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pointed by the Governor, to handle the purse strings of Boston, and for which was also created a police commissioner, appointed by the Governor to handle the police. To illustrate, in that big city is the little town of Brookline, completely surrounded by the city of Boston, in which taxes are much less and police protection far superior and civic conditions generally seemed to me much better than in Boston. The new immigration made up most of the population of the city, while the old American stock made up the population of the town of Brookline.

Senator HERRING. How do the aliens affect that? They could not vote, of course?

Mr. PATTEN. There have been investigations of illegal alien voting in Boston, and plenty of alien voting found, so-called "floaters” going from one ward and voting booths to another and "repeating” as well as even dead people and fictitious persons being voted. Take the leading wards, known as the Tomasney or "foreign" wards, which voted 1 year absolutely solidly, or was voted solidly, for the Democratic mayoralty candidate, only the next year to be voted by "Peter F.,” as he was called, practically solid for the Republican candidate for mayor, who was consequently elected.

Senator HERRING. Some of the American citizens must have known of that or had something to do with it, though?

Mr. PATTEN. To be sure. If they did not have a fertile field to work in, they would not have the opportunity to do what they did. I rather think the plastic material in their hands more responsible for what was done than the American citizens whom competition forced to do what they did to win.

Now that the question of my real interest has been asked, may I go a little further into the story of my life?

Senator HERRING. Yes.

Mr. PATTEN. With trips abroad, and with ideas of conditions in foreign lands, gradually I became much impressed with the fact that this is the only country on earth where I could have possibly gotten the good things that I have gotten, and that possibly I ought to try to show my appreciation.

Senator HERRING. Your are right.

Mr. PATTEN. And part of my interest now in this problem, if you will permit me to say so is to try to show some appreciation for those institutions that have made it possible for me to get all the good things of life that I am getting.

Senator STEWART. Do you think you could still get them, if you were a young man again at this time?

Mr. PATTEN. I do, sir; but not as easily perhaps as then, because of certain elements that have come in that are different, but not necessarily inferior or superior. The real answer seems to me to be our American institutions, standards, and ideals. Institutions reflect the character and capacity of a people and have most to do with the welfare of a people. Look at China, with all its resources.

Senator Holman. In other words, you would like to preserve those good things generally for the public that our forefathers had?

Mr. PATTEN. Yes, Senator Holman; I would like for us to maintain these institutions not only for American sons and daughters but also that they may be ideals to and standards to which other peoples and other countries might aspire.


Senator Holman. I should not take the time, but you bring up this thought

Mr. PATTEN. Yes.

Senator Holman. Immediately after the World War, they set up governments all over Europe that were run and patterned after ours, with representatives and congresses and representation; and in 20 years their people could not stand that kind of a Government, and the fact that some of them have come over here will have some effect on us if it gets to be permanent.

Mr. PATTEN. In 1 week in New York recently we had the "Bunders" and two other un-American and discordant groups meeting, with police protection, and with a woman columnist going to the bund meeting with a prizefighter “for a purpose," as she declared.

Senator REYNOLDS. Who was she?

Mr. Patten. In her articles she is trying to make the domestic affairs of Germany a world issue. Ejected from Germany with all the fury of a spurned woman she seems to me to be trying to get us into another European or World War, when, if I may say so, I think she had better devote her columns to our problems and her affairs domestically.

Senator REYNOLDS. Who was she?

Mr. PATTEN. She calls herself-after the “red” Russian custom although she is wife and mother-Miss Dorothy Thompson. If there ever were articles that have absolutely no foundation in fact it is, for instance such of hers as her article on the bombing by Franco of the Spanish city of Guernica, on which an official Government investigation and a special investigation by the London Times revealed no bombs were ever dropped, although she alleged Franco's planes bombed it to bits and even pursued a flock of sheep bombing to death the last one at the time of destroying Guernica with bombs.

Senator REYNOLDS. Now, just a minute. Mr. Chairman?
Senator HERRING. Yes.

