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Standard, regardless of the total score classification the ratio of the Brix value
for the product (this is a limiting rule). to acid shall be not less than 5.5 to 1.
"Fairly free from defects" means that (c) (SStd-Mfg.) classification. If the
there may be present:

concentrated grapefruit juice fails to (1) Juice cells only in such amounts meet the requirements of paragraph (b) as do not seriously detract from the ap- of this section a score of 0 to 27 points pearance or drinking quality of the juice; may be given. Concentrated grapefruit

(2) Not more than 12 percent free juice that falls into this classification and suspended pulp;

shall not be graded above Substandard (3) Practically no seeds or portions for Manufacturing, regardless of the tothereof that could not pass readily tal score for the product (this is a through round perforations of 48 inch limiting rule). in diameter;

EXPLANATIONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSES (4) Only such small seeds or portions thereof that could pass through round $ 52.3489 Explanation of terms and perforations of 48 inch in diameter as analyses. do not seriously detract from the ap

(a) Reconstituted juice. “Reconstipearance or drinking quality of the juice;

tuted juice" means the product obtained and

by mixing thoroughly one part by vol(5) Other defects that are not materi

ume of the concentrated grapefruit juice ally objectionable.

with a stated volume of water. For ex(d) (SStd-Mfg.) classification. Con

ample, a dilution factor of "1 plus centrated grapefruit juice that fails to

6" means that to one part by volume of meet the requirements of paragraph (c)

concentrated grapefruit juice 6 parts by of this section may be given a score of

volume of water are added to produce & 0 to 27 points and shall not be graded

reconstituted juice. In the absence of above Substandard, regardless of the to

any declared dilution factor the product tal score for the product (this is a limit

is diluted with water to a Brix of being rule).

tween 10.5 and 11.5 degrees. Distilled 8 52.3488 Flavor.

water is used in reconstituting the prod(a) (A-Mfg.) classification. Concen

uct for testing flavor. trated grapefruit juice of which the

(b) Reconstitutes properly. “Reconreconstituted juice possesses a reason

stitutes properly" means that the conably good flavor may be given a score centrate goes into solution readily; and of 34 to 40 points. “Reasonably good that in approximately 250 ml. of the reflavor" means that the flavor is typi- constituted juice, after standing four (4) cal of reconstituted concentrated grape- hours at a temperature of not less than fruit juice from properly processed and 68 degrees Fahrenheit in a clear glass concentrated grapefruit juice; is prac- cylinder (approximately 144 inches in tically free from traces of scorching,

diameter), there may be a noticeable caramelization, oxidation, or terpene;

separation of suspended matter but any and is free from off-fiavors of any kind.

resulting zone of greater clarity shall be To score in this classification the ratio of the Brix value to acid shall be not less

definitely turbid and not clear than 6 to 1.

transparent. (b) (C-Mfg.) classification. I the

(c) Acid. “Acid” means the percent reconstituted juice possesses a fairly good by weight of total acidity, calculated as flavor a score of 28 to 33 points may be anhydrous citric acid. Total acidity is given. Concentrated grapefruit juice determined by titration with standard that falls into this classification shall not sodium hydroxide solution, using phebe graded above U. S. Grade C for Manu- nolphthalein as indicator. facturing or U. S. Standard for Manu- (d) Brix value. “Brix value” is the facturing, regardless of the total score refractometric sucrose value determined for the product (this is a limiting rule). on the thawed concentrate in accordance "Fairly good flavor" means a normal fla- with the refractometric method for vor for reconstituted cuncentrated grape- sugars and sugar products, outlined in fruit juice, which flavor may be slightly the “Oficial Methods of Analysis of the caramelized or slightly oxidized or may Association of Oficial Agricultural possess traces of terpene, but is free from Chemists,” and to which the applicable off-favors of any kind. To score in this correction for acid is added:

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. 54

egts and

TABLE I-CORRECTIONS FOR OBTAINING BRIX VALUE

SCORE SHEET

$ 52.3490 Score sheet for concentrated Correction

Correction

grapefruit juice for manufacturing. to be

to be added to

added to refracCitric acid,

Citric acid

refrac

Size and kind of container tometer anhydrous

tometer anhydrous

Container mark or identification. sucrose

sucrose (percent

(percent, value to

Label (including reconstitution factor).

value to by weight)

obtain
by weight)

Liquid measure (fluid ounces)..
obtain

Net weight.. degree

degree

Brix value of concentrate (corrected for acid).
Brix

Brix

Anhydrous citric acid in concentrate (percent by value

value

weight)..
Brix value to acid ratio..

Reconstitutes properly: (Yes) (No)
2.0.
0.39 3.6.

