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Joffre, and, in fact, by all the members stormy times in the past two years of the Allied missions visiting America. for all those who have conducted the
The people of the United States affairs of the nations of Europe. Both have responded to the calls made evil and good may come out of such upon them by the Allies with prompt- criticism. It is the lives and the ness and in the order of their urgency. money of the people that are jeopardMoney was asked for first and it was ized through mismanagement, and at once forthcoming. The request for those who give have the right to assistance in combating submarine demand wisdom in expenditure. Miniswarfare was answered with alacrity. ters come and Ministers go, generals Naval aid, cargo ships, inventive are acclaimed and generals are genius, and industrial accomplishment tired, some with honors and some were at concentrated on the
without, but the war goes on, and the problem, and the results will soon be political fate of no one forthcoming. Among other burdens Government is of importance assumed by America has been the against the shortening of the war by a financing of the relief work in Belgium single hour. President Wilson has been and Northern France. Nine regi- severely criticised in the past, but what ments of engineers are being sent he has undergone in the past will be immediately to the French lines. as a summer zephyr compared to the Several thousand medical men are on blasts that will rage about him as their way to France and to England. America gets deeper into the conflict These are but a few of the evidences and the mistakes or incapacities of afforded that America has taken her those about him are charged to his place with right good will in the account. ranks of those who are determined to It is a political axiom in America force upon the German Government that a war makes a President. Presithe meaning of a world array against dent Taylor was the result of the it. The greatest task of all, the raising Mexican War, Grant of the Civil War, of a vast army trained and equipped and Roosevelt, indirectly, of the war for modern war, is in its inception, against Spain. Who will become but in time it will have its being, and President of the United States as an if the war be not at an end before outcome of the war against Germany that day America will send reinforce- is unwritten history as yet. The ments to the firing-line that must and obvious prophecy would be Roosevelt, will largely aid in setting a date for the and in this idea is to be found the return of peace to a war-weary and mainspring of much of the political stricken world.
opposition to a Roosevelt expeditionThere is already criticism by the ary army. Much water will run under American people and Press of the the mill before these things are determethods of the Washington Govern- mined, however, and in the meantime ment, and this is but the beginning. the world is occupied with a gigantic There are stormy times ahead for task before which all others fade into those in authority, as there have been insignificance. The Fortnightly Review.
James Davenport Whelpley.
SIDELIGHTS ON THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION.
I was fortunate enough to be in Russia with the Anglo-Russian Hos
pital for eighteen months previous to the Revolution, and during that time
I had ample opportunity of hearing bread-shops. Small wonder that the many expressions of opinion. When people began to be restive with a the Revolution burst it came
Government that did nothing to surprise, as although for the few ameliorate this stage of affairs. months preceding the outbreak people For some time past the Governof all classes talked freely of a possible ment had been greatly discredited, revolution the general opinion was especially since Rasputin's death, by that nothing would take place until revelations of the sinister and evil after the war. Professor Miliukov, influence that he was known to have in his famous speech delivered in the possessed with many high officials, Duma on November 14, said: “You in particular with Protopopoff, the cannot conduct domestic
much-hated and mistrusted Minister of when you are fighting an external the Interior, who was held responsible enemy.” Strikes and disturbances for the food shortage. were feared at the opening of the The immediate incidents that led Duma in February, but the streets to the Revolution were comparativewere placarded with appeals to work- ly trivial. On Thursday afternoon, men to refrain from making demon- March 8 (February 23, Russian date), strations which might affect the ef- a poor woman entered a bread shop ficient conduct of the war.
on the Morskaia, the Bond Street of thought inadvisable to hamper the Petrograd, and asked for bread. She Duma when it first met by riots was told that there was none. On which might provide the Emperor leaving the shop she saw some in the with an
excuse for closing it alto- window; she broke the window and gether; an act which would probably took it. A general, passing in his have fanned the smouldering flame of motor, stopped and remonstrated with discontent into a blaze of revolution her. A crowd at once collected, and all over the country.
the incident ended by the general's All through the winter, which was motor being smashed.
