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means that the frozen peas possess a (2) "Pieces of pea". (broken pea) reasonably bright and reasonably uni- means: (i) A whole pea from which a form green color typical for the variety; cotyledon or a large portion thereof has

that peas which very markedly from such become separated; FREE

typical green color do not materially (ii) Two detached whole cotyledons;

affect the overall color appearance; and (iii) Pieces of cotyledon aggregating oder :

that not more than 112 percent, by count, the equivalent of an average size cotyof the peas may be blond, cream colored,

ledon; or seriously detract from the overall (iv) A whole detached skin or portions fers color appearance.

of detached skin aggregating the equiva(c) (C) Classification. Frozen peas lent of an average size whole skin.

that possess a fairly good color may be (3) "Blemished pea" means a pea he

given a score of 14 or 15 points. Frozen that is blemished by discoloration or by peas that fall into this classification other means that does not materially shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, affect the appearance or eating quality regardless of the total score for the

of the pea. product (this is a partial limiting rule). (4) “Seriously blemished pea" means "Fairly good color" means that the fro- a pea that is hard, shriveled, spotted, diszen peas possess a fairly uniform green colored, or otherwise blemished to an

color typical for the variety, which may extent that the appearance or eating there be dull but not off color; that peas quality is seriously affected. Peas com

which vary markedly from such typical monly referred to as "blond” or “cream

green color do not seriously affect the colored" peas are not considered seje 20 overall color appearance; and that not riously blemished peas.

more than 2 percent, by count, of all the (c) Determination of allowancespeas may be blond, cream colored, or (1) Determining percent, by count, of seriously detract from the overall color pieces of peas. (1) The percent, by appearance.

count, of pieces of peas is determined by (d) (SStd.) classification. Frozen dividing the total number of pieces of peas that fail to meet the requirements peas by the total number of peas and of paragraph (c) of this section may be pieces of peas. given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall (ii) A pea held together by its skin, not be graded above Substandard, re- even though the cotyledons are partly gardless of the total score for the product crushed or the skin split, is not consid(this is a limiting rule).

ered as a broken pea or piece of pea.

(2) Harmless extraneous vegetable $ 52.3516 Defects.

material. (i) The allowances for harm(a) General. The factor of defects

less extraneous vegetable material are refers to the degree of freedom from

based on 30 ounces of frozen peas. When harmless extraneous vegetable material,

considering sample units of less than 30 pieces of peas, blemished peas, seriously blemished peas, and other defects which

ounces, the allowances provided in this affect the appearance or eating quality

section for the respective grade classifiof the product.

cation will be permitted in a single sam(b) Definition of defects. (1) "Harm- ple unit: Provided, That the average of DOC : less extraneous vegetable material" such defects in the entire sample does means:

not exceed such allowance. (i) Group 1; flat material. Succulent (d) (A) classification. Frozen peas vegetable material common to the pea that are practically free from defects plant, such as leaves and pea pods; may be given a score of 36 to 40 points.

(ii) Group 2; spherical material. “Practically free from defects” means Non-deleterious or non-poisonous types that: (See Table I of this subpart) of nightshade berries, thistle buds, or (1) For each 30 ounces of net weight other similar spherical vegetable ma- there may be present not more than the terial from other plants similar in color following amounts of harmless extrato frozen peas;

neous vegetable material: (iii) Group 3; cylindrical material. (1) Group 1; flat material, pieces havCylindrical vegetable material, such as ing an aggregate area of not more than

stems, common to the pea plant or from 44 square inch (equivalent to 12 inch x s other plants which are similar in color 1/2 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of to frozen peas.

any size; or

571

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Subpart-United States Standards for

Grades of Bulk Sauerkraut SOURCE: $8 52.3461 to 52.3462 appear at 32 F.R. 7568, May 24, 1967, unless otherwise noted.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION, GRADES $ 52.3451 Product description.

Bulk or barreled sauerkraut, herein. after referred to as "sauerkraut” or “bulk sauerkraut" is the product of characteristic acid flavor, obtained by the full fermentation, chiefly lactic, of properly prepared and shredded cabbage in the presence of not less than 2 percent nor more than 3 percent of salt. It contains, upon completion of the fermentation, not less than 1.5 percent of acid, expressed as lactic acid. $ 52.3452 Grades of bulk sauerkraut.

(a) “U.S. Grade A (First Quality). bulk sauerkraut is of a color approximating, or is lighter than “Olive Buff" (according to Ridgway's “Color Standards and Nomenclature"), with the shreds uniformly cut to approximately 132-inch in thickness. The product is practically free from defects and blemishes; is of fine, crisp texture; possesses a normal, well developed, sauerkraut flavor; and scores not less than 85 points when scored according to the scoring system outlined herein.

