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this classification may not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(c) (D) classification. Sauerkraut that is very uneven in cut, containing decidedly thick or short shreds, may be given a credit of not more than nine points. $ 52.3457 Absence of defects.

(a) General. The factor of absence of defects refers to defects such as large pieces of leaves, dead leaves, large pieces of core, spotted shreds, or other defects.

(b) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that is practically free from the defects mentioned may be given a credit of nine to 10 points.

(c) (C) classification. If the product is reasonably free from the defects mentioned, a credit of six to eight points may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(d) (D) classification. If pieces of dead leaves, large pieces of core, spotted shreds, or any similar blemishes are prominently present to the extent of injuring the appearance of the product, a credit within the range of zero to five points may be allowed. § 52.3458 Texture.

(a) General. The factor of texture refers to the condition of the product and the tendency of the shreds to be firm, fresh, crisp, and easy to cut, as contradistinguished to soft or mushy.

(b) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that is firm and crisp may be given a credit of 13 to 15 points.

(c) (C) classification. If the product is somewhat tough, or is slightly soft, a credit of 10 to 12 points may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(d) (D) classification. If the sauerkraut is tough, or contrariwise, is soft and mushy, a credit within the range of zero to nine points may be allowed. 8 52.3459 Flavor.

(a) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that has a highly acid (expressed as lactic), palatable, clean, characteristic sauer

kraut flavor, may be given a credit of 40 to 45 points.

(b) (C) classification. If the product possesses a good sauerkraut flavor that may be suggestive of improper bacterial action, but not markedly so, it may be given a credit of 34 to 39 points. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(c) (D) classification. If the flavor is poor and unpalatable from any cause (acetic, butyric, yeasty, moldy, very salty, bitter stale, or rancid), a credit within the range of zero to 33 points may be allowed.

METHODS OF ANALYSIS $ 52.3460 Determination of acidity.

The method of titration used to determine the degree of lactic acidity in sauerkraut is as follows: Place 10 cc. of sauerkraut juice in a flask, add 40 cc. of distilled water (hydrant water contains large quantities of alkaline salts which tend to neutralize the sauerkraut acid before titration takes place). Shake the flask to mix thoroughly the sauerkraut juice and water. Add three or four drops of phenolphthalein solution. Into this mixture slowly run, drop by drop, from a burette graduated in to cc. and filled with 16 normal solution of sodium hydroxide, enough of the sodium hydroxide to bring a permanent pink tint to the sauerkraut juice solution, shaking the flask as the sodium hydroxide is added. As soon as the pink tint becomes permanent (at first it will fade away), note the amount of the hydroxide used, divide this number by 10, and the result is a number which is the percentage of lactic acid in the sauerkraut juice.

LOT COMPLIANCE $ 52.3461 Ascertaining the grade of a

lot. The grade of a lot of bulk sauerkraut covered by these standards is determined by the procedures set forth in the Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification of Processed Fruits and Vegetables, Processed Products Thereof, and Certain Other Processed Food Products (88 52.1 to 52.87).

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"Sauerkraut that falls in this classification may not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality).

2 Sauerkraut that falls in this classification may not be graded above Substandard. Subpart-United States Standards for

Grades of Concentrated Grapefruit Juice for Manufacturing SOURCE: $ $ 52.3481 to 52.3491 appear at 22 F.R. 1799, Mar. 20, 1957, unless otherwise noted.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND GRADES $ 52.3481 Product description.

"Concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing" is the concentrated product obtained from sound, mature grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). The fruit is prepared by sorting and by washing prior to extraction of the juice and the extracted juice is concentrated. The concentrated grapefruit juice is processed in accordance with good commercial practice; and may or may not require processing by heat, subsequent refrigeration, or freezing to assure preservation of the product but is not the product known as “frozen concentrated grapefruit juice." The finished product does not contain any additives except that cold-pressed oil to standardize flavor and chemical preservatives permissible under provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act may have been added.

(b) Concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing of other dilution factors than “1 plus 3” to “1 plus 6," as indicated in paragraph (a) of this section, shall result in a Brix (upon reconstitution as prescribed by the processor or as prescribed by the label on the container, i labeled) of not less than 10.5 degrees. $ 52.3482 Gra des of concentrated

grapefruit juice for manufacturing. (a) “U.S. Grade A for Manufacturing" or “U.S. Fancy for Manufacturing" is the quality of concentrated grapefruit juice which shows no material gelation, reconstitutes properly, and of which the reconstituted juice possesses a reasonably good color; is practically free from defects; possesses a reasonably good flavor; and scores not less than 85 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.

(b) "U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing” or “U. S. Standard for Manufacturing" is the quality of concentrated grapefruit juice which shows no serious gelation, reconstitutes properly, and of which the reconstituted juice possesses & fairly good color; is fairly free from defects; possesses a fairly good flavor; and scores not less than 70 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.

