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The spies returned and told Joshua all that had happened. Early the next morning, Joshua and all the people removed from Shittim, and came to Jordan. The priests, carrying the Ark of God, went forward, and the people followed. The river Jordan •divided, and all the Israelites passed over. As soon

as the priests and the people had reached the opposite side, the waters returned, and flowed as before. Twelve stones were set up as a memorial that the waters had divided for the Israelites to pass over. The Tribes encamped at Gilgal and kept the passover. They ate of the old and also of the new 'corn of the land, and the manna ceased falling. The Canaanites were much afraid when they heard that God had dried up the waters of Jordan for the Israelites to pass over.

The “.captain of the Lord's host," appeared to Joshua before Jericho, and gave him directions about taking the city. He

“ The men of war shall compass the city, and go round about the city once each day, for six days. And seven priests shall bear before the ark seven trumpets of rams' horns : and the seventh day ye shall compass the city seven times, and the priests shall blow with the trumpets. And it shall come to pass, that when they make a long blast with the ram's horn, and when ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all the people shall shout with a great shout ; and the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall ascend up every man straight before him.” These directions were obeyed, and the city was taken. Rahab and her family were saved. The city was burnt; and Joshua pronounced a 'curse on whomsoever should rebuild it.


number was| Adam, (Deut. xxxii. 8), yet he did not 603,550, and the number of the men dispossess those nations which had first when they came in sight of Canaan was occupied it until their wickedness had 601,730, so hat during their wanderings become insufferable. in the wilderness, one generation hav. ing died, their number was diminished the present day does not convey a

book of the law—an ordinary book of

correct idea of the roll, or volume, retwo-the two faithful spies. Lessons Terred to. These rolls or volumes 25,26.

among the Israelites at tbis time were give-though God had reserved Ca- formed of the papyrus which grew on naan for Israel in the distribution which the Nile. Lesson 17, “bulrush.' The be made of the earth among the sons of stalks of this plant were split, and





NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS. (1451-1096 B.C. pressed, the edges of the leaves united forward—before the people. The with paste, and thus formed into large priests of the Lord took the lead with sheels to the extreme ends of which ihe symbol of the Divine presence, two rollers were generally attached. dividedas did the Red Sea for their When written upon, the sheet was rathers when they left Egypt. Les. 20. rolled up on one of the rollers; & as it The passage of the Jordan was effected was read it was rolled back upon the at the most unfavourable season for second roller. Many other substances fording—it being the time when, from were also used for these written rolls, as the melting of the snows of Lebanon, the bark of trees, linen, cotton-cloth, it had overflowed its banks; its depth skins of animals, &c. Literature had and the rapidity of its current being doubtless been cultivated among the increased from ihe same cause. This Israelites; their house of bondage? miracle which took place at noon, and was at this time as greatly celebrated no doubt in the presence of many of for its learning as for its idolatry; in the Canaanites, was calculated to sirike Canaan too there was a city of letters,'| terror into the people of the land as well Kirjalh-sepher, which was a seat of as to inspire Israel with devout conCanaanitish learning.

fidence in God. meditate-to think upon; to turn over reached-arrived at; the priests were and over in the mind.

the last to reach the shore, although that thou mayest, 8c.--reading and the first to enter the bed of the divided meditating upon the word of God must river; according to God's command, lead to love of it, and produce cheerful they stood in the midst until all the and active obedience.

The conduct people had passed over.

of the priests and Levites reflects great all that is written-Joshua was not at honour upon them; they showed their liberty to adopt such portions of the faith in God's word, and their forward law as might be most agreeable to him: zeal to promote the welfare of their be was to observe all that had been brethren of all the other tribes. written; so are we.

twelve-one for each tribe; they were Rahab-her faith is commended by taken from the middle of the river. Paul, and James; Heb. xi. 31 ; James corn—the inhabitants of the plain fed ii. 25; both Christian and Jewish on the appronch of the Israelites, leavwriters speak highly of Rahab; by some ing behind them stores of old corn, she is made the ancestress of Christ. besides the produce of their fields, either

escape-Rahab's house was seated on just reaped, or still stan iing, for it was the town wall, the spies had therefore now the time of the barley-harvest. no difficulty but to keep watch from the captain, &C.--a messenger from God roof, where they were hidden among in human form; Joshua fell down bethe flax-stalks from the pursuers' sent fore him when he became aware of his in quest of them.

