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us."

voice called from a corner where he "A humdrum life is very pleasant was reading.

after all,” said Mark. “We are Tom, Christina's eyes beamed gratitude Dick and Harry I suppose, but I on her first-born.

don't ask anything better; do you, "Suppose you children find out if mother?" any of the Browns can come too," she The Christina of their courtship suggested; “Jack will, I'm certain, and days had been entirely absorbed in Theo and Harry. We'll keep them to the later title “mother," and Christea."

tina was satisfied. Looking at her A little later the whole party set children as they ran before her, she out, the elders walking behind, the answered smiling. children scampering ahead, Rosa's "No, I don't want anything better, hand held by the kindly Jack Brown, daddy, just that it should go on-and who, having been long apprenticed to

on.

Why won't they stay children nursery cares, always took on himself longer?” the charge of babies.

Mark took her arm. He had grown Jack was at this time a lanky rather stout, and walked slowly like the schoolboy, very shy and gruff, always pug, who, very stout, and elderly, in garments a little short in the

waddled behind them. sleeves, always in boots with an "They will grow up and marry, my embarrassing squeak, but always a dear, and we old people shall remain, favorite. He had small taste for books, and you, Ingleby, you must stay near but an astonishing taste for mechanics; and Jack's electrical machines, "Please God,” said Mr. Ingleby. his mills and engines and dynamos, They walked to the country roads were a perpetual interest to his own that

near Westhampton. family and to all his neighbors.

Beyond the town lay this district of Jack's good nature was the prey of hill and valley, copse, stream and everybody. He was sent for stamps pastureland. and butter and herrings and reels of “I love the winter landscape," thread at any moment after he had said Christina; "it is more soothing straggled home from school. He was than the summer. Summer is too his mother's right-hand man, her beautiful. It taxes one's capacities, lover, her cavalier, her faithful servant. or it challenges a response that only All Jack's dreams set to the day when youth can give. Is it that, Mr. he should come home rich and with Ingleby?” a motor for the over-worked mother. "Have you too found out that? It Of his father he was tolerant. I is so with me. I love the quiet dun don't think my father has proper beauties of the winter world. You scope,” was his judgment.

must seek them out. As you say, the Jack was always delighted to fall in summer and the spring overwhelm with other people's convenience, and to one. They are too prodigal; there is walk with little Rosa Travis

no time to appreciate them. But in quite to his mind.

winter one has leisure to notice each On this fine Sunday all the world little delicate loveliness. It is a season seemed to be abroad.

quite in harmony with middle age.” "It is the festival of British parent- The children ran shouting ahead hood, isn't it?" asked Mr. Ingleby, as and then rushed back. Rosa's red they passed innumerable perambulators coat was a flash of color in the quiet and parents.

tones of the countryside.

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"Oh! if my third baby were here!" said Christina quickly; "one child never makes up for another."

“Would you wish it otherwise?" asked Mr. Ingleby. “They are separate beings."

"No, he is mine wherever he is. And as you said to me at the time, Mr. Ingleby, this communion of all souls makes life far more beautiful. You said to me then, do you remember? 'If we had not our dead we should be like a night without stars.' I have thought of it often.”

Mark, thinking out his platitude carefully, uttered it with that pleasant sense of originality which the platitude-maker so often enjoys. "I'm sure sorrow teaches us sympathy," he said. "See how close we three have grown to each other. You have had your troubles, Ingleby, I'm certain.”

“Yes," said Mr. Ingleby, “my sorrow has been one which is perhaps harder to bear than death, a life of sorrow for one I loved.

But it was ended last week. I never told you of this trouble, though

people knew it. My mother was out of her mind. This mental trouble became so acute that I had to put her in a home, where she could receive constant care and proper treatment. I went often to see her, but it brought her no pleasure. But this strange mystery of her purgation is over,

thank God."

Christina understood now that asceticism of habit which many called stinginess in Mr. Ingleby.

"We never knew,” she said quickly. "Oh! I'm so sorry-and you who have comforted us have never been bitter or rebellious yourself.”

“Yes I have, but those days are passed."

“Can you understand?"

"Understand the mystery of suffering? No, I can only believe that it is eventually transmuted into good.

In the mystical life of the saints this ‘dark night of the soul seems, as it were, the ante-chamber to the celestial brightness. I believe it is often so, not the less because this state of the soul has a physical cause. My mother was of the saints, a Puritan saint, narrow and strict; perhaps the revelation of the Beatific Vision has been the more radiant to her on that account."

There was silence between the three for a while. Rosa had fallen down and Mark hastened forward to dry her tears and wipe her knees with his handkerchief.