(c) “Substandard for Manufacturing" is the quality of concentrated grapefruit juice that fails to meet the requirements of U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing.

FILL OF CONTAINER 8 52.3483 Recommended fill of con.

tainer. The recommended fill of container is not incorporated in the grades of the finished product since fill of container, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purposes of these grades. It is recommended that each container be filled with concentrated grapefruit juice as full as practicable without impairment of quality.

FACTORS OF QUALITY $ 52.3484 Ascertaining the grade.

(a) General. The grade of concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing is ascertained by examining the concentrate and the reconstituted juice; and in addition to considering other requirements outlined in the standards, the following quality factors are evaluated:

(1) Factors not rated by score points. (1) Degree of gelation.

(ii) Faculty of reconstituting properly.

(2) Factors rated by score points. The relative importance of each factor which is scored is expressed numerically on the scale of 100. The maximum number of points that may be given such factors are: Factors:

Points Color

20 Defects

40 Flavor

40

color a score of 14 to 16 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good color" means that the color may be only fairly bright and is typical of concentrated grapefruit juice that is reasonably free from browning due to scorching, oxidation, caramelization, or other causes.

(c) (SStd-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall not be graded above Substandard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). $ 52.3487 Defects.

(a) General. The factor of defects refers to the degree of freedom from juice cells and pulp and from seeds or portions thereof, dark specks, and other defects in the reconstituted juice.

(b) (A-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted juice is practicaly free from defects may be given a score of 34 to 40 points. “Practically free from defects" means that there may be present:

(1) Juice cells only in such amounts as do not materially detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice;

(2) Not more than 10 percent free and suspended pulp;

(3) Practically no seeds or portions thereof that could not pass adi through round perforations of 18 inch in diameter;

(4) Only such small seeds or portions thereof that could pass through round perforations of Y8 inch in diameter as do not materially detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice; and

(5) Other defects that are not more than slightly objectionable.

(c) (C-Mfg.) classification. If the reconstituted juice is fairly free from defects a score of 28 to 33 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C or U. S.

Total score.

100 § 52.3485 Ascertaining the rating for

the factors which are scored. The essential variations within each factor which is scored are so described that the value may be ascertained for each factor and expressed numerically. The numerical range within each factor which is scored is inclusive. (For example, "17 to 20 points” means 17, 18, 19, or 20 points.) $ 52.3486 Color.

(a) (A-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted juice possesses a reasonably good color may be given a score of 17 to 20 points. “Reasonably good color" means that the color is reasonably bright and typical of properly processed and properly concentrated grapefruit juice and is practically free from browning due to scorching, oxidation, caramelization, or other causes.

(b) (C-Mfg.) classification. If the reconstituted juce possesses a fairly good

Standard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly free from defects" means that there may be present:

(1) Juice cells only in such amounts as do not seriously detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice;

(2) Not more than 12 percent free and suspended pulp;

(3) Practically no seeds or portions thereof that could not pass readily through round perforations of Y8 inch in diameter;

(4) Only such small seeds or portions thereof that could pass through round perforations of Yo inch in diameter as do not seriously detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice; and

(5) Other defects that are not materially objectionable.

(d) (SStd-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 27 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). $ 52.3488 Flavor.

(a) (A-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted juice possesses a reasonably good flavor may be given a score of 34 to 40 points. "Reasonably good flavor" means that the flavor is typical of reconstituted concentrated grapefruit juice from properly processed and concentrated grapefruit juice; is practically free from traces of scorching, caramelization, oxidation, or terpene; and is free from off-flavors of any kind. To score in this classification the ratio of the Brix value to acid shall be not less than 6 to 1.

(b) (C-Mfg.) classification. I the reconstituted juice possesses a fairly good flavor a score of 28 to 33 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good flavor" means a normal flavor for reconstituted cuncentrated grapefruit juice, which flavor may be slightly caramelized or slightly oxidized or may possess traces of terpene, but is free from off-flavors of any kind. To score in this

classification the ratio of the Brix value to acid shall be not less than 5.5 to 1.

(c) (SStd-Mfg.) classification. If the concentrated grapefruit juice fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section a score of 0 to 27 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit

rice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above Substandard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). EXPLANATIONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSES $ 52.3489 Explanation of terms and

analyses. (a) Reconstituted juice. "Reconstituted juice" means the product obtained by mixing thoroughly one part by volume of the concentrated grapefruit juice with a stated volume of water. For example, a dilution factor of "1 plus 6" means that to one part by volume of concentrated grapefruit juice 6 parts by volume of water are added to produce a reconstituted juice. In the absence of any declared dilution factor the product is diluted with water to a Brix of between 10.5 and 11.5 degrees. Distilled water is used in reconstituting the product for testing flavor.