0.70 2. 2. .43 3.8.

.74
2. 4.
47 4.0.

.78
Factors

Score points 2. 6.

51 4.2. 2. 8.

4. 4. 3.0. 58 4.6. . 89

(A-Mfg.) 17-20 3. 2. .62 4.8.

.93
Color..

20 (C-Mfg.) 1 14-16 3.4. 66 5.0. .97

((sStd-Mfg.) 10-13

|(A-Mfg.) 34-40 Defects.

40 (C-Mfg.) 1 28-33 Source: "Refractometric Determination of Soluble

|(SStd-Mfg.) 10-27 Solids in Citrus Juices,” hy J. W. Stevens and W. E.

(A-Mfg.) 34-40 Baier, from the Analytical Edition of Industrial and Flavor.

40 (C-Mig.) 1 28-33 Engineering Chemistry, vol. II, p. 447, Aug. 15, 1939.

lisStd-Mfg.) 10-27 Total score...

100 (e) Free and suspended pulp. “Free and suspended pulp" means particles of membrane, core, peel and other similar

Grade for manufacturing... be extraneous material that settle out on

1 Indicates limiting rule. e centrifuging by the following method: (1) Skim floating fruit cells and pulp

LOT INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ID from the sample of reconstituted juice, $ 52.3491 Ascertaining the grade of a

lot. (2) Fill graduated centrifuge tubes, of The grade of a lot of the processed 9 a capacity of 50 ml., with the skimmed

product covered by these standards is 43 reconstituted grapefruit juice and place determined by the procedures set forth operations in a suitable centrifuge. Adjust the

in the regulations governing inspection nd: speed according to diameter, as indicated and certification of processed fruits and i in Table II, and centrifuge for exactly vegetables, processed products thereof, nota 10 minutes. As used herein, “diameter” and certain other processed food prod

means the overall distance between the ucts (8$ 52.1 to 52.87). bottoms of opposing centrifuge tubes in (22 F. R. 3547, May 22, 1957) operating position. After centrifuging, Subpart-United States Standards for the milliliter reading at the top of the

Grades of Frozen Peas layer of pulp in the tube is multiplied by 2 to give the percentage of pulp.

SOURCE: $$ 52.3511 to 52.3520 appear at 24 F.R. 3782, May 12, 1959; 24 F.R. 3986, MAY

16, 1959, unless otherwise noted. TABLE II

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND GRADES

52.3511 Product description.
Approxi-

Approxi.
Diameter

Diameter mate revo- "Frozen peas" means the frozen prod-
(inches)
lutions per

(inches) lutions per minute

minute

uct prepared from the clean, sound, suc

culent seed of the common garden pea 1, 609 1572

(Pisum sativum) by shelling, washing,

1, 292 10171, 570

1, 271 blanching, sorting, proper draining, and 1, 534 1642.

1, 252 1142.

is frozen in accordance with good com1,500

1, 234 1, 468 1772

1, 216 mercial practice and maintained at tem12%. 1, 438 18.

1, 199

peratures necessary for the preserva13 1, 410 1812

1, 182 1,384

1, 167

tion of the product. 14.

1, 359
1912.

1, 152 1442.

Grades of frozen peas. 1, 336 20..

1, 137

$ 52.3512 1, 313

(a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Pancy'') is the quality of frozen peas that possess

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similar varietal characteristics; that

Factors:

Points Color

20 possess a good flavor; that possess a good

Defects

40 color; that are practically free from de

Tenderness and maturityfects; that are tender; and for those factors which are rated in accordance with

Total Score_.--.

100 the scoring system outlined in this subpart the total score is not less than 90

(b) Evaluation of quality. Flavor and points: Provided, That the frozen peas

the factor of tenderness and maturity is may possess a reasonably good color,

determined after the product

has scoring not less than 17 points and may

reached room temperature and after be only reasonably free from defects with

cooking. The rating for the factors of respect to pieces of peas if the total

color and defects and the evaluation of score is not less than 90 points.

similar varietal characteristics are de(b) "U.S. Grade B" (or “U.S. Extra

termined immediately after the product Standard") is the quality of frozen peas

has reached room temperature or may be that possess similar varietal character- determined immediately after thawing istics; that possess a fairly good flavor;

so that the product is free from ice that possess a reasonably good color; that crystals. are reasonably free from defects; that

(c) Definitions of requirements not are reasonably tender; and for those fac- rated by score points. (1) “Good flavor tors which are rated in accordance with

means that the product has a good charthe scoring system outlined in this sub

acteristic flavor and odor for the maturpart the total score is not less than 80

ity and is free from objectionable flavors points: Provided, That the frozen peas

and objectionable odors of any kind. may possess a fairly good color and may (2) "Fairly good flavor" means that be fairly free from defects with respect to

the product may be lacking in good pieces of peas if the total score is not

flavor but is free from objectionable less than 80 points.

