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(From New York Times, February 18, 1939)


Refugee, now here, middle-aged, housekeeper or take care of invalid lady; small salary. Academy 2–5544.


Maid, German refugee (here), English speaking. Bergner. Barclay 7–8280 (between 4-6).

(From New York Times, February 20, 1939)


Chambermaid-waitress, experienced, under 35; refugee now here considered. Call 10-1 or evening, 1,165 Park Avenue (6B).

(From The New York Times, February 22, 1939)


Houseworker, German-Jewish girl speaks only German; small family; moderate salary. Call between 11-1 o'clock, Wadsworth 8–1169.

(From New York Times, Sunday, February 26, 1939)



Young man recently from Vienna, medical student, fine personality, willing do anything. Hisch, care Deutscher, 1020 Walton Avenue.

German refugee, now here, 32, Ph. D., thorough knowledge English and German stenography, seeks position as secretary. Academy 2-5544.


Nurse, German refugee, experienced, care of baby; light housework. Schuyler 4-9360.



German refugee, now here, 32, Ph. D., boy student's companion, tutor. Academy 2-5544.

Couple, young, Austrian refugees, here; perfect cook, housework; handyman. H-394 Times.


German refugee (here), middle aged, attractive, perfect cook, good housekeeper, seeks position motherless home. 150 West Ninety-fifth Street (Apt. 3B).

(From New York Times, Sunday, March 5, 1939)


Commercial-Miscellaneous Salesman, refugee now here, capable, intelligent; sell to retailers; commission; highest references; will travel. C-55 Times.

(From New York Times, Sunday, March 12, 1939),


Commercial-Miscellaneous Camp physician, German refugee, here, seeks summer position, with wife as camp mother; two children; no remuneration expected. Telephone Stillwell 4-3936.

Department store textile expert German-Jewish, age 30, 12 years' experience in large German department store concern, buying, selling, bookkeeping, organizer, 1-year American experience; will travel; modest salary; references. L-70 Times.

Who will give me a change? German refugee, 36, here, Ph. D., banking and real estate experience, special knowledge in dental and medical supplies, willing and capable to adapt himself to any business or trade, desires job with future. No canvassing. Starting salary secondary. Write 210 Times, 853 Columbus Avenue.

Young Jewish refugee, now here, actor, journalist, typewriting, shorthand, driver, good appearance, best references, thanks you for any job. X-2243 Times Annex.

Refugee, here 1 year; lived 5 years France; speaks three languages; willing do any work. Phone Edgecombe 4-8743.


Industrial Young man, 27, German-Jewish refugee, now here; legitimate work. Lorraine 7-3217.

German-Jewish refugee, now here, experienced several lines, desires day or night position; will do anything legitimate; Saturdays off. Jacob, 1765 Davidson Avenue, Bronx.


Lady's companion-housekeeper, or care of child Competent houseworker, highly educated young woman, recently arrived from Germany; moderate salary. Virginia 7-3354, or J-248 Times.



Senator HERRING. Will you please state your name and whom you represent?

Mr. EMERSON. My name is Ralph Emerson. I represent the maritime unions of the C. I. O.

Senator HERRING. You may proceed.

Mr. EMERSON. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I intend to limit myself to one certain phase of S. 407 and our opposition to S. 410 and S. 411.

In general, speaking in behalf of over 200,000 maritime workers who are almost universally citizens of this country, we are in general opposition in principle to all these bills. There may be some merit in some things that have been said, so far as letting down the bars is concerned, and things like that; but we feel that on the whole there are sufficient statutes now to take care of the situation. We feel that, on the whole, the present administration of the Immigration Bureau, with which we come in contact a great deal, is handling the situation satisfactorily.

Senator HOLMAN. The C. I. O. is not an exclusive American organization; it is an international organization, is it not?

Mr. EMERSON. It is composed of a large number of organizations which have international unions.

Senator HOLMAN. In other words, you are speaking as an internationalist, not as an American.

Mr. EMERSON. I am speaking as an American.
Senator HOLMAN. I doubt it. Go ahead.

Mr. EMERSON. I am an American, very much so. Our specific objection to S. 407 will be found on page 4, section 3. We are not speaking in general for or against the bill

, but simply take exception to that clause which speaks of an applicant for a visitor's visa having an intelligence test equivalent to the normal rating of American white stock. We object to that wording, so far as limiting the eligibility to white stock is concerned, for the reason that we have severa] thousand colored seamen. There are lots of people in this country, and perhaps some in this room, who entrust their lives to the hands of these people, and we feel that language should be changed to eliminate the word "white,” and say “American stock.” After all, these Negroes are Americans.

In regard to S. 410 we take the position that we are saying to an alien who was formerly admitted legally into this country: "Now, we are going to punish you for a crime which was not a crime when you came in.” After all, these aliens, or some of them, at least, will receive relief from somewhere. If we took the same position on everything else, we might say to people who came here many years ago under conditions then prevailing, and who do something that was at that time lawful, we should not say to them: “We are going to punish you for what you did today, although it was lawful when you came here."

For that reason, we cannot uphold the principle of this bill.

Senator REYNOLDS. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the witness one question?

Senator HERRING. Yes.

Senator REYNOLDS. Do you know of any country in the world that feeds aliens as generously as we do in this country?

Mr. EMERSON. I know very few. Senator REYNOLDS. I wish you would name one country on the face of the earth that will feed aliens as we do.

Mr. EMERSON. I will. I have been fed in quite a number of them myself. I was a seaman for a number of years.

Senator REYNOLDS. I have been in a lot of them, too. I want you to name one where they receive that kind of treatment.

