« ÎnapoiContinuați »
A careful study of the various figures here gathered together may perhaps, as in the case of single tests, lead one to the belief that it is the individual who must be watched. Given representatives of one country or race may be better or worse than those of another country or race, but the variation seems to be the variation of individuals. Professor Woodworth says, in his study already quoted: "On the whole the keenness of the senses seems to be about on a par in the various races of mankind." Perhaps we may go even further. The total range of scores made by the children at Ellis Island shows a distribution similar to that usually found in like studies.
One difficulty in past years, too little emphasized, has been the overwhelming numbers of certain races that came in a given short space of time. Assimilation is as much a question, it would seem, on this side of over great numbers of one nationality or race, as it is on the larger side, of the assimilation of great numbers of immigrants of all races. With this looked out for to an even greater degree by the new law, with the more careful sifting, and with the demand for more exact credentials, with the greater distribution of arrivals over more months in the year, there seems to be a way opening for the exacting, under the law, of that higher standard which the country has come to demand.
We may hope to see developed in connection with the Medical Division at Ellis Island, an extension of the "Psychological" work already begun. As we have noted, all the complicated machinery of "Immigration” bears the signs of a gradual and intelligent growth. From the "arithmetic problems," and the simple questions now asked of the arriving immigrant, in any doubtful case, which appears upon the line, or in the intensive examination rooms, to discover if further examination on the mental side is necessary, there might be developed a short series of tests which all immigrants should be given, perhaps the children on the left, and the adults on the right, (for such division might be possible in the line) to serve as a general and further weeding process, after the Medical Division examination, as now conducted, is finished. For adults there might be quick moving tests on the picture completion order, or an adapted "E" test, based on the illiterate vision test (but with two "E's” perhaps instead of one E and a card), or a pattern filling test after the example of the third question in the Beta, or the Knox cubes, or the “Learning Test” as described by Dr. Mullan.
Speed is a requisite here, for as it is necessary to discover the cases that are below normal, according to the law, so also it is right to detain as short a time as possible those immigrants who in all respects do satisfy the law, and who should therefore not be retarded in their entrance into the country.
Some such method as this, with tests chosen by experienced workers, would, it seems, secure in both these ways the desired results, for in the cases where the non language tests had not given convincing information, this smaller number of immigrants might be given some oral or written test through interpreters, as the Eugenics Committee suggested, without delay of the entire number. That a quick working selective process at first would be a wise one, whatever slower moving and more exhaustive one might be used after those who gave evidence of being beyond question had passed on their way, seems evident after watching the principle of development which is at work at Ellis Island. The standards set, when once the system was in working order, could be raised or lowered without causing any change in the process itself.
Many of the complete tables of the results obtained at Ellis Island have been included in this Study in order to have them at hand for direct comparison. Mr. William J. Bromwell, who wrote a "History of Immigration” in 1856, said that he presented "facts” only, and left it “to the enlightened understanding of the people
to arrive at just conclusions from the premises therein presented.” It is through such study and critical consideration on the part of many people that the immigration system has advanced and is advancing.
To sum up: The smaller number of immigrants arriving, the more careful selection at the source, the lower quotas for races which have come to this country in the last few years, in numbers impossible of assimilation, the opportunity for more intensive physical and mental examination on arrival, and for greater leisure in getting the facts necessary to determine the fitness of the individual, all give promise of the establishment of improved conditions throughout the country. Difficulties in the working of this latest law will of course be found, individual hardships will exist; but the painstaking and untiring work that is the basis of each development will correct each flaw in time, and the process of admitting only that individual who proves his fitness, seems surely a safe foundation.
1 For text of the law, see Government pamphlet, 68th Congress, no. 139, H. R. 7995.
2 Hearings Before the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization. H. R. 5, etc., 1924.
Pamphlet, 78952. For interesting discussion of various points of the law see report of appearance before Committee of Commissioner H. H. Curran, pp. 621-648 and pp. 719–724.
See also "Fewer and Better.” Henry H. Curran. Saturday Evening Post, November 15, 1924, p. 6.