flavors and objectionable odors of any (c) “U.S. Grade C" (or “U.S. Stand

kind. ard”) is the quality of frozen peas that $ 52.3514 Ascertaining the rating for possess similar varietal characteristics;

the factors which are scored. that possess a fairly good flavor; that

The essential variations within eacb possess a fairly good color; that are fairly free from defects; that are fairly

factor which is scored are so described tender; and that for those factors which

that the value may be ascertained for are scored in accordance with the scoring

each factor and expressed numerically. system outlined in this subpart the total

The numerical range within each factor

which is scored is inclusive. (For exscore is not less than 70 points: Provided, That the frozen peas may fail to meet

ample, “36 to 40 points" means 36, 37, the requirements of this paragraph for

38, 39, or 40 points.) defects with respect to pieces of peas if § 52.3515 Color. the total score is not less than 70 points. (a) (A) Classification.

Frozen peas (d) “Substandard” is the quality of that possess a good color may be given & frozen peas that fail to meet the re

score of 18 to 20 points. “Good color" quirements of U.S. Grade C.

means that the frozen peas possess & FACTORS OF QUALITY

bright, practically uniform, good, green

color that is typical for the variety; that $ 52.3513 Ascertaining the grade.

peas which vary markedly from such (a) General. In addition to consider- typical green color do not more than ing other requirements outlined in the slightly affect the overall color appearstandards the following quality factors ance; and that not more than one-half are evaluated in ascertaining the grade of i percent, by count, of the peas may be of the product:

blond, cream colored, or seriously de(1) Factors not rated by score points. tract from the overall color appearance (1) Varietal characteristics.

(b) (B) classification. If the frozen (ii) Flavor.

peas possess a reasonably good color, & (2) Factors rated by score points. The score of 16 or 17 points may be given. relative importance of each factor which Frozen peas that score 16 points in this is rated is expressed numerically on the classification shall not be graded above scale of 100. The maximum number of U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total points that may be given for each such score for the product (this is a partial factor is:

limiting rule). "Reasonably good color

means that the frozen peas possess a (2) "Pieces of pea" (broken pea) reasonably bright and reasonably uni- means: (i) A whole pea from which a form green color typical for the variety; cotyledon or a large portion thereof has that peas which very markedly from such become separated; typical green color do not materially (ii) Two detached whole cotyledons; affect the overall color appearance; and (ii) Pieces of cotyledon aggregating that not more than 142 percent, by count, the equivalent of an average size cotyof the peas may be blond, cream colored, ledon; or seriously detract from the overall (iv) A whole detached skin or portions color appearance.

of detached skin aggregating the equiva(c) (C) Classification. Frozen peas lent of an average size whole skin. that possess a fairly good color may be (3) "Blemished pea” means a pea given a score of 14 or 15 points. Frozen that is blemished by discoloration or by peas that fall into this classification other means that does not materially shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, affect the appearance or eating quality regardless of the total score for the

of the pea. product (this is a partial limiting rule). (4) “Seriously blemished pea” means "Fairly good color" means that the fro- a pea that is hard, shriveled, spotted, diszen peas possess a fairly uniform green colored, or otherwise blemished to an color typical for the variety, which may extent that the appearance or eating be dull but not off color; that peas quality is seriously affected. Peas comwhich vary markedly from such typical monly referred to as “blond” or “cream green color do not seriously affect the colored" peas are not considered seoverall color appearance; and that not riously blemished peas. more than 2 percent, by count, of all the (c) Determination of allowances peas may be blond, cream colored, or (1) Determining percent, by count, of seriously detract from the overall color pieces of peas. (1) The percent, by appearance.

count, of pieces of peas is determined by (d) (SStd.) classification. Frozen dividing the total number of pieces of peas that fail to meet the requirements peas by the total number of peas and of paragraph (c) of this section may be pieces of peas. given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall (ii) A pea held together by its skin, not be graded above Substandard, re- even though the cotyledons are partly gardless of the total score for the product crushed or the skin split, is not consid(this is a limiting rule).

ered as a broken pea or piece of pea. $ 52.3516 Defects.