"How he idolizes that child,” said Ingleby, with a smile.

Christina looked tenderly at them both.

"Thank God," she said quietly, “that if I have failed him in much I have at least given him the perfect romance of life, a child."

The afternoon fell in molten gold behind the trees, the air grew chilly, and they hurried home to the firelit room and the cheerful tea-table. All the time Christina was curiously conscious, of her happiness. She seemed to grasp with both hands the joy of this ordinary life. She realized the precious relationships of home, father, mother and children. During the eight years that had passed, her own parents had died, and she had become the more keenly aware of the value of domestic ties.

After supper she and her husband sat on the sofa, his warm, fat hand holding hers. In this position he shortly fell asleep, his head resting on the sofa cushion. Mr. Ingleby smiled at her over his eyeglasses and went on reading.

At ten o'clock he rose and took leave.

“Good-bye, my dear friends," he said, "and God be with you."

At the little garden gate he turned

some

to look back at them standing in the later that he stood by Mark Travis's hall together. It was scarcely a week grave.

(To be continued.)

THE QUESTION OF ALSACE-LORRAINE.

Among the important problems which will be discussed at the Peace Conference, that of Alsace-Lorraine particularly concerns France; but it is a problem which none of those nations today fighting for justice and right can ignore, for Alsace-Lorraine is a question of justice and right to us.

In order to explain this question to foreigners, and even to Frenchmen who have not perhaps deeply considered it, we have undertaken to give a simple and brief account of it.

1.- Past HISTORY OF ALSACE

LORRAINE.

A short historical survey is first of all necessary.

The actual region of Alsace-Lorraine was, twenty centuries ago, a part of Gaul, which was bounded at the east by the Rhine. The ancestry of the population is Gallic, just as in the rest of France. Later inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine fought with Vercingétorix against Cæsar, in order to defend the independence of their common country. When Rome conquered Gaul they absorbed the Latin culture in the same way as the rest of the population and perhaps even more completely.

Thus it will be seen that in the days of its early origins the future AlsaceLorraine was

a part of the future France.

It is true that in the fifth century, at the time of the dissolution of the Roman Empire, barbarians, Alamans or Franks, from beyond the right bank of the Rhine, penetrated into the east of this region; to this day a Germanic dialect is spoken there. But Metz

touched by this

invasion, which broke itself in vain against its fortifications. The town and a large slice of territory to the east have never spoken German. The French language has also been preserved in Alsace, not only at Belfort and at Delle, which France kept in 1871, but in the valleys of the Vosges as well.

At the time of the Merovingians and the Carolingians, from the fifth to the nineteenth century, the whole region was a part of the Frankish kingdom. Its warriors fought under the orders of Charlemagne beyond the Rhine in those wars by which he subdued Germany.

Then comes an extremely confused epoch when the empire founded by Charlemagne fell into dissolution. His grandchildren divided it amongst themselves in the year 843 by the compact of Verdun. The region of AlsaceLorraine was for a time included in a temporary kingdom established between France and Germany; then it was tossed about between the two countries. In the tenth century it recognized the sovereignty of the German kings. And in this same country the region of Alsace-Lorraine, which had had until then a common destiny, divided in two. Lorraine became a duchy; Alsace became attached to a duchy of the German kingdom-Suabia. It was a badlychosen union, for the Alsatian detests the Suabian, the “Schwob" as he terms him, the word being a gross insult from the lips of an Alsatian.

Here, then, we find the whole region swallowed up by Germany, but the Germany of those days resembled in

was

never

no way the Germany of today. Its kings, powerful at the time of the tenth century, had taken the title of Emperor. Their empire rejoiced in the bizarre and boastful appellation of Holy Roman Germanic Empire, for the vanity of Germany is as old as Germany itself. This empire comprised, in addition to Germany, Holland, a part of Belgium, the valleys of the Saone and the Rhone, and a siderable part of Italy. The imperial authority was exceedingly badly accepted in these countries; in Germany itself it waned unceasingly up to the middle of the thirteenth century, when the whole country fell into complete anarchy and broke up into hundreds of separate States, each of them considering itself as the sovereign State.

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II-LORRAINE UP TO ITS REUNION

WITH FRANCE.

tants assisted him in fortifying it. Beaten, Charles the Fifth fled to Germany. For the second time Metz had withstood a German invasion.

It will be asked what became of the Duchy of Lorraine during this time. The Dukes had continued for a certain period to acknowledge the suzerainity of Germany, but from the fourteenth century. they began to look towards France. During the Hundred Years' War a number of nobles from Lorraine fought with us against our enemy of those days—the English. In 1542, by the Treaty of Nuremberg, Charles the Fifth recognized the independence of the Duke of Lorraine, who thus ceased to be a vassal of Germany and became an independent sovereign.