sacred character, and while in that terror-dread; great fear; God position, the angel delivered the Lord's weakened the courage of the Canaan message him respecting the itish idolaters, thus fulfilling his promise taking of Jericho. given through Moses, “There shall seven-the number is of very frequent no man be able to stand before you; occurrence in the scriptures. Seven for the Lord your God shall lay the fear days completed the week of creation of you and the dread of you upon all the and rest; every seven years formed a land that ye shall tread upon.

week of years—the seventh year being promise the condition of this promise a year of rest; and at the close of every was that she should hang in her window, week of seven years—every fiftieth year, on the day when Jericho should be there was a Jubilee. The clean animals taken, the scarlet rope by which she had were taken by Noah into the ark by let them down.

sevens; there were seven years of


PERIOD IV.] THE FALL OF JERICHO." plenty and seven years of famine in the Jordan, while it was an encourageEgypt, and there are many other ment to the unwarlike Israelites. illustrations of peculiarity in this num- saved-because she observed the conber. In the present instance seven dition required by the spies. priests, bearing seven trumpets were to

curse—this curse was accomplished precede the ark while going round the city once each day for six days, and many years after. Lesson 78.

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. seven times on the seventh day.

JERICHO—was about six miles west trumpets—this ancient instrument

of the Jordan, and twenty-two northwas much used in various observances of the Israelites ; tbe ram's horns were the city of palm-trees;' because the

east of Jerusalem; it is called by Moses hollowed out. Trumpets were also made of brass resembling horns.

palm tree flourished in the low and very

sultry plain in which Jericho stood. long blast-the blowing of the trum- The plain of Jericho' was part of the pets indicated

assaults upon the plain of Jordan; it was formerly. besieged town, while the long blast gave extremely fertile though now scarcely the idea of a general charge which

any signs of vegetation appear. should end in the breaking down of

JORDAN-this celebrated river of the city defences.

Canaan, rises at the foot of Mount shout-following out the idea referred Lebanon, and flows southward through to above, the shout being one of victory. the marshes, formerly called the waters

shall fallwhen, by their obedience of Merom; thence through the Lake of to the directions given, they had proved Cinnereth; and thence southward to their faith in God's power to give them the Dead Sea, into which it falls. Its success by means the most unlikely, then length is about 150 miles. Less. 7. should they find that the victory was GILGAL—rolled off;' a city on the their's.

east of Jericho about 18 miles northflalthe desences were really less east from Jerusalem, and the place formidable than they appeared to be to where the Israelites encamped after a people not accustomed to warfare. they had passed over the Jordan. It Doubtless Jericho was an important was about five miles west of the river, and well-fortified city ; and its early and it became the seat of govern: fall increased the consternation of the ment during the wars of Joshua. Here Canaanites, already spiritless from too the tabernacle remained till its hearing of the miraculous passage of' removal to Shiloh. Lesson 32.


“Ye warriors of Israel, encompass the wall
“Of this infidel city, that's destined to fall;
“Ye Levites, go carry the ark of our God
“ Round the fortified bounds of this Gentile abode !
“And tell by the trump, while your voices are dumb,
“That the merciless hour of its judgment is come.”
6 Ye warriors Israel! ye priests of the Lord !
“Ye last with the ark, and ye first with the sword !
“Seven times on the seventh day encompass ye round
“This city of Canaan that cumbers the ground;
“ And when 'tis accomplish’d, the trump shall be blown,
The people shall shout, and the walls be o'erthrown.”

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Around and around went the ark of the Lord, —
Around and around went the arm’d with the sword,
Around and around the wide circle they passed, -
Till the city did reel like a drunkard at last,
And then came the shout, and the trumpets long sound,
And the high walls of Jericho fell to the ground.
The slaughter began-and the city was drunk
With the red streams that Aow'd from the crowds as they sunk,-
From the youth that was strong, and the maid that was gay;
And the stricken in years, and the child of a day;
Till the fire of the victors the carnage consum'd,
And Jericho lay in her ashes entomb’d.