(2) Harmless extraneous vegetable

material. (i) The allowances for harm(a) General. The factor of defects

less extraneous vegetable material are refers to the degree of freedom from harmless extraneous vegetable material,

based on 30 ounces of frozen peas. When pieces of peas, blemished peas, seriously

considering sample units of less than 30 blemished peas, and other defects which

ounces, the allowances provided in this affect the appearance or eating quality

section for the respective grade classifiof the product.

cation will be permitted in a single sam(b) Definition of defects. (1) "Harm- ple unit: Provided, That the average of less extraneous vegetable material" such defects in the entire sample does means:

not exceed such allowance. (i) Group 1; flat material. Succulent (d) (A) classification. Frozen peas vegetable material common to the pea that are practically free from defects plant, such as leaves and pea pods; may be given a score of 36 to 40 points.

(ii) Group 2; spherical material. "Practically free from defects” means Non-deleterious or non-poisonous types that: (See Table I of this subpart) of nightshade berries, thistle buds, or (1) For each 30 ounces of net weight other similar spherical vegetable ma- there may be present not more than the terial from other plants similar in color following amounts of harmless extrato frozen peas;

neous vegetable material: (iii) Group 3; cylindrical material. (1) Group 1; flat material, pieces havCylindrical vegetable material, such as ing an aggregate area of not more than stems, common to the pea plant or from 44 square inch (equivalent to 2 inch x other plants which are similar in color 12 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of to frozen peas.

any size; or

571

(ii) Group 2; spherical material, 1 unit; or

(ii) Group 3; cylindrical material, a piece or pieces which singly or in the aggregate do not exceed 12 inch in length.

(2) Not more than 7 percent, by count, of the peas may be pieces of peas;

(3) Not more than 2 percent, by count, of the peas may be blemished including not more than one-half of 1 percent, by count, of all the peas that may be seriously blemished;

(4) The presence of harmless extraneous vegetable material, pieces of peas, blemished peas, seriously blemished peas, and other defects individually or collectively, does not more than slightly affect the appearance or eating quality of the product.

(e) (B) classification. Frozen peas that are reasonably free from defects may be given a score of 32 to 35 points. Frozen peas that fall into this classification, except for pieces of peas, shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a partial limiting rule). "Reasonably free from defects” means that: (see Table I of this subpart)

(1) For each 30 ounces of net weight there may be present not more than the following amounts of harmless extraneous vegetable material:

(i) When present as a single group:

(a) Group 1; flat material, pieces having an aggregate area of not more than 42 square inch (equivalent to 1/2 inch x 1 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of any size; or

(b) Group 2; spherical material, 2 units; or

(c) Group 3; cylindrical material, a piece or pieces which singly or in the aggregate do not exceed 1 inch in length.

(ii) When present in combination, not more than 2 of any of the following groups:

(a) Group 1; flat material, pieces having an aggregate area of not more than 44 square inch (equivalent to 12 inch x 12 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of any size;

(b) Group 2; spherical material, 1 unit;

(c) Group 3; cylindrical material, a piece or pieces which singly or in the aggregate do not exceed 12 inch in length.

(2) Not more than 10 percent, by count, of the peas may be pieces of peas;

(3) Not more than 4 percent, by count, of the peas may be blemished including not more than 1 percent, by count, of all the peas that may be seriously blemished.

(4) The presence of harmless extraneous vegetable material, pieces of peas, blemished peas, seriously blemished peas, and other defects, individually or collectively, does not materially affect the appearance or eating quality of the product.

(f) (C) classification. Frozen peas that are fairly free from defects may be given a score of 28 to 31 points. Frozen peas that fall into this classification, except for pieces of peas, shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a partial limiting rule). "Fairly free from defects" means that: (see Table I of this subpart)

(1) For each 30 ounces of net weight there may be present not more than the following amounts of harmless extraneous vegetable material:

(i) When present as a single group:

(a) Group 1; flat material, pieces having an aggregate area of not more than 1 square inch (equivalent to 1 inch x1 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of any size; or

(b) Group 2; spherical material, 3 units; or

(c) Group 3; cylindrical material, a piece or pieces which singly or in the aggregate do not exceed 2 inches in length.

(ii) When present in combination, not more than 2 of any of the following groups:

(a) Group 1; flat material, pieces having an aggregate area of not more than 42 square inch (equivalent to 1/2 inch x 1 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of any size;

(b) Group 2; spherical materiai, 2 units;

(c) Group 3; cylindrical material, & piece or pieces which singly or in the aggregate do not exceed 1 inch in length.

(2) Not more than 15 percent, by count, of the peas may be pieces of peas;

(3) Not more than 6 percent, by count, of the peas may be blemished including not more than 3 percent, by count, of all the peas that may be seriously blemished;

(4) The presence of harmless extraneous vegetable material, pieces of peas, blemished peas, seriously blemished peas, and other defects, individually or collectively, does not seriously affect the appearance or eating quality of the product.

(g) (sStd.) classification. Frozen

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