From this time, at the Court of the Dukes of Lorraine at Nancy, the capital, and in the whole country, a purely French civilization took root. Now it happened in 1737 that the last Duke, Francis the Third, by one of those curious arrangements which were sometimes made in the eighteenth century, exchanged the birthright of his ancestors for the Duchy of Tuscany and the hope of the Imperial German

By his marriage with Marie-Thérèse, daughter of the Emperor Charles the Sixth, who died in 1740 without a male heir, Francis the Third of Lorraine became the Emperor Francis the First. As for the Duchy of Lorraine, it was handed over to the dispossessed King of Poland, Stanislas Lesczinski, whose daughter had married the King of France, Louis the Fifteenth.

Without question, during the course of the seventeenth century, France had more than once used violence against the Duke of Lorraine, who had constituted himself our enemy, but the memory of this died out. The reign of the father-in-law of the King of France in Lorraine was a quiet

We must now follow the history of Alsace and Lorraine since their separation up to the time of the reunion with France, beginning with Lorraine.

From the Duchy of Lorraine the three bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun became detached. The following are the circumstances in which they became French.

In the sixteenth century the Emperor of Germany, Charles the Fifth, more powerful than any of his predecessors, wished to impose his authority on all the German princes. In order to defend their liberties several of these princes allied themselves with the King of France, Henry the Second, and invited him to occupy Metz, Toul, and Verdun, which were, they said, "French-speaking parts." These towns were accordingly occupied. Charles the Fifth attempted to retake Metz, which he besieged with a great army. But the Duke of Guise, commanding in the name of the King of France, defended the town, and the inhabi

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transition between its independence teenth, to occupy their fortified towns, and its reunion with France, which and this was done in 1633 and 1634. took place in 1766. This reunion was The Catholics, to protect themselves accepted with such warmth that against the Swiss Protestants, who twenty-six years later, when the Em- were fighting in Alsace and comperor of Germany, grandson of the mitting every kind of excess, opened Duke Francis the Third, declared war their towns to French troops. The against France, the whole of Lorraine French, summoned by the Alsatians, rose in a body against the invader. thus occupied almost the entire coun

try. In 1635 France entered into a III-ALSACE BEFORE ITS REUNION

war against the King of Spain and the WITH FRANCE

Emperor, and was victorious. Peace Alsace was, in the Middle Ages, was signed at Münster in 1648, and even more cut up into insignificant the French possession of Alsace was fragments than was Lorraine. At the recognized in "compensation” for the beginning of the seventeenth century help that she had given during thirit was still composed of a great num- teen years of war to the enemies of the ber of lay and ecclesiastical properties; King of Spain and the Emperor. ten "free" towns which leagued them- Thus after a long separation Alsaceselves against these properties formed Lorraine became reunited under the what called the “Décapole”; rule of France. From now onwards Strasburg was a republic which pos- their destiny is a common one in both sessed a considerable rural domina- good and bad days. tion; Mulhausen, allied to the Swiss We should have liked to describe Protestant cantons, was nothing but French rule in these provinces at some a foreign slave to Alsace. These length, but we have promised to be different States constantly made war brief; we will only state what is essenone against the other. To all the tial, speaking more particularly of causes of dissension the reform in the Alsace. The question is, besides, sixteenth century added yet another more interesting to study in Alsace of which the effects profoundly affected than in Lorraine; Alsace was more the country; two camps were formed, complex; the difference of manners that of the Protestants and that of and customs greater between France the Catholics.

and Alsace than between France and In 1618 there came

war, which

Lorraine. The task of French adminiswas destined to last thirty years. tration thus more difficult in Alsace suffered greatly from this Alsace. For the rest, her principles crisis, which shook the whole of Europe. and her conduct were the same in The cause was the ambition of the both provinces. They had an equal Emperor of Germany, who wished to success--the profound and intimate destroy liberty of conscience in his union of the two provinces in the empire and also the freedom which

common patrie. the different States had long enjoyed.

IV-ALSACE UNDER FRENCH RULE. He was closely allied to the King of Spain, his cousin, like himself an The clauses in the Treaty of Münster enemy of liberty of conscience and of relative to Alsace were obscure on every other liberty. In Alsace the more than one point, and France did Protestants, in order to defend them- not delay in obtaining the fullest selves, appealed to France; they advantage from these. She stretched invited our King, Louis the Thir- her sovereignty over the entire prov

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