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I. America's Three Months of War.

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James Davenport Whelpley

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 323
II. Monarchy and “Democracy." By Waller
Sichel

NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER 330 III. Christina's Son. Book II. Chapter III. By W. M. Letts. (To be continued)

336 IV. Orthodoxy and Heresy in the New Day. By Willard L. Sperry

CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 340 V. Henry James. By Theodora Bosanquet FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 346 VI. Damaris Joan. By C. E.

MANCHESTER GUARDIAN 357 VII. "Claims." By a Divisional Claims Officer Blackwood's MAGAZINE 360 VIII. The Paradox of the British Empire

TIMES 367 IX. Piccadilly

Punch 371 X. The Logic of Liberty,, Equality and Fraternity

NEW STATESMAN

372 XI. On Roads. By an Officer in Kitchener's Army

SATURDAY REVIEW 375 XII. The Independence of Albania

OUTLOOK 379 XIII. A Tool-Using Animal. By Horace Hutchinson WESTMINSTER GAZETTE 381

A PAGE OF VERSE XIV. From Dartmoor. By M. D. H.

ATHENAEUM 322 XV. The Word. By Edward Thomas

322 XVI. Euthanasy. By R. H. Law

SPECTATOR 322 BOOKS AND AUTHORS

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AMERICA'S THREE MONTHS OF WAR.

least a year.

It is now three months since the life has become an intense though American declaration of war against methodically directed effort to arrive Germany. The work actually ac- at a given point by the most direct complished within that time and the route. spirit in which it has been carried out The material accomplishment of have brought confusion to the enemy America in the field of war during the and discredited the prophecies of pes- past three months is only exceeded by simistic friends who reasoned that what has been done in the spheres of America as a factor in the war would diplomacy, politics, and national spirit. remain a negligible quantity for at The Allied missions to the United

States have been met with eager and Within these three months the people intelligent understanding and friendof the United States have adopted the ship resulting in schemes of practical principle of compulsory military service; and mutually helpful co-operation. over nine and a half million men be- Congress is slowly but surely enacting tween the ages of twenty-one and the laws needed for the effective conthirty have registered as the force trol of the country in war time. One from which an army can be drawn; of the things provided for is the authorthe headquarters staff of an expedi- ity given the President to ration the tionary army has arrived in Europe, neutral countries of Europe to prevent and every week adds to the already a surplus of imports being sent into large number of fighting Americans Germany. This will prove of materallying on the firing line under the rial assistance to the blockade by the shadow of the Allied banners.

Allies, as America has been the country On the seas American naval vessels from which most of the supplies have are at work in the waters surrounding been obtained in days of former Amerithe British Isles and are stationed can neutrality. Congress has also along the coast of France. The patrol given authority to the Allied Governof the Atlantic route has been en- ments to recruit their nationals now trusted to their care with most satis- resident in the United States. factory results. Additional loans of The pro-German element has been money have been made to the Allied na- rendered practically impotent by tions; shipments of supplies to Europe American public opinion and the stern have been speeded up; every ship- enforcement of new laws designed for yard is at work upon old and new ves- the restraint of enemy aliens. Το sels putting them in order for the such a degree is this true that those transatlantic service, and on American who have had visions of a revolution soil the thirty-four camps in which a against the American Government by million men now and more millions the German-American population, or later are to be trained for war are at least a wholesale sabotage in the inmaterializing almost overnight. One terests of Germany, confess themselves of the most useful things already ac- to have been apprehensive without complished is the arming of nearly

This war has proved that the four hundred vessels for offensive and “melting pot” of American citizendefensive war against submarines. ship still does its work well, notwith

In every department of Govern- standing the enormous demands made ment activity and national industry upon it during the past few years.

cause.

war.

on,

are

A quarrel with no other nation would fellow-citizens the seriousness of the have been so severe a test, for before task they have undertaken. It is this war Germany not only had many interesting to note that whenever he friends in America, but, what is more has spoken extempore he has given significant, had no active enemies; utterance to phrases that have led to and the same cannot be said of any misunderstanding of his meaning or other important country. A few pre- position. Whenever he has prepared cautionary arrests have been made of in writing his speech or statement it men who were known to be paid has received universal endorsement German agents, but with the coming and there has been no quibble as to of war the temper of the American what he meant. When he said that people towards any disloyalty was there was such a thing as a nation such as to intimidate all but the most "being too proud to fight" he qualified reckless of those who hoped to hinder and explained what he meant later the national preparation for

