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they would far sooner see their terri- tirely bound up with the slave trade tories placed and their nationhood and with the establishment of slavery grow up under other flags if they must for the negro as a great ruling prinhave the white man as master of all. ciple in East Africa. They were

Surely if we are to consult the feel- organizing a huge slave State. Into ings of the Poles about Poland and the the fray that great-minded German Finns about Finland, of the Alsatians Von Wissmann Aung himself with all about Alsace, the Southern Slavs the enthusiasm of a Livingstone comabout the Balkan States, we are in bined with the genius of a great duty bound to consult the opinions military commander.

He had preof the natives of Togoland about the viously seen enough of Livingstone's future status of Togoland, of the Africa to be as horrified at the slave Cameroons as to the disposal of the trade and slave raids as ever LivingCameroons and the adjacent Congo stone had been, and he conceived it territories, the Africanders of the to be the great purpose of Germany Cape, the Hottentots, the Damara, to finish Livingstone's work. Thereand the Ovambo about Southwest fore he smote the Arab's hip and Africa, and the ten millions of Bantu thigh, he marched incredible distances and Nilotic negroes as to the future in an incredibly short space of time. status of German East Africa?

We were comrades side by side fightHere some critic-for

well- ing this evil simultaneously. So founded admiration of Germany dies completely did he enlist the German a slow death in many minds—may Government on his side that when it interpose: “But how is it that, rely- was my turn to attack the Arabs I ing mainly on a native fighting force, used German steamers and German Germany has defied our efforts to guns, and even at one time a small conquer German East Africa for German contingent of British Sudanese nearly three years? If German rule under German officers. All of this was so intolerable as you make out, help was lent me by the German how is it that though there only Government, so that the common enremain about 1,500 white Germans in emy might be quickly and thoroughly German East Africa they are still crushed. the officers and non-commissioned Von Wissmann was succeeded by officers of a native army which per- several German governors inclinir to haps numbers 10,000 12,000?" a like purpose of complete freedom Because there are bad and rapacious for the negro.

But at the opening · yellow and black men just as there of the twentieth century Germany, are enslaving white men. A certain like France, and to a certain extent type of negro greatly admires effi- like colonial Britain, became infected ciency, and especially efficiency in with the Leopoldian virus. German

When Germany first tackled rulers in East Africa appreciated the East Africa she had to fight the better side of the Arab, for the Arab Zanzibar Arabs and their vast net- with all his faults is a white man. work of influence between Tanganyika They realized that he had done a and the Zangian coast for the coun- vast deal to educate savage and intries she claimed to rule on the basis tractable negroes, to improve agriculof what I have truly described as a ture, and what not else. He became few faked treaties. (I was out in East useful to them in that climate as a Africa when they were being made.) middleman, as overseer,

The Arabs in those days were en- director of labor, and gradually they

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slid into a position diametrically opposed to that of Von Wissmann. The negro was to be educated to be a well-trained serf and nothing more.

But in the course of pursuing this new policy they won over the Arabs of East Central ica as their friends, and not only the Arabs but several tribes or congeries of Mohammedanized negroes who had previously been the allies of the Arabs in their slave raids. And it is this force mainly which still fights under the German flag, still hopes to see a German East Africa restored to the rule of the Teuton and the Arab conjoined.

Of course there are inconsistencies and deviations from this policy. In some directions the Germans have feared the Arabs or have thought that Zanzibar and Indian influence made them too pro-British. They have also been scared at times by the spread of Mohammedanism as likely eventually to wrest all Central Africa from any European domination at all. Still, I have given the true explanation of why Germany still holds out in the east-central part of German East Africa. Shall we give in and allow her to resume possession everywhere where she has been before? Again I say "No," no matter how long America and Western Europe have to fight to

The Manchester Guardian.

secure peace on other terms. And I say this "No" with the greater vehemence in that I am convinced from the correspondence that has passed between educated spokesmen of the native races and myself that I am voicing the feelings, he deepseated feelings, of something like fifteen millions of Africans who have had every reason to loathe German rule.

But in abstracting all Africa from coming again under the German flag I would not go to the opposite extreme, after peace is made, of shutting out German commerce from what had hitherto been German Africa (or, for the matter of that, German Asia or Oceania). I think some arrangement should be made by which in what were her former colonial possessions Germany should be allowed to trade on the same footing as all other nations.

Do I agree with the internationalization of Central Africa? Emphatically not, for reasons I have no room to give here. I believe in the eventual creation under the protection of European flags of a number of self-dependent and independent negro nationalities ruling themselves on civilized principles. I believe in nationality as I believe in the great value of individuality.