3 Hearings before the House Committee on Immigration, 1924, Pamphlet 78952, p. 838.
ARLITT, A. H.: On the Need of Caution in Establishing Race Norms.
Jour. Applied Psychol., 1921.
April 25, 1923.
search, 1922, vol. 5. BURR, CHARLES W.: The Foreign Born Insane. Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc.,
Mental Hygiene, vii, no. 1, 1923.
no. 61, February 14, 1921. Vol. 60: no. 64, February 17, 1921
61: no. 24, May 9, 1921. CURRAN, HENRY H.: Hearings before the Committee on Immigration and
Naturalization. 1924. Pamphlet 78952, pp. 621–648, 719-924. CURRAN, HENRY H.: Fewer and Better: Saturday Evening Post, November
15, 1924, p. 6. DAVENPORT, C. B., AND CRAYTON, LAURA C.: Comparison of the Social
Traits of Various Races. School and Society, October 22, 1921;
Jour. Applied Psych., vol. vii, 2, June, 1923.
Board and Construction Tests of Mental Ability. Jour. of Educ.
Psych., 7, 1916.
tiveness. Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Ixii, 1914.
Review, July, 1916, pp. 689–708.
GARIS, Roy L.: The Immigration Problem. Scribner's Magazine, Septem
ber, 1922. GINSBERG, MORRIS: The Psychology of Society. Ch. VI, Racial and
National Characteristics. GODDARD, H. H.: Feeble Mindedness and Immigration. Training School
Bulletin IX, pp. 109–113, November-December, 1912. GODDARD, H. H.: The Form Board as a Measure of Intellectual Develop
ment in Children. Training School Bulletin, IX, June, 1912. GODDARD, H. H.: Mental Tests and the Immigrant. Jour. Delinquency,
1917, vol. 2. Gwyn, M. K.; The Healy Puzzle Picture and Defective Aliens. Med.
Rec., 1914, 85, pp. 197–199. HAMAIDE, AMELIE: The Decroly Class. 1924. HOLMES, S. J.: Studies in Evolution and Eugenics. 1923. HYDE, GEORGE E.: Recognition of Pre-Psychotic Children by Group
Mental Tests. Amer. Jour. Psych., 2, 1922–1923. Illiteracy in the United States. Govt. Printing Office. Bulletin 26, 1905. Immigration: Hearings Before the Committee on Immigration and Natur
alization of the House of Representatives on H. R. 5; 101, 561,
6540; (in 2 parts); no. 85675; no. 78952. 1924. Immigration: List of Govt. Publication: Govt. Printing Office. List 67,
1922. Immigration Reports: Annual Reports of the Commissioner General.
1913, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923. Report of Immigration
Commission, Vol. 40, 1911. Immigration Situation in Canada: Govt. Printing Office. Document 469.
1910. Intelligence Tests and Their Use. Twenty-first Year Book of the National
Society for the Study of Education. 1922. JENKS AND LAUCK: The Immigration Problem 5th Edition Revised. 1922. JENNINGS, H. S.: Undesirable Aliens. The Survey. December 15, 1923. JOHNSON, O. J.: Non-Verbal Group Intelligence Tests for Primary Pupils.
Reprint from Jour. Applied Psych., March, 1923. KAPP, FRIEDRICH: Immigration and the Commissioners of Emigration
of the State of New York. 1870. KELLOR, FRANCES: The Federal Administration and the Alien. 1921. KERR, J. W.: Federal Public Health Administration. Public Health
Service Weekly Reports. January 17, 1913. KERR, J. W.: European Report. Congressional Record, vol. 60, no. 64,
February 17, 1921. KINDER, ELAINE F.: A Study of Sex Differences in Mental Traits. Uni
versity of Utah. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. Knox, HOWARD A.: A Scale Based on the Work at Ellis Island for Estimat
ing Mental Defect. Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Ixii, no. 10, 1914. Knox, HOWARD A.: A Comparative Study of the Imaginative Power in the
Mental Defective. Med. Rec., 1914, 85, pp. 748–751.