structure, 14 $ $ 3.174–3.174–8
Safety, factor of, 14 $ 3.172

Strength and deformations, 14 $$ 3.173, 3.173–1
Ground loads, 14 $$ 3.241-3.257

Design weight, 14 $ 3.242
Ground roll conditions, 14 $$ 3.248, 3.249
Landing cases and attitudes, 14 $$ 3.244-3.247
Load factor for landing conditions, 14 § 3.243
Nose wheels, 14 $$ 3.253-3.256
Skiplanes, 14 $$ 3.257-3.257-3

Tail wheels, 14 $$ 3.250–3.252

Water loads, 14 $ $ 3.265–3.265–2
Restricted category aircraft, 14 Part 8

Airworthiness certificate, eligibility for, 14 $$ 8.20—8.20–3
Applicability, 14 $$ 8.0—8.0-3

Eligible special purposes, 14 § 8.0–1
Definitions, 14 88 8.1, 8.1-1
Multiple airworthiness certification, 14 $ $ 8.21, 8.21-1

Operating limitations for, 14 $$ 8.34, 8.34-1
Operating limitations, 14 $$ 8.30–8.34-1

Administrator's authority to prescribe, 14 $$ 8.30–8.30–1
Area operating limitations, 14 $$ 8.31, 8.31-1
Economic operating limitations, 14 $ $ 8.32, 8.32–1
Multiple airworthiness certification, separate operating limita-

tions for, 14 $$ 8.34, 8.34-1
Passengers prohibited during special purpose operations, 14

88 8.33, 8.33–1 Passengers prohibited during special purpose operations, 14

$$ 8.33, 8.33–1 Type certificate, eligibility for, 14 $8 8.10^8.10–5 Surplus military airplanes, limited category aircraft; type and air

worthiness certificates, 14 Part 9
Transport categories, 14 Part 4b

See also Airplane airworthiness (other than current applications).
Applicability, 14 § 4b.0
Certification, 14 $ $ 4b.10-46.19
Airworthiness, experimental, and production certificates, 14

§ 46.17
Approval of aircraft materials, parts, processes, and appli-

ances, 14 88 4b.18—4b.18-2
Type certificates, eligibility for, 14 $$ 4b.10-4b.16

Type design, changes in, 14 § 4b.19
Definitions, 14 § 46.1
Design and construction:

Cargo and baggage compartments, 14 § 4b.359
Control surfaces, 14 $$ 4b.310-4b.313
Control systems, 14 $$ 4b.320–46.329-6
Emergency provisions, 14 $$ 46.360-46.362
Fire protection, 14 $$ 46.380-46.386
Floats and hulls, 14 $$ 4b.340–45.342
General; materials, strength, etc., 14 $$ 46.300–4b.308
Heating, ventilation and pressurization, 14 $$ 46.370–46.376
Hulls and floats, 14 $$ 46.340–46.342
Landing gear, 14 88 46.330–46.338

Civil Aeronautics Board Continued
Airworthiness requirements for various types of aircraft or equipment-Con.
Airplane airworthiness-Continued
Transport categories, 14 Part 4b-Continued
Design and construction-Continued

Leveling marks, 14 § 46.391
Personnel accommodations, 14 $$ 4b.350–46.358
Pressurization, ventilation, and heating, 14 $$ 46.370–4b.376
Reinforcements near propellers, 14 § 46.390

Ventilation, heating, and pressurization, 14 $ $ 46.370_46.376
Equipment:

Electrical systems and equipment, 14 $$ 4b.620_46.627
Engine-driven accessories, 14 § 4b.652
General; equipment required, installation, etc., 14 $$ 46.600–

4b.606
Hydraulic systems; strength, design, fire protection, etc., 14

88 4b.653-4b.655 Instruments (flight, navigational, powerplant); installation,

14 $$ 4b.610–46.613 Lights:

Anti-collision light, 14 § 4b.637

Instrument, landing, position, riding, 14 $$ 46.630–4b.636
Oxygen equipment and supply, 14 $ $ 4b.651–46.651-12
Radio and electronic equipment, 14 § 4b.650
Safety equipment (fire extinguishers, flares, signaling, etc.);

accessibility, identification, etc., 14 SS 4b.640–46.646
Vacuum systems, 14 § 4b.658
Flight:

Controllability, 14 $$ 46.130—4b.133–1
Flutter and vibration, 14 $ $ 4b.190, 4b.190–1
General; weight limitations, etc., 14 $$ 4b.100—46.105–1
Ground handling characteristics, 14 $$ 4b.170_46.173–2
Performance, 14 $ $ 4b.110—4b.125-1
Stability, 14 $$ 4b.15044b.158–1
Stalling characteristics, 14 $$ 46.160—4b.162–1
Trim, 14 $$ 4b.140—4b.144-1

Water handling characteristics, 14 $$ 4b.180—4b.182–2
Operating limitations and information:
Identification data, airplane; identification plate, identifica-

tion marks, 14 $$ 46.750, 4b.751
Manual, airplane flight, 14 $$ 46.740_46.743
Markings and placards, 14 SS 4b.730–46.738
Operating limitations; air-speed, powerplant, airplane weight

and center of gravity, etc., 14 $$ 46.710-46.723
Scope, 14 $ $ 4b.700, 46.700-1
Powerplant installation:

Controls and accessories, 14 $$ 4b.470-46.478
Cooling system, 14 $$ 4b.450–4b.457
Fire protection, 14 $$ 4b.480_4b.490
Fuel system, 14 $ $ 4b.410—4b.437–1

Components, 14 $$ 4b.430–46.437
Construction and installations, 14 $ $ 4b.420–46.428

Operation and arrangement, 14 $$ 4b.410—4b.418–1
Induction and exhaust systems, 14 $ $ 4b.460–46.467–2
Installation, of engines, propellers, etc., 14 $ $ 4b.400–46.407

Oil system, 14 $$ 4b.44044b.449-1
Structure:

Control surface and system loads, 14 $$ 46.220–46.227
Emergency landing conditions, 14 $ $ 4.260, 4b.261
Flight loads, 14 $$ 4b.210–4b.216
General; strength, proof of structure, etc., 14 $$ 4b.200_4b.202
Ground loads, 14 $$ 4b.230–4b.236

Water loads, 14 $$ 4b.250–46.258
Utility category airplanes. See Normal, utility, and acrobatic cate-

gories.

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