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races.

for humanity-not simply a vision of safety, for we do not really deeply care for safety, but a vision of a new and greater unity.

The problems of the new Russia are monitions of the problem of the new Europe. There is the hope that after the war it may be possible for all our nations to think of Europe in a new way, to find in the idea and name of Europe a common spiritual and material interest to which all could be loyal. As the peoples of Russia come to be to Russia, so may the peoples of Europe, including Finland and Ireland, be to Europe.

The first days of the war saw the great affirmation of the sacredness of nationality. There followed a Radical movement against nationality inspired possibly by the non-Zionist Jews whose natural ideal is cosmopolitanism, mixed nationality, implying a mongrelization of races, one type, one State, and everybody speaking Esperanto, much business and no war. But the idea of making Europe or Russia a melting-pot for races distasteful, and could not have won its way. It was also not practicable. The nations of Europe care too much for their national culture and ideals to efface themselves, even were this war ten times the material calamity it is. The conception, however, had attraction for

Its abortive expression was that of the “League of Peace,” which has now given way to the much more promising formulation of the “League of Nations.” At the same time a ferment of republicanism threatens all the thrones in Europe. It is generally realized that the barriers which keep nations apart must be removed. But owing to the example of affairs in Russia, it is realized that the nations are intent on keeping their nationhood. The unity to which we are going forward is the unity of the recognition and

toleration of difference, love of difference; not the unity of reducing all to standard types.

It may be remarked now how illsuited is the average British or German intelligence to the new task of accommodating the new elements and expressing them in all their complexity to make a great unity. The Teutonic race is naturally intolerant of other

Possibly German intolerance will be blasted away by war, and by the wholesome lesson of the despised French beating them, and by Russians beating them. But the British intelligence, except when modified by the sympathy of the Celt, is more inclined to simplify by breaking or excluding than by understanding and including. Love and patience are required beyond all other qualities. The Italians bring gifts of this kind, but on the other hand inherit bad traditions. Their consciousness is still in the old Europe, nourishing ideas of territorial aggrandizement, and pursuing with that end a steady, persistent, though secret diplomacy. Because of the Italians, our sad Balkan friends who have suffered much constantly tremble are possessed of hate. Even the unduly despised Greeks might join in the great understanding, but for fear of wolves in sheep's clothing. France is patient and tolerant though suffering, but even she nurses the need for revenge. There remains Russia, and turbulent though her conditions are she has yet the model psychology for the great problem. I do not speak of all her tribes, some of which are savagely intolerant of other people; but of the Central Russian race, which after all has the power in its own hands, and can arrange the home almost as it will. Russia loves complexity, she is tolerant, she is also profound in thought, not given to superficiality. She has a farreaching vision, and her Church at

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least has for long been preoccupied when the ideals of mankind are made with the idea of the union of humanity. common for all, the new language will Pan-human ideals have long since be one that embodies all the partial been expressed, and many who died languages. in their struggle against the old

Russian social philosophy, moreover, Tsardom did so, not so much in the contemplates an all-inclusive human name of local freedom and a partisan society, a true Catholicism, supported political view, as in the name of first on the recognition and tolerance universal brotherhood.

of all diversity of expression, the • It is of course true that the phrase scaffolding of the city of God, built universal brotherhood” as used from and cemented with love and mutual workingmen's platforms is little more enhancement. To say that we are all than the expression of a domestic disjecta membra of Christ is merely sentiment. The narrowness of the theology to us in the West, but in the life and outlook of the poor workers East it is a living daily understanding voicing it evokes the scorn of the of our pathos on the road of destiny. cultured and the traveled, especially The vision is of a world-republic. among our own people. The same is No, of more than that, of a worldtrue in Russia, where the working Church, of all-Humanity as man is more illiterate and narrow in love and mutual understanding and outlook than those of the same class praise of God, Sophia. in the West. But there is this great