(b) "U.S. Grade C (Second Quality)” bulk sauerkraut may have a variable straw color, but not darker than “Dark Olive Buff" (according to Ridgway's "Color Standards and Nomenclature"); the shreds may lack uniformity of thickness. The product is reasonably free from defects and blemishes; is of reasonably fine, crisp texture; possesses a normal sauerkraut flavor; and scores not less than 70 points and need not score more than 84 points when scored according to the scoring system outlined herein.

(c) “Substandard” bulk sauerkraut is sauerkraut that fails to meet the requirements of the foregoing grades or when any one of the grading factors falls in the (D) classification.

FACTORS OF QUALITY $ 52.3453 Ascertaining the grade.

The grade of bulk sauerkraut may be ascertained by considering, in addition

§ 52.3454 Ascertaining the rating of each

factor. The essential variations within each factor are so described that the value may be ascertained for each factor and expressed numerically. The numerical ranges within each factor are inclusive. For instance, the range 13 to 15 means 13, 14, and 15. $ 52.3455 Color.

(a) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that possesses a color approximating, or is lighter than “Olive Buff" (according to Ridgway's "Color Standards and Nomenclature"), may be given a credit of 13 to 15 points.

(b) (C) classification. If the sauerkraut possesses a color ranging from “Olive Buff" to (but not darker than) "Dark Olive Buff", or is slightly greenish or yellowish, or possesses a tint of Ught brown, a credit of 10 to 12 points may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(c) (D) classification. If the sauerkraut possesses a decidedly dark, or pink tinted color, a credit within the range of zero to nine points may be allowed. $ 52.3456 Cut.

(a) (A) classification. If the shreds of sauerkraut are uniformly cut to approximately 132-inch in thickness and are of a reasonable length, a credit of 13 to 15 points may be allowed.

(b) (C) classification. If the cut is very irregular, the shreds being “choppy" and poorly cut, a credit of 10 to 12 points may may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in

this classification may not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(c) (D) classification. Sauerkraut that is very uneven in cut, containing decidedly thick or short shreds, may be given a credit of not more than nine points. $ 52.3457 Absence of defects.

(a) General. The factor of absence of defects refers to defects such as large pieces of leaves, dead leaves, large pieces of core, spotted shreds, or other defects.

(b) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that is practically free from the defects mentioned may be given a credit of nine to LO points.

(c) (C) classification. If the product is Teasonably free from the defects mentioned, a credit of six to eight points may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(d) (D) classification. If pieces of dead leaves, large pieces of core, spotted shreds, or any similar blemishes are prominently present to the extent of injuring the appearance of the product, a credit within the range of zero to five points may be allowed. $ 52.3458 Texture.

(a) General. The factor of texture refers to the condition of the product and the tendency of the shreds to be firm, fresh, crisp, and easy to cut, as contradistinguished to soft or mushy.

(b) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that is firm and crisp may be given a credit of 13 to 15 points.

(c) (C) classification. If the product is somewhat tough, or is slightly soft, a credit of 10 to 12 points may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(d) (D) classification. If the sauerkraut is tough, or contrariwise, is soft and mushy, a credit within the range of zero to nine points may be allowed. 8 52.3459 Flavor.

(a) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that has a highly acid (expressed as lactic), palatable, clean, characteristic sauer

kraut flavor, may be given a credit of 40 to 45 points.

(b) (C) classification. If the product possesses a good sauerkraut flavor that may be suggestive of improper bacterial action, but not markedly so, it may be given a credit of 34 to 39 points. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(c) (D) classification. If the flavor is poor and unpalatable from any cause (acetic, butyric, yeasty, moldy, very salty, bitter stale, or rancid), a credit within the range of zero to 33 points may be allowed.

METHODS OF ANALYSIS $ 52.3460 Determination of acidity.

The method of titration used to determine the degree of lactic acidity in sauerkraut is as follows: Place 10 cc. of sauerkraut juice in a flask, add 40 cc. of distilled water (hydrant water contains large quantities of alkaline salts which tend to neutralize the sauerkraut acid before titration takes place). Shake the flask to mix thoroughly the sauerkraut juice and water. Add three or four drops of phenolphthalein solution. Into this mixture slowly run, drop by drop, from a burette graduated in 110 cc. and filled with 16 normal solution of sodium hydroxide, enough of the sodium hydroxide to bring a permanent pink tint to the sauerkraut juice solution, shaking the flask as the sodium hydroxide is added. As soon as the pink tint becomes permanent (at first it will fade away), note the amount of the hydroxide used, divide this number by 10, and the result is a number which is the percentage of lactic acid in the sauerkraut juice.

LOT COMPLIANCE $ 52.3461 Ascertaining the grade of a

lot. The grade of a lot of bulk sauerkraut covered by these standards is determined by the procedures set forth in the Regulations Governing Inspection and Certi. fication of Processed Fruits and Vegetables, Processed Products Thereof, and Certain Other Processed Food Products (88 52.1 to 52.87).