The crowd, of a severity unknown since the year increasing in size all the time, then of Napoleon's Russian campaign, the paraded the streets, asking for bread. food question grew more and more The same afternoon, on the other acute. Owing, apparently, to bad side of the river, where the working organization and scarcity of transport men and factories are, a factory hand there was a real shortage of bread. on his return home beat his wife bePrices had gone up by leaps and cause she had failed to procure bread bounds. Some of the necessities of life for his meal. The neighboring women were very difficult to obtain. It was a ran in and confirmed the woman's common sight to see long lines of story that she had waited several women, children, and even well-dressed hours outside a bread-shop only to be people outside a baker's shop waiting told on gaining admission that there for bread or sugar. Frequently they was none. The men joined in the diswaited patiently for hours, notwith- cussion and agreed that it was not the standing a bitter temperature of 30 woman's fault, and that it was better to 50 degrees of frost, taking up their to strike and make a demonstration in stand as early as 2 A.M. (the shops the streets, demanding bread. opened at 8 A. M.) in order to make On Friday, March 9, nothing uncertain of getting bread. All day these usual happened until midday, when long queues of patient and shivering crowds began to collect, composed of a people were to be seen outside the large number of well-to-do people as well as workingmen. Strong patrols of was suddenly removed from his istCossacks were in the streets quietly vostchik and swallowed up by the riding among the people, who were all crowd. We, who witnessed the scene, in the best of humor. No greater wondered what had happened to him, acts of violence took place than the when his sword, bent double, was overturning of one or two trams, and lifted over the heads of the crowd the removal of the driving handles of from hand to hand and dropped into many others, thereby causing the tram the Fontanka Canal, after which he service to be very irregular during was allowed to go free. In the evening that day. In the afternoon on the about five o'clock a man was killed Vevski, opposite the Kasan Cathedral, on the Anitchkoff Bridge, probably a big crowd assembled. The Prefect by a shot from a policeman in a of Police, driving up in his car, ordered window. Half an hour later one of the the officer commanding a patrol of heads of the police was killed by a Cossacks to charge the people with bomb on the Nevski. Some shooting drawn swords. The officer replied, took place by the police in various “Sir, I cannot give such an order, for parts of the town, and the Cossacks the people are only asking for bread.” charged the crowds. Martial law was Whereupon the people cheered loudly, proclaimed and posters put up in the and were cheered in return by the streets warning people to keep to their Cossacks.
houses next day. At night the lights On Saturday, March 10, the Duma were extinguished on the Nevski, and had a more or less quiet sitting, at a searchlight played down the street which the situation was discussed. from the Admiralty. The Minister of Agriculture made a Sunday was a glorious, sunny, cloudspeech, saying that there was plenty less day, and as on the two previous of bread in the town, but that through mornings no crowd collected until faulty distribution many of the small midday. Everything seemed quiet, bakeries had been overlooked. The and although we had been told that organization of the food-supply was something would happen at three then handed over by the Government o'clock, we hoped a peaceful arrangeto the municipal authorities.
ment would be arrived at, as the Towards twelve o'clock great crowds municipality had been entrusted with collected again, the factory hands the distribution of food. About three having all come out on strike. The o'clock, on looking out of the hospital Cossacks treated the people with windows the Nevski, we great gentleness and refused to charge crowds walking about in the same or use their whips. In many places rather aimless, good-humored way as they received an ovation, such sym- on Friday and Saturday, and although pathetic conduct on their part being when lined up across the Nevski about almost unknown in Russian history. ten deep they could easily have been On one occasion when a Cossack fell moved by half a dozen men on horseoff his horse the crowd gently picked back riding through them, the police, him up and put him on again. Very one hundred yards farther down the different was the behavior of the road, lay down in the snow and fired a police, who used the backs of their volley into the people, who all fell on swords in their efforts to prevent
to their faces and crawled away on crowds assembling. In the afternoon their hands and knees into the side an officer in istvostchik, who streets, leaving about a dozen killed had evidently annoyed the people, and wounded. It was a case of quite
unnecessary provocation on the part of the police, as the people had done nothing to merit the attack, and until we saw the killed and wounded we thought the police had fired blank cartridges. At the same hour all the way up the Nevski and also in other parts of Petrograd the soldiers and police took similar action. There was a rumor that the police were dressed up as soldiers in order to make the people believe that it was the troops who fired upon them, and not the police. Whether this was true or not I do not know. Ambulances were oarrying wounded up and down the Nevski all the afternoon. The bridges over the Neva were guarded with machine-guns and troops, but this did not prevent the workmen coming over from the other side, across the frozen river.
On Monday, at about 10 two regiments revolted. They killed one or two of their officers and disarmed the rest. The crowds were very great, and one long procession composed of regiments without officers, and hundreds of workmen marched up the Nevski to the Duma. Many were carrying red flags. News had come that the Duma had been closed by the Emperor. The revolutionaries surrounded the building and refused to allow the deputies to leave before a solution had been found for the existing state of affairs. From about midday Monday there heavy fighting all over the town, especially round the Duma, the Nevski, and the streets leading into it. Early in the day, after a short resistance, the revolutionaries seized the Arsenal, and General Matusoff, head of the Arsenal Stores, killed. They also broke into the prisons, releasing not only all the political prisoners, but the criminal prisoners as well. They burned the Court of Justice with all the records, and
destroyed many of the police stations. The fire-engines were turned back and not allowed to extinguish fires.