Because of this vision, which, even difference in Russia—that the idea if only seen or realized in a small part, of brotherhood and even universal is stupendous and greater than anybrotherhood permeates all classes of thing our earthly records tell of in the society. And in social if not yet in past, the Russian revolution is the political relationships tolerance rules. first and most significant solution Condemnation, and exclusion, and the which the war has caused. The boycott, and the sending to Coventry, League of Nations has been called the and "cutting," and giving the cold germ of the Super-State. The change shoulder, and even calling for pun- in the conditions of the Russian ishment-God's punishment-on the people reveals the possibility of an neighbor, are not frequent in the agreement and an understanding and Russian vocabulary and literature. a unity in Europe. It is that which The Russian charity is an almost all- has given to the great destructive inclusive charity. Hence

at this calamity a new creative aspect. The late era it is still possible for Russian old must all be pulled down in order Socialists to dwell in a state of love and that the new may be built. charity with their German confrères. To revert, however, to Russia. She "In the future there shall be one is the hope of Europe. If she settles language," says Solovyof, “but it her problems beautifully, Europe may shall not be an exclusive but rather be trusted to do so also. But if she

all-inclusive language, not becomes a prey to anarchy and disEsperanto or Volapuk, but a great ruption, is more devastated and falls and mighty organic language embody- to pieces, Europe in future may be ing all the partial languages men are also one of extreme desolation and low speaking." He conceived this in the life. If she becomes a brassy, blatant, realm of ideals. With regard to our business State, Europe also will turn ideals we babble in little selfish tongues all her energies to commerce, with not understanding one another, but trade wars and bread wars following.

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For it is, an error to suppose that and art not failing, its brotherliness, separate Republics are less capable frankness, and generosity not failing, of making war on one another than its colors' not lost in mere republican monarchies. If Germany becomes a grayness, its complexity of form and business republic and lives in a state genius for new groupings and formaof unreconciled spiritual and material tions not lost in the discipline and interest with her 'neighbors, she will rigidity of ordinary Socialism, Russia make war again and more successfully. the God-bearer, as Dostievsky called Russia has the rôle of saying the pro- her, giving to Europe the marvelous logue of the new drama, Rightly Christ Child. understood, the prologue foreshadows It is by faith that all who love what the story is, and the five acts Russia can see her new Destiny is in following it tell it at more length and our keeping, in our hearts. - As we make the substance of it. It is as yet look creatively on chaos, there arises undecided; nothing is clear except the shape and form. And looking creamaterial out of which the new must tively is love, whereas looking destrucemerge. The great hope is that tively is hate; idealism and criticism, Russia will show us a new experiment the substance of peace and the subin democracy, and that there may be stance of war. And after the greatest a further realization of the complex period of destruction and dissolution ånd: beautiful genius 'of the people. comes naturally the greatest reaction We may see , in the course of time Humanity has ever known towards something without counterpart in the construction and unity. Hence the old; not merely, the realization of vision. It may be merely the vision some Western idea of government in a dream. Mankind has ever lived such as Republicanism or Socialism, for dreams and 'visions, and expected not merely the culmination of oppor- the outside varying world to conform tunism and selfishness, a business to its ideal. , In the past it has always State, but the birth of a

failed to conform. But if the world child, a new body politic with its must be desolate, and the altar on dreams and daring, its vision and which we sacrifice show itself merely splendor.' And that which is best and as a senseless, all-devouring bonfire, if truest in Russia will come' forth and Russia instead of showing external have the pride of place. Nothing unity be swept by anarchy or bebeautiful of the old will be lost; it come a Mammon-serving State, the will be carried on into the new, re- dream will still remain. Humanity dreamed, re-found, re-expressed, its has at least been united in the Christianity not failing, its literature heart. The London Quarterly Review.

Stephen Graham.

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THE DAWN OF THE AIR AGE.

I.

The world hardly sees yet a shadow of the revolution in its habits and customs which is impending, and will follow the use of the air as a highway. The aircraft industry, weak and struggling no longer, thanks to the stimulus

of war, is planning already the building of machines which will be sufficiently powerful and airworthy to maintain regular services by air for passengers, mails, and light express goods. More experience in construction has been gained during two and a half years of

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war than would have been possible tion above land, sea, forests, or moununder peace conditions in many years. tains, the question of distance, or The industry is now organized, and of the difficulty of communication stronger financially; and only a year through natural obstacles, will cease or so should elapse after the war to be a barrier between nations. before the first air services are run on