Mr. EMERSON. That is correct. We have been treating them pretty good, and I think we should continue to do it, as long as it does not hurt our social and economic stability.

Senator REYNOLDS. Do you not think our social and economic stability is being affected when we have 3,000,000 people on the W. P. A., 13,000,000 out of employment, and when we have 26,000,000 working only part time?

Mr. EMERSON. I think it is, slightly; yes. After all, this country is blessed with most of the good things in this world.

Senator REYNOLDS. If we are, why should we give up those blessings to those not so fortunate? I am not so big-hearted and generous as you may be.

Mr. EMERSON. I am pretty nationalistic myself. The seamen's movement is quite nationalistic. They are trying to fill the 100percent American merchant marine. There are thousands of people who are in a pretty terrible condition in Europe.

Senator REYNOLDS. That is no fault of ours.

service, and its duty is to enforce and put into effect the immigration and naturalization laws.

Senator HOLMAN. And its function is not that of assistance in preparing remedial legislation?

Mr. HOUGHTELING. Like any other executive agency it stands ready to help the legislative branch and advise with the legislative branch. Legislation is entrusted to the legislative branch.

Senator HOLMAN. I understand that, but we are pretty much in the dark. I am trying to enlist the services of you people on the American side.

Mr. HOUGHTELING. We know no other side in doing our duties.


Senator HERRING. Please state your name.
Mrs. HERSEY. Evelyn W. Hersey, of Philadelphia.
Senator HERRING. Whom do you represent?

Mrs. HERSEY. I am connected with Americanization organizations. I have been in social work among foreign-born communities for 17 years. I want to speak from two points of view, if I may. One is as a social worker who has known the problem in America of assimilating the many groups we have here over a period of years, not only at this crucial time, but many years during the war and afterward; and also as an American of early stock and one very much interested in the final result of that assimilation. I would like to speak for the welfare of foreign communities and American communities in relation to the practical end of this legislation, how it will affect Tom Jones, living on À Street, who is a member of a foreign community, and how it is going to affect people in Philadelphia and Chicago.

Senator Holman. I gather that there is a problem in assimilating the aliens.

Mrs. HERSEY. Yes. I think there is no question about that.

My ancestors came over as refugees in 1630 and 1635. Since and before that we had many others.

Senator HERRING. Then you are legally in this country, are you not?

Mrs. HERSEY. Next to the Indians, I should say so.

Senator HERRING. Do you want to address yourself to all these measures?

Mrs. HERSEY. I would like to discuss them briefly.
Senator HERRING. Very well.

Mrs. HERSEY. I will take first, if I may, Senator Reynolds' bill, S. 408.

Senator REYNOLDS. Just what organization do you represent?

Mrs. Hersey. I do not really come here representing an organization. I am an executive of an Americanization organization in Philadelphia.

Senator REYNOLDS. Were you selected by them?

Mrs. HERSEY. I talked it over with the board and they were glad to have me come and give my personal expression. It is my own personal opinion. I guess that is more definite than to say I represent the organization as such, although they were very glad to have me come.

I would gather that the purpose of S. 408 is to really try to find the illegal entrants in our communities. Is that not the main purpose? Senator REYNOLDS. Yes; and ascertain the number of aliens in the United States.

Mrs. HERSEY. With those two purposes in mind, I was trying to picture how foreign communities in Baltmore, Philadelphia, and New England, where I have worked, and it seems to me the only way we could accomplish that would be by a complete registration of all our citizens. I cannot quite picture that we are going to get the illegal entrants registered unless we have a complete law.

Take those who have dark eyes and dark hair, like myself, although being from early American stock. I know people sometimes picture me as Italian or Armenian. Sometimes they start talking Italian to me, although I am neither. I have to carry à birth certificate around to prove that.

Senator REYNOLDS. Do you think everybody should be fingerprinted and registered?

Mrs. HERSEY. I do not like to go into the whole problem of complete registration, because there is a good deal of feeling about it; but it seems to me, in order to get what you are after, that would be the only way to do it. I do not see how you could do it any other way and accomplish what you want to accomplish.

Senator REYNOLDS. Of course, under my bill, they could register only those who are aliens.

Mrs. HERSEY. How would you know whether I am an alien or not? Senator REYNOLDS. We would have to make inquiry.

Mrs. HERSEY. I have to carry a birth certificate around. I live in a town where I could get one.

Senator REYNOLDS. A good many people would not be in the alien classification.

Mrs. HERSEY. That is true, of course.

Senator REYNOLDS. I do not see why anyone should mind it. Jf anyone should ask me if I were a Swede, I would consider it a compliment.

Mrs. HERSEY. But how would you know whether they are aliens or not? I do not think it would be effective. I do not have any particular objection to it.

Senator REYNOLDS. What we would have to do would be to tax them and make them tell.

Mrs. HERSEY. I think you would have to tax us all. I do not happen to one of those who violently opposed fingerprinting.

Senator REYNOLDS. I do not mind being fingerprinted. I have been fingerprinted. I have a picture of the Vice-President when he was fingerprinted.

Mrs. HERSEY. My feeling is that you would have to include everybody if you are going to carry out the purposes of the bill; otherwise, it would not be effective.

Senator REYNOLDS. It would be much more expensive to register and fingerprint 135,000,000 people than to check and register and fingerprint 6,000,000 people.

Mrs. HERSEY. I do not think you would catch them.

Senator REYNOLDS. If we can catch 130,000,000, certainly we can catch 6,000,000. Anyway when we did catch one and he was not registered we would know he is here unlawfully and out he would go.

Mrs. HERSEY. Yes; but they would not go voluntarily, as the 130,000,000 would. From a practical point of view, that would be

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