AIRFARE AFTER THE WAR: PRESENT AND FUTURE

PROBLEMS.

The appointment of the Northcliffe Committee to investigate the question of aerial development for civil and commercial purposes is a great step forward in practical aviation. It is to be composed of representatives of the Board of Trade, Post Office, Colonial Office, Customs, Treasury, and the Overseas Dominions. And, briefly, they are expected to determine:

1. The steps which should be taken with a view to developing and regulating after the war aviation for civil and military purposes from the domestic, Imperial, and international standpoint; and

2. The extent to which it will be possible to utilize to the best advantage the trained personnel and the aircraft which the conclusion of peace may

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leave surplus to the requirements of ten miles in a backward direction, the naval and military air services of because the head wind happened the United Kingdom and the Overseas to be of a velocity of ninety miles, or Dominions.

ten more than the speed of the craft. It is no novel idea, the adaptation Fogs are dangerous. In a fog an of aviation to commercial purposes. airman loses all sense of direction and Previous to the war it had been proportion. Earth, sky, and all landattempted successfully in Germany marks are obliterated. Rain is blinding with a service of passenger-bearing to the eyes and affects the “lift" of the Zeppelins. Commander Usborne, R.N. machine. Snow covers the surface -since killed in carrying out of the earth with treacherous extremely difficult and plucky experi- regularity and renders the landing of ment in the air-- had under considera- an aeroplane dangerous. The dangers tion a scheme for a passenger service of night Aying are too over Great Britain. This scheme had to be tabulated in this short article, a financial backing of over £11,000,000! while inclement weather renders flying The commander estimated that the impossible. average cost of travel-allowing for Which will be the most useful of the all expenses-would be 192d., and three types of craft, aeroplane, seawhen further developed would be plane, or airship, it is a difficult matter reduced to 34d. per mile.

to decide. Thus far one is inclined But airfare—the word, we believe, to say the airship. The latter craft is original-of the future will depend possesses the greatest lifting power, on many widely conflicting factors. and "lift" is the most important There is the geographical position of factor in flying. The lift of an aerothese islands to be considered. West- plane is mechanically created; that ward lies the Atlantic Ocean; that of an airship both mechanical and will require many years of experi- natural, and therefore double in menting to span, at least in peace and strength. comfort. On the Northeast coasts The greater the lifting power, the the position is similar. There is a wide more powerful may be the engine, the stretch of sea water to be traversed greater the supply of petrol aboard, before touching the nearest point of and the greater the radius of activity. land. This would indicate that when However, the aeroplane is more airthe first commercial system is estab- worthy, less cumbersome, less lished it will develop in a south and expensive, and more easily housed. southeasterly direction. On the main- Referring to the construction of the land of the Continent the craft will craft, Major Baird, in the course of his turn to left or right at will.

speech, remarked: “There are now 958 Climatic conditions will play no firms engaged with work for the Director unimportant part. Of these elements of Aeronautical Supplies—301 as direct wind affects flying most. It is a

contractors and 657 as sub-contractors, matter of the speed of the craft over with a possible output of sixteen inathe surface of the earth. The speed- chines per month apiece." Taking this ometer may register, let say, to be the average output, the yearly eighty miles an hour maximum, but aggregate would be 57,792 machines. is influenced solely by the speed of the Also, taking into consideration the engine. Really, the speed of that number of craft at present employed for machine might be ten miles over the military purposes—which number must ground—that is, it might be flying be well in the tens of thousands-here

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is a very fair nucleus for an after-thewar commercial fleet.

But to develop aircraft solely for either military or commercial purposes would be madness. We must develop for both in proportion.

Apropos of this matter, there is little doubt that warfare of the future will be instantaneous. Within twelve hours of entering the conflict it will be decided one way or the other. In the air there

be no preliminary skirmishing, no long drawn-out battles, no falling back on a second line of defense or a strong natural position. And three phases of aerial combat must be considered, aeroplane versus aeroplane, airship versus aeroplane, and airship versus airship. The last form has yet to be seen.

As there have been different types of sea vessels for war and commerce in the past, so in the future there will be differing classes of aircraft. For a craft of war every frill is stripped away. She enters the combat like a battleship with her decks cleared. Every inch of space is required for powerful engines and spare petrol to give her the necessary speed and climbing power. The altitude at which she flies must be over twelve thousand feet, and great durative powers are unnecessary.