II. a commercial basis between London and the Continent, and also between The first use of commercial aircraft London and the cities of the Midlands should be as mail-carriers; and it is and the North. This is no longer the possible that the first experimental dream of an enthusiast. The recent services will be attempted over localiconstructional progress has been such ties remote from large centers of that passenger services by air could population, where the nature of the be organized even at the present time, country makes it difficult to maintain were the industry not pre-occupied regular communication by land; also with its work in connection with the to link up by air-mail the widely

scattered communities such as exist By means of technical improvements in our dominions over-sea. which have become feasible, and which America, France, and Italy are need only peace conditions to enable concerning themselves already with them to be carried into effect, it the question of establishing air mail should be possible, almost immediately services; and the British Government, after the war, to build passenger air- with foreign possessions in which air craft which will carry twenty-five or mail services might be established with fifty people at an average speed of great convenience to the inhabitants, nearly 100 miles an hour. And this has every reason to do the same. will form a stepping-stone to larger The recent appointment of the Civil craft, fitted with motors developing Aerial Transport Committee is thousands of horse-power, which should indication that the authorities are now attain speeds of 200, 250, and perhaps becoming alive to the importance of even 300 miles an hour. Time and commercial aeronautics. The main money-not forgetting the skill of task of this Committee is to recomdesigners and constructors, and an mend to the Government what steps infinite patience and perseverance- shall be taken, when the war is over, are all that are required to bring about to develop civil flying in all its aspects. this era. We have sufficient knowledge The American Government, it is at the present time to indicate that understood, intends to operate there are no technical difficulties which air-mail, with a service twice weekly, should prove insuperable.

between the Alaskan coast and cerThe demand of the commercial tain of the inaccessible districts which world, for years prior to the war, was lie inland. It is hoped, by means of for greater speed in transit. Time, the air service, to make journeys in representing money, had been growing five or six hours which, by land daily more valuable. After the war, transport, have sometimes taken as huge schemes of reconstruction will long as three weeks. become necessary, and there should be The French Government has estaban immense quickening of trade ac- lished a Committee which is investitivity in all quarters of the globe. gating the whole question of transportWith the employment of commercial ing mails by air; and one of the aims aircraft, able to pass without devia- of this Committee is to determine, if

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possible, at what cost per kilometre it for us, on imperial as well as purely would be possible to operate such national grounds, to create and mainservices.

tain a large fleet of commercial airThe Italian Government has, since craft. We know how, in this present the beginning of the war, connected war, with the danger zones created by several of her important commercial hostile submarines, we have had to centers by means of a system of alight- rely on our great mercantile marine. ing-grounds; and along these "air- And it may happen in some war of the ways" already an experimental mail future, with sea-blockades so efficient service is being operated-although, as to hold up traffic altogether, that naturally, the needs of the moment are we shall have to depend upon aircraft almost entirely military.

to bring us the supplies which cannot It will certainly be unwise, right at be obtained in any other way. Anthe beginning of commercial aviation, other important reason for a Governfor Governments to expect an air ment subsidy of the aircraft industry service to be completely self-support- lies in the fact that the knowledge ing, or to operate at once with such and experience which are gained in profit as might be shown, say, by trans- building and piloting commercial-type port systems on land or sea—which, machines will be of extreme value in of course have had years of organiza- time of war; while it should be rememtion and experience. What Govern- bered that commercial craft could, in ments must do, and particularly the war-time, be converted quickly and British Government, is to ensure to without difficulty into cruiser-type the operators of these first air-mail machines, being fitted with bombservices freedom from financial sighting and releasing gear, and also anxiety during the period when their with guns throwing explosive shells. main task will be to gain all the And such converted machines would experience they can to suitable be extremely useful in attacking land types of machine, and to make any positions, or in harassing an enemy's experiments, and incur any reasonable air and sea traffic. expense, which they may consider

III. necessary for the improvement of their services.

It is difficult for us to realize the And when the experience gained in change in our habits, and in our these, and other ways, permits the routine of living, which will follow the running of passenger air services, the coming of the air age.

As soon as we Government must be equally ready have daily services by air operating with assistance and must make it on an adequate scale, it will be possible one of its chief aims-undeterred by for city workers to live much farther cries which may be raised for retrench- afield than they can with any existing ment in expenditure-to ensure that form of locomotion. And this will commercial flying in all its aspects mean, in the course of time, that the develops rapidly and successfully, and outskirts of a city like London will that no invention of importance is cease to be dormitories for the workers, lost to us through a lack of financial and will be given over almost excluaid. The rate-payer, when his money sively to factories and workshops. is spent to develop flying, need have The workers of the city, traveling at no fear that it is being wasted, or high speeds by air, will be able to live that such expenditure is inadvisable. along the southern and southeastern It will be a matter of vital necessity seacoasts, or in the heart of the coun

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