Since Friday the Anglo-Russian Hospital, situated the Nevski, where the Anitchkoff Bridge crosses the Fontanka Canal, had had a guard of about seventy of the Simennovsky Guards. The hospital occupies a part of the palace of the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovitch, who had been banished to Persia by the Emperor owing to his having been implicated in Rasputin's murder. At one o'clock on Monday these men left the palace and joined the revolutionaries, and the following regiments went over to the side of the people: Volynsky, Preobrazhensky, Kekholmsky, Livtosky, and Sappers, making altogether about 25,000 men. During the afternoon there was a stiff fight between two regiments who had remained loyal and the revolutionaries, but it ended in their joining the rebel troops.
All through Monday and the following forty-eight hours there was a great deal of fighting. It was interesting to see big motor-lorries going round the town distributing arms and ammunition to soldiers and civilians alike. Red flags were now to be seen everywhere. The soldiers tied strips of red to their bayonets; the civilians wore red armlets or streamers from their buttonholes. The police were armed with machine-guns which had been placed several weeks before on roofs and in attics of houses commanding the principal thoroughfares. Machine-guns had also been placed on the Duma building, and even on the churches and on St. Isaac's Cathedral. Ample supplies of provisions had been stored so as to enable the police to hold out any length of time. No doubt Protopopoff thought that by these precautions he would be able to control any rising that might occur, whether it was due to the
policy of the Government or not. It was very difficult to locate the machineguns, and on Monday night the crowd broke into a part of Dmitri Pavlovitch's palace, thinking that the police were firing a machine-gun from the roof. A general belonging to the Grand Duke's suite, after having given them his sword and revolver, assured them that there was no gun on the roof, but that they were welcome to go and search for themselves. This they were unwilling to do, for it was not very healthy during these days to be seen on the roof of a house, as a fresh crowd coming up the street were apt immediately to open fire. Two or three different crowds came that night, all thinking the same thing, but they were very good and went peaceably away on hearing that it was the English hospital. Red Cross Sags were hung outside the hospital, and the doors left open all night so that anyone could come in who wished to
rest. We were admiring the picture they made, when a machine-gun close at hand opened fire. Instantly the men galloped off, lying low on their horse's necks, but not before two saddles were emptied. On Tuesday morning all the work
armed. Practically all the troops in Petrograd had sided with the revolutionaries, but three companies and some light artillery defended the Admiralty, where most of the Cabinet Ministers were in hiding. These troops did not join the Revolution until Wednesday morning. There was an amusing sight of a motor-lorry careering down the Nevski at 7 A.M. with a machine-gun on it, an hour when the street was practically deserted, but this did not prevent the men from firing the machine-gun as hard as they could as they went along. They with their machine-gun were having a “joy ride!"
At eight o'clock on Tuesday the crowd attacked the Astoria Hotel, the biggest hotel in Petrograd, which had been taken over by the Government several months before and turned into a military hotel. At 2 that morning the revolutionaries had threatened the hotel, but had gone away after having received three guarantees: (1) That nobody would fire from the hotel; (2) that there were only officers on leave, Allied officers, and women and children in the building; (3) that no anti-revolutionary meetings would be held there. Six hours later, as a big crowd of troops and workmen were passing, the police, or German agents, hidden in the roof of the building, fired on them with machine-guns! The revolutionaries, infuriated, stormed the building, and after an hour and a half of hot fighting took the hotel. They rushed in, a howling, raging mob, armed to the teeth, sacked the ground floor, killed some Russian officers, and surged up
We saw two interesting things on Monday across the Anitchkoff Bridge on the Nevski. The first was a company of men coming up the Fontanka Canal with an officer at their head, whilst from the opposite direction
a motor-lorry crowded with revolutionary troops. Before they met it was evident that the revolutionaries did not know on which side the soldiers were. The latter hesitated, and their officer turned round and spoke to them. There was a dramatic pause, and then the officer took off his belt and his sword, cut the belt into little pieces, stamped it in the snow, and walked off at the head of his men, in company with the motor-lorry. The other incident occurred regiment of Cossacks rode up the Nevski at a walk. The light was just fading and they looked almost ghostlike, coming out of the gray mist on their gray horses, with their lances at