W. Knox.


Joshua vii.-xxii. Achan, a man of the tribe of Judah, committed a trespass against God. He took from the spoils of Jericho, a Babylonish garment, two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of .gold, which he hid in the earth, within his tent. For his sin the Israelites were discomfited at Ai. Joshua then fell


his face before the ark of the Lord, and said, “ O Lord, what shall I say, when Israel turneth their backs before their enemies! For the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land shall hear of it, and shall .environ us round, and cut off our name from the earth : and what wilt thou do unto thy great `name?” God told him of the sin that had been committed ; and gave him directions for the discovery and punishment of the offender. · Achan was discovered and put to death, and Ai was afterwards taken. Joshua then built an altar to God on Mount Ebal. The blessings of the law were pronounced from Mount Gerizim, and the cursings from Mount Ebal.

The inhabitants of Gibeon were afraid of the Israelites, when they heard what had been done to Jericho and to Ai; and they went to Joshua, in old shoes and old clothing, pretending that they had come from a far country. Joshua and the princes of Israel made a covenant of peace with them. Three days after, they found that the Gibeonites were neighbours, and that they had deceived them. The Israelites



PERIOD IV.] THE SUN AND MOON STAND STILL. would not destroy them, but made them hewers of wood, and drawers of water, for the camp and the tabernacle of Israel.

Five kings encamped against Gibeon, because its inhabitants had made peace with Israel. Joshua went to assist the Gibeonites. At this battle the sun and moon •stood still at the command of Joshua, till the kings were conquered. The five kings fled to a cave at Makkedah. They were taken and hanged. Joshua also conquered many other kings of Canaan, and gave their land for an inheritance to Israel.

The tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half tribe of Manasseh returned to the East of Jordan when Canaan was conquered. They built an altar near the Jordan, for a witness that they belonged to Israel. The other tribes feared that it would lead them into idolatry, but the tribes of Reuben and Gad said their altar was not for burnt-offerings, nor sacrifices, .but for a witness; and they called it Ed.

NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS. Achan or Achor. Geographical Notes. God's presence and majesty; the Israel.

took-his sin consisted in appropriat-ites prayed with their faces turned toing what had been devoted to God. wards the ark, tabernacle, or temple ; Devoted things could not be redeemed, idolaters turn towards their idols; those neither could men or animals devoted who acknowledge no visible representato death. Lev. xxvii. 28,29. Carrying lion of God look upwards to the illimi. out the principle of devoting the first table space of heaven, their idea of God's of every thing to God, this city, the first infinite character being thereby exalted. captured hy Israel, was given up to him

environ-surround; enclose. as a devoted city. garment—as Babylon in after years of the True God was sustained only by

name—believing that the knowledge became justly celebrated for its superior the Israelites as a nation, Joshua contextures; so now the plain of Shinar. where

templated their extinction as fatal to Babylon afterwarıls stood, appears to have acquired a reputation fulfilment of the promises made to their

the interests of true religion, and to the for the manufacture of costly robes.

fathers. silver-gold they that will be rich fall into a temptation and a snare; for

discovery-this was by lot, a mode of the love of money is the root of all evil' deciding doubtful matters much resorted I Tim. vi. 9,10. No covetous man, to in former times; the opinion being who is an idolater, hath any inheritance that God would cause the lot to fall on in the kingdom of God. Ephes. v. 5. the guilty. Solomon says, “the lot is Covetousness is idolatry. Col. iii. 5. cast into the lap, but the whole dis

discomfiledthough the numb's slain posing thereof is of the Lord.” was small compared with the vast blessings—for obedience. multitude of Israel, yet this repulse cursings--for disobedience. afforded evidence of the withdrawal of

old shoes—though the Gibeonites had the Divine protection.

asses, yet, as eastern travellers walk before—the ark was the emblem of most of their journey alongside the

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