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"Sauerkraut that falls in this classification may not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality).

2 Sauerkraut that falls in this classification may not be graded above Substandard. Subpart-United States Standards for

Grades of Concentrated Grapefruit Juice for Manufacturing SOURCE: $8 52.3481 to 52.3491 appear at 22 F.R. 1799, Mar. 20, 1957, unless otherwise noted.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND GRADES $ 52.3481 Product description.

“Concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing" is the concentrated product obtained from

mature grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). The fruit is prepared by sorting and by washing prior to extraction of the juice and the extracted juice is concentrated. The concentrated grapefruit juice is processed in accordance with good commercial practice; and may or may not require processing by heat, subsequent refrigeration, or freezing to assure preservation of the product but is not the product known as “frozen concentrated grapefruit juice." The finished product does not contain any additives except that cold-pressed oil to standardize flavor and chemical preservatives permissible under provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act may have been added.

(b) Concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing of other dilution factors than "1 plus 3” to “1 plus 6," as indicated in paragraph (a) of this section, shall result in a Brix (upon reconstitution as prescribed by the processor or as prescribed by the label on the container, if labeled) of not less than 10.5 degrees. $ 52.3482 Grades of concentrated

grapefruit juice for manufacturing. (a) “U.S. Grade A for Manufacturing" or “U.S. Fancy for Manufacturing" is the quality of concentrated grapefruit juice which shows no material gelation, reconstitutes properly, and of which the reconstituted juice possesses a reasonably good color; is practically free from defects; possesses a reasonably good flavor; and scores not less than 85 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.

(b) “U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing” or “U. S. Standard for Manufacturing" is the quality of concentrated grapefruit juice which shows no serious gelation, reconstitutes properly, and of which the reconstituted juice possesses & fairly good color; is fairly free from defects; possesses a fairly good flavor; and scores not less than 70 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.

(c) "Substandard for Manufacturing" is the quality of concentrated grapefruit juice that fails to meet the requirements of U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing.

FILL OF CONTAINER $ 52.3483 Recommended fill of

tainer. The recommended fill of container is not incorporated in the grades of the

con.

finished product since fill of container, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purposes of these grades. It is recommended that each container be filled with concentrated grapefruit juice as full as practicable without impairment of quality.

FACTORS OF QUALITY $ 52.3484 Ascertaining the grade.

(a) General. The grade of concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing is ascertained by examining the concentrate and the reconstituted juice; and in addition to considering other requirements outlined in the standards, the following quality factors are evaluated:

(1) Factors not rated by score points. (1) Degree of gelation.

(ii) Faculty of reconstituting properly.

(2) Factors rated by score points. The relative importance of each factor which is scored is expressed numerically on the scale of 100. The maximum number of points that may be given such factors are: Factors:

Points Color

20 Defects

40 Flavor

40

fact

Ing.

color a score of 14 to 16 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good color" means that the color may be only fairly bright and is typical of concentrated grapefruit juice that is reasonably free from browning due to scorching, oxidation, caramelization, or other causes.

(c) (SStd-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall not be graded above Substandard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). $ 52.3487 Defects.

(a) General. The factor of defects refers to the degree of freedom from juice cells and pulp and from seeds or portions thereof, dark specks, and other defects in the reconstituted juice.

(b) (A-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted juice is practicaly free from defects may be given a score of 34 to 40 points. “Practically free from defects" means that there may be present:

(1) Juice cells only in such amounts as do not materially detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice;

(2) Not more than 10 percent free and suspended pulp;

(3) Practically no seeds or portions thereof that could not pass readily through round perforations of 18 inch in diameter;

(4) Only such small seeds or portions thereof that could pass through round perforations of 48 inch in diameter as do not materially detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice; and

(5) Other defects that are not more than slightly objectionable.

(c) (C-Mfg.) classification. If the reconstituted juice is fairly free from defects a score of 28 to 33 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C or U. 8.

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& 52.3485 Ascertaining the rating for

the factors which are scored. The essential variations within each factor which is scored are so described that the value may be ascertained for each factor and expressed numerically. The numerical range within each factor which is scored is inclusive. (For example, "17 to 20 points” means 17, 18, 19, or 20 points.) $ 52.3486 Color.

(a) (A-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted juice possesses a reasonably good color may be given a score of 17 to 20 points. “Reasonably good color" means that the color is reasonably bright and typical of properly processed and properly concentrated grapefruit juice and is practically free from browning due to scorching, oxidation, caramelization, or other causes.

(b) (C-Mfg.) classification. If the reconstituted juice possesses a fairly good

point

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