Senator REYNOLDS. I should like to be permitted now to make the statements that I made yesterday, so there will be no misunderstanding about this matter, and I would like to say while Mr. Patten is on the stand--because I have been intimately associated with Mr. Patten for about 5 years, and that intimate association with him was brought about by his being presented to me by the Senator from South Carolina, Senator Byrnes—I want to again repeat here today that I have absolutely no pride whatsoever in the authorship of these bills; and if Mr. Patten or anybody wants to suggest any bills to present to you gentlemen, and you gentlemen want to present those bills to the Senate under your name, I assure you I will be just as greatly interested as I am now, and I will fight for them just as much as I am now. Because the only interest I have in the world is to keep North Carolina as it is today. Fortunately, we have less foreignborn in North Carolina than in any other State in the Union. The second in the Union is our sister State of Tennessee, who is so ably represented by our colleague here and Senator McKellar. I want to impress on you gentlemen that I have no pride of authorship. And if any of these bills I have, you want to change or throw out entirely and put other bills in under your own names, it is perfectly all right

All I am looking for is an opportunity to serve the American people and all I am asking is that they be protected against the influx of the aliens of the world.

with me.

Mr. PATTEN. Mr. Chairman, Senator Reynolds asked me to indicate what I knew about the quotation which he read to the committee. I have the original "Interpreter release" published and circulated by the Foreign Language Information Service, of which the Commissioner is a member of its board of trustees, and that shows the quotation was sent out under the caption "Interpreting America to the Immigrant.”

With reference to whether immigration is increasing our population and adding to the number of unemployed and the number of relief seekers, I beg to call the committee's attention to the official statistical fact that during the 14 years from the passage of the permanent quota law: in 1924—there having been a previous temporary law passed in 1921-to 1938, 4,542,748 aliens of all classes entered the United States legally. Senator HOLMAN. Read those figures again? Senator REYNOLDS. You mean permanently?

Mr. PATTEN. No; aliens of all classes, those for temporary as well as for permanent residence; 4,542,748 aliens of all classes, as shown by

he statistics inserted by the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization in the hearings held by the House Subcommittee on Appropriations, before which a spokesman for the Department of Labor and the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization appeared, and do appear annually. These annual printed hearings, by the way, contain very interesting information, as well as enlightening statistics, particularly the hearings of the last 3 years, to which I hope to be allowed time to call your attention specifically, because of their very instructive contents not to be found in any Department of Labor report. Mr. HOUGHTELING. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman? Mr. PATTEN. Yes, sir. Senator HERRING. Yes, sir. Mr. HOUGHTELING. Doesn't that include visitors as well?

Mr. PATTEN. Mr. Commissioner, I distinctly said "Aliens of all classes,” meaning all aliens that came legally.

Mr. PATTEN. “All classes of aliens."

Mr. PATTEN. In its classification of immigrants and what is immi. gration statistically, the Department of Labor' does not follow the quota law classification, but makes immigrant and immigration turn on the mental intent of the alien entering for a "permanent residence" or other purpose, that by no means always determines whether the alien is an addition to our employed or dependent population. Visitors for business and visitors for pleasure are by law classified as "nonimmigrants" and are not regarded as immigration by the Department of Labor, while students and many others are classified by the quota law as nonquota, and by the Department in its statistics of immigration as non immigrants or immigrants. It seems to me that the transitory residential intent of the alien makes no difference in his effect as an additional job hunter or relief seeker, and therefore upon the 135,000,000 people already here. - Take the thousands of visitors that annually come, no one of whom is classified by the Department of Labor as immigrants or immigration the year they came. Of the hundreds of thousands of visitors that have come the last decade there must be thousands that have not and will not depart. If they avoid



going back for 7 years they can be admitted and have been by the present Secretary under the so-called seventh proviso discretion to permanent residence—under her preexamination seventh proviso arrangement with Canada.

Senator REYNOLDS. Well, they can come in under the student's provision also.

Mr. PATTEN. Yes; they can come "ad lib," as students or nonquota immigrant aliens—I'mean without any numerical limitation. A hundred thousand or a million can come as students next year nonquota, and a million or more as visitors, and therefore, “nonimmigrant," as far as any numerical limitation in the law is concerned. My point is that they do come and do remain here permanently, in spite of their oaths and the law.


Mr. PATTEN. Not only because they change their minds but also because their countries refuse to receive them back when we try to deport; for instance, there is only one country to which we can deport a deportable alien, and that is to his homeland. Of course, Hitler will not receive any member of the minorities he classifies as undesirable, and yet we are admitting Germans temporarily as visitors, students, and the like.

Senator HERRING. Yes.
Senator REYNOLDS. What country is that?
Mr. Patten. of which he is a native.
Senator STEWART. His origin.

Mr. PATTEN. His national origin. And that may not be the land of his legal residence or from which he last came to the United States.

Senator REYNOLDS. That is right.

Mr. HOUGHTELING. May I make a statement in that connection? Our statistics show that since July 1, 1924, when the 1924 Quota Act went into effect, up to the end of the last fiscal year, there were 2,137,287 immigrants admitted for permanent residence.