On the other hand, the commercial aircraft will need greater powers of duration, a greater "lift," more space aboard, less climbing speed, and an altitude of between five and six thousand feet is only necessary.

It is impossible to construct an aeroplane possessing speed, duration, and

The Saturday Review.

climbing power alike. For the first, as the last, a powerful engine is required. This requires weight. Weight reduces "lift,” and, necessarily, space aboard. Loss of space requires cutting down the supply of petrol, and this means loss of duration. An altitude of over five thousand feet must be maintained in case of engine failure, to give the pilot time to recover himself and pick out a suitable landing ground.

It is probable that the future fleets of the air will be composed rather of a number of vessels of uniform size than of a few vessels of enormous bulk. However much aircraft will be developed, there is always the matter of "lift" to be contended with, and thus the personnel and war accoutrements abroad will be limited.

With regard to the commercial aspect, one might well conceive in the near future an aerial line from, say, London to Capetown, via Paris, Bordeaux, Gibraltar, Fez, Lagos, Loango, and Johannesburg. Allowing an average speed of 110 miles per hour, with a satisfactory wind, and half an hour for each landing, an aeroplane leaving London at eight o'clock on a Monday morning would make the following timetable: London, 8 Monday, Paris, 10 A.M.; Bordeaux, 1 P.M.; Gibraltar, 8 P.M.; Fez, 9 P.m.; Lagos, 5.30 P.M. Tuesday, Loango, 2 A.M. Wednesday, Johannesburg, 8 P.m.; and Capetown, 4 A.m. Thursday. Total, London-Capetown, 3 days 20 hours.

At first glance the scheme may appear ludicrous. Likewise did the original idea of the motor-car to our grandfathers and of the aeroplane to our fathers.

A.M.

INDUSTRY IN WAR AND PEACE.

We have always tried, when discussing industrial problems, to distinguish between the temporary troubles arising from the abnormal

conditions of war and those more deeply rooted causes of unrest and industrial inefficiency which must be sought for and removed if we are to

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make good in the future the ravages of an orgie of destruction. The eight local Commissions, which have in five weeks carried through most useful investigations, give us material for extending our examination of the present, and of projecting such imagination as we possess towards the future.

Though these reports differ a good deal in detail, there is much less difference than might have been expected. Mr. Barnes—to whose strong common

due the initiation and organization of the Commissionsjustly claims for them "a practical unanimity," and advises a close study of them in detail and a comparison of one with another. They are well worth the most careful examination. In all of them the temporary causes of trouble bulk most conspicuously. These are: the high prices of food and the strong suspicion of workmen that they are being exploited by "profiteers”; the system of leaving certificates under which men are tied to shops as the English farm laborer of old was tied to the soil; the extension of the Military Service Acts so that men protected from the Army call one day are swept into the net upon another; the multiplication of Government Departments dealing with labor, and the lack of co-ordination between them; decline of confidence in the good faith of the Government. It is a formidable list, and we should long since have had the revolting workmen on our hands if they had not been held back by their strong sense of patriotism and their conviction that only through sacrifice in war could we regain the freedom which we have lost. The workmen know, as well as those who pride themselves upon a higher education, that the excess profits brought into the Budget in May were on account of the first year of their incidencewhen the rate was 50 per cent and that they represent an equal amount

of private gains made at the expense of the country as a whole. Since then the rate of excess profits duty has been raised to 80 per cent, the shipowners—who rightly or wrongly have been regarded the worst of "profiteers”—have been put in irons, and Lord Rhondda has begun to tackle the high prices of food. In the new Munitions of War Bill the Government propose to abolish the leaving certificates, subject to securities to prevent one employer grabbing the workmen of another; the methods of the military authorities are being examined and overhauled, and the question of the greater co-ordination between Government Departments which employ labor is also being examined. Mr. Churchill tells us that his mind is open, that he wants to take time in order to decide whether the Labor Section of the Ministry of Munitions should remain as it is or be transferred to the Ministry of Labor. Mr. Barnes, who knows the working of the war machine from inside, says, “It seems hardly possible that any single department could during the war carry the whole of the immense problems of the supply departments which have bearing upon the control of labor." The Ministry of Munitions control all the lab engaged upon the countless details of army supply; the Controller of the Navy's Department looks after all ship-building, both naval and mercantile; the Board of Trade is in charge of arbitration, and these three departments are, or are supposed to be, in daily touch with the central office of the Ministry of Labor. The concentration of all labor control into the hands of one department and one minister, though possibly ideal on paper, might be very far from ideal in practice. Too much would depend upon getting exactly the right man as the Minister.

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