but the phrase traveled abroad in There have been fewer outrages upon all its nakedness and gave a wrong property since war began than there impression of the American people as were when the United States was a well as of the sentiments of the Presineutral purveyor to the wants of all dent, as has since been proved time and who could buy. This is partially due, again. On another occasion he said of course, to the greater precautions that “with the causes of this war we taken and to the more effective guard- not concerned." This phrase ing of public and private property, but promptly traveled abroad, without if there was to be any serious outbreak the explanatory text which robbed it of pro-Germanism in the form of ac- of all questionable meaning. Only tual physical violence it would have recently he said to a gathering of Red come before now and in spite of all Cross nurses that America had enpolice precautions that could be taken. tered this war “with no special grievThere will be occasional episodes, nat- ance of her own," and there immeurally, but the fate of those responsi- diately arose a chorus of disapproval ble will not encourage others to go of any such statement, for the Presiand do likewise. As Mr. Gerard said dent himself had set forth but a few on his return from Berlin, the millions days before the very real and very of lampposts in America would not be many grievances that had caused needed on which to hang disloyal America to abandon a long-maintained German-Americans, although these neutrality. If the full text of what lampposts were always available, and he did say to the assembled nurses is there were precedents in American taken into consideration, it throws a history for their use as suggested. very different light upon the thought

President Wilson, having for three he had in his mind at the time. He years allowed American public opinion said: "I say the heart of the country to formulate almost of itself, has now is in this war because it would not have assumed an active leadership along the gone into it if it had not first believed lines of a strenuous prosecution of the that here an opportunity to war-aims of America.

The pronun

express the character of the United ciamientos have not only largely assisted States. We have gone in with no in carrying into operation the legisla- special grievance of our own, because tion and policies needed, but he has we have always said that we were the with marked effect lost op- friends and servants of mankind. We portunity of impressing upon his look for no profit. We look for no

was

no

as

advantage. We will accept no ad- what has amounted to an armistice vantage out of this war. We go be- most helpful to Germany into a vigorcause we believe that the very prin- ous renewal of war. It is in the making ciples upon which the American Re- of such a declaration that President public was founded are now at stake Wilson rises to his full height. It is and must be vindicated." No exception a task for which he is finely equipped, can be taken to the above, for no and in the field of noble exhortation he country ever went to war in a nobler has had more opportunity and pracor more altruistic cause. Some public tice during his administration than speakers have become famous has fallen to the lot of any leader of coiners of phrases that lived and that thought in modern times. Speaking augmented the reputations of those as the First Citizen of a nation of over who uttered them. President Wilson one hundred million people, he is lishas not been so fortunate in his extem- tened to with earnest attention, not pore inspirations, for they have re- only by his own people, but by peoples quired much interpretation to prevent and Governments elsewhere, for he is most unfortunate misunderstandings but the mouthpiece of the most wonas to his real meanings.

derfully organized democracy in the No such criticism can be made of world today; organized in such a way his prepared speeches or his written that to turn the national purpose in communications of any kind. State any particular direction it is only necpapers have come from his pen since essary to switch the currents of human the war began that will live in his- energy from one objective to another tory as great documents, and there and there is no perceptible halt in the will be no quibble as to the meaning carrying on. they are intended to convey. He To the Russian people he says: has voiced the aspirations of the “The day has come to conquer or American people, which are the as- submit. If the forces of democracy pirations of a peace-loving democracy, can divide us they will overcome; if with such clarity, vigor, and complete- we stand together victory is certain, ness as to win the endorsement of his and the liberty which victory will seseverest critics and bitterest political

We can afford then to be genenemies. Of this character is his erous, but we cannot afford then or latest utterance, exceeded in impor- now to be weak or to omit any single tance only by the declaration of war guarantee of justice or security.” In itself. His call to the people of Russia this proclamation or address to the to stand by the cause of America and Russian people in view of their demand the Allies, as representing and embody- for a war policy of “no annexations ing the ideals in the pursuit of which and no indemnities,” the President the late Government of Russia was of the United States again sets forth deprived of its power, is a Declaration the purpose of the American people of Independence for humanity.

in entering the war, and he sets This appeal will unquestionably have forth the achievement that will satisfy an enormous influence upon the Rus- that purpose. No clearer or more defsian nation, and in the making of it inite statement of the war-aims of America has rendered as great a serv- America has yet been made. ice to the cause of the Allies as any At the end of this war “no people that may be forthcoming. It may be must be forced under a sovereignty instrumental in turning the scale on the under which it does not wish to live. Eastern battlefields and in changing No territory must change hands ex

cure.

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