The statement of the witness that under the law a student can come into this country as a visitor and stay permanently. is not, according to the facts. Students have to come to an accredited institution, and we keep a very close check on them. They have to leave at the end of their educational course. They are not admitted as nonquota immigrants. They are on a visitor's status, and visitors always have to go out at the end of their visit, at the specified end of their visit.

As I stated yesterday, our records at Ellis Island, show that whereas we have admitted several hundred thousand visitors through that port since July 1, 1934, there were, as of a specific date, about 28,000 visitors actually in this country, the time limit of whose visit had not expired, and only 4,226 whose term had expired and who were therefore in this country illegally; although some of those visitors may have gone out without letting us know.

In other words, this large figure for aliens admitted to this country included a great many who have come as visitors and been legally admitted as visitors and have gone back where they came from.

Senator REYNOLDS. Now, just one question

Mr. PATTEN. That coincides with what I said, precisely. I have here a statistical table compiled from the official statistics of the Department of Labor, which shows the different classes of aliens The Secretary of Labor has notified the Department in each case that the alien concerned may be readmitted into the United States under the discretionary authority conferred upon her by the seventh proviso in section 3 of the Immigration Act of 1917, notwithstanding the criminal records of the aliens, and the American consular officers in Canada to whom the aliens were applying, or to whom they expected to apply, for immigration visas were notified of the action taken by the Department of Labor in each case.

The crimes committed by the aliens are listed opposite their names. However, in connection with some of the crimes listed as perjury it may be pointed out that such offenses, involving willful false appearing, occurred in connection with violations of the immigration, naturalization, or passport laws of the United States. In an opinion dated October 13, 1933, the Attorney General confirmed the views of this Department that such perjury must be considered to be a crime involving moral turpitude, which would have precluded the issuance of immigration visas by the consular officers to the aliens concerned, in the absence of the action taken by the Secretary of Labor under her discretionary authority. Sincerely yours,

(Signed) A. M. WARREN,

Chief, Visa Division. Enclosure: List of aliens and crimes.



Michael Fedorko: Forgery (passport fraud not admitted by alien); perjury.
Pietro Lorusso: Forgery (passport fraud).
Oscar S. Johnson (or Johansson): Conspiracy and extortion.
Archibald Edward McClarty: Theft.
Lawrence Arthur McClelland: Statutory rape.
James Theodore Johnson: Aiding and abetting shoplifting.
Fernando Fini: Perjury (naturalization fraud).
Thomas Edward Coogan: Perjury (visa fraud).
John L. Anthony: Theft.
Francesco Collo: Manslaughter.
George Arthur Ingoldby: Perjury (passport fraud).
Daniel Harry Berliner (United States wife): Perjury (passport fraud).

Carmelo Roman (no near relative in United States): Perjury (naturalization fraud).

Karl Eder (alien wife in United States): Perjury (naturalization fraud).

Friedrich Schlirf (no near relative in United States): Perjury (naturalization fraud).

Giovanni Caruso (sister in United States): Perjury (naturalization fraud).

Lipman Kufheiser (sister in United States at Charleston, S. C.): Perjury (naturalization fraud).

Lillian Flake (United States husband): Theft (two convictions).
Joseph Ichtertz (United States wife): Theft.
Szozepan Adomozyk: Bigamy.

Shershel Kushelewich (uncle and two cousins in United States): Forgery (uttering counterfeit visas).

Joseph Michaud (Raoul Seraphin Michaud) (alien wife in United States): Perjury and forgery (visa fraud).

Samuel Engler: Perjury and forgery (visa fraud).
Russel M. Martin: Theft.
Fredrich L. H. Amberger (United States wife): Embezzlement; manslaughter.
Anton Glavicich: Perjury (naturalization fraud).

Salvatore Mandale: Forgery and perjury (uttering counterfeit visa and naturalization fraud).

Camile Neuenschwander (United States wife): Perjury (naturalization fraud).
Peter Gluech: Perjury (visa and naturalization fraud).
Sergio Di Terlizzi: Perjury (visa fraud).
Leonard J. Martel (alien wife in United States): Perjury (immigration fraud).

Herman Salinger: Forgery and perjury (uttering counterfeit visa and naturalization fraud).

Joseph H. Kendall (United States wife, whereabouts unknown): Perjury and forgery (visa fraud).

John Kulla: Theft (a kleptomaniac and known to be such by Department of Labor officials).

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