(b) Reconstitutes properly. "Reconstitutes properly" means that the concentrate goes into solution readily; and that in approximately 250 ml. of the reconstituted juice, after standing four (4) hours at a temperature of not less than 68 degrees Fahrenheit in a clear glass cylinder (approximately 144 inches in diameter), there may be a noticeable separation of suspended matter but any resulting zone of greater clarity shall be definitely turbid and not clear Or transparent.

(c) Acid. “Acid” means the percent by weight of total acidity, calculated as anhydrous citric acid. Total acidity is determined by titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator.

(d) Brix value. “Brix value" is the refractometric sucrose value determined on the thawed concentrate in accordance with the refractometric method for sugars and sugar products, outlined in the “Oficial Methods of Analysis of the Association of Oficial Agricultural Chemists,” and to which the applicable correction for acid is added:

TABLE I-CORRECTIONS FOR OBTAINING BRIX VALUE

SCORE SHEET

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.89

.66

§ 52.3490 Score sheet for concentrated Correction

Correction

grapefruit juice for manufacturing. to be

to be added to

added to refracCitric acid,

refracCitric acid

Size and kind of container tometer

tometer anhydrous anhydrous

Container mark or identification. sucrose

sucrose (percent

(percent, value to

Label (including reconstitution factor)

value to by weight) by weight)

Liquid measure (fluid ounces).. obtain

obtain Net weight. degree

degree Brix value of concentrate (corrected for acid). Brix

Brix

Anhydrous citric acid in concentrate (percent by value

value

weight)...
Brix value to acid ratio..

Reconstitutes properly: (Yes) (No)
2.0.
0.39 3.6.

0.70 2.2.

.43
3.8.

.74
2.4.
.47 4.0..

. 78
Factors

Score points 2.6.

.51
4. 2.

.81
2.8.
54 4. 4..

.85 3.0. 58 4.6..

|(A-Mfg.) 17-20 3.2. .62 4.8..

.93
Color.

20 (C-Mfg.) 1 14-16 3.4..

5.0.
.97

l(sStd-Mfg.) 10-13

(A-Mfg.) 34-40 Defects.

40 (C-Mfg.) 1 28-33 Source: “Refractometric Determination of Soluble

lisStd-Mfg.) 10-27 Solids in Citrus Juices," hy J. W. Stevens and W. E.

((A-Mfg.)

34-40 Baier, from the Analytical Edition of Industrial and Flavor...

40 (C-Mfg.) 1 28-33 Engineering Chemistry, vol. II, p. 447, Aug. 15, 1939.

lisstd-Mfg.) 10-27 Total score...

100 (e) Free and suspended pulp. "Free and suspended pulp" means particles of membrane, core, peel and other similar

Grade for manufacturing... extraneous material that settle out on centrifuging by the following method:

1 Indicates limiting rule. (1) Skim floating fruit cells and pulp

LOT INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION from the sample of reconstituted juice, $ 52.3491 Ascertaining the grade of a and

lot. (2) Fill graduated centrifuge tubes, of

The grade of a lot of the processed & capacity of 50 ml., with the skimmed

product covered by these standards is reconstituted grapefruit juice and place determined by the procedures set forth in a suitable centrifuge. Adjust the in the regulations governing inspection speed according to diameter, as indicated and certification of processed fruits and in Table II, and centrifuge for exactly vegetables, processed products thereof, 10 minutes. As used herein, "diameter" and certain other processed food prodmeans the overall distance between the ucts (8 $ 52.1 to 52.87). bottoms of opposing centrifuge tubes in (22 F. R. 3547, May 22, 1957] operating position. After centrifuging,

Subpart-United States Standards for the milliliter reading at the top of the

Grades of Frozen Peas layer of pulp in the tube is multiplied by 2 to give the percentage of pulp.

SOURCE: $ $ 52.3511 to 52.3520 appear at 24 F.R. 3782, May 12, 1959; 24 F.R. 3986, May

16, 1959, unless otherwise noted. TABLE II

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND GRADES

$ 52.3511 Product description. Approxi.

ApproxiDiameter mate revo- Diameter mate revo- "Frozen peas” means the frozen prod(inches) lutions per

(inches) lutions per minute

minute

uct prepared from the clean, sound, suc

culent seed of the common garden pea 10. 1, 609 15%2.

(Pisum sativum) by shelling, washing,

1, 292 1042 1, 570 16.

1, 271 blanching, sorting, proper draining, and 11.

1, 534
1642.

1, 252 is frozen in accordance with good com11421,500 17.

1, 234 12. 1, 468 1742

1, 216 mercial practice and maintained at tem1242 1, 438 18.

1, 199

peratures necessary for the preserva13 1, 410 1872.

1,182 13%2.

1,384
19.

1, 167

tion of the product. 14. 1, 359 1972.

1, 152 14%. 1, 336 20.

1, 137

§ 52.3512 Grades of frozen peas. 15 1, 313

(a) “U.S. Grade A" (or “U.S. Fancy") is the quality of frozen peas that possess

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