Imagini ale paginilor
PDF
ePub

New Evaluative Instruments for Secondary Schools

by Carl A. Jessen, Chief
School Organization and Supervision

[ocr errors]

HE 1950 edition of the Evaluative Cri. portant users of the criteria, namely, schools materials or procedures discarded except

teria is off the press following intensive that had been evaluated, persons who had for good cause. Those features which had work for 212 years on its development. Like been members of several visiting commit- proved their worth through 10 years of exits forerunner printed in 1940, it is a prod- tees, and others who in various ways had perience with them were to be retained, in uct of the Cooperative Study of Second- both extensive and intensive experience improved form to be sure, but retained in ary School Standards and is distributed with the evaluative instruments.

their essentials. through the American Council on Educa- As the reports came in from these sources Thus one finds that the 1950 edition tion.

it was apparent that those who were using parallels in its sections many of the sections The Cooperative Study was organized in the instruments were enthusiastic about of the earlier edition. The plan of having 1933 by the regional agencies of secondary their value as devices for stimulation and a statement of Guiding Principles in each schools and colleges operating in New Eng. improvement. Also these respondents major section is followed in the new edition, land, Middle States, Southern, North Cen- found and reported items in the materials as is the practice of having both checklist tral, Northwestern, and Western sections of and features in the recommended procedures and evaluational items in the several secthe United States. These regional associa- which in their judgment could be improved. tions. The arrangements by which schools tions selected representatives from among By the end of the war and the years im- during 10 years of evaluations have been their memberships and these representatives mediately following, enough of these re- encouraged to insert comments and stateacting as a body became the General Com- ports had come in to convince the Commit- ments descriptive of their purposes and mittee responsible for the Cooperative tee that a revision ought to be undertaken. practices are expanded in the new Evaluative Study.

Accordingly plans were laid and carried Criteria. Retained also is the plan of The Committee secured funds from the out for a revision and for funds with which having extensive self-evaluation by the local parent associations and from the General to make it. Toward the end of 1947 the school faculty precede evaluation by a Education Board, employed a research staff, funds available in the Cooperative Study visiting committee. and after 6 years of research and experi- treasury plus substantial grants from the ment produced instruments for the evalua- regional associations and the General Edu. Objectives and Curriculum tion of schools which were published in cation Board made it possible to get under

Major changes have been introduced in 1940. The three publications most essen- way. Full-scale and full-time work on the

the techniques for ascertaining what are the tial for school evaluations were a manual en- revision started in 1948 with the employ; objectives aimed at by a school. Experititled How To Evaluate a Secondary School, ment of a research staff and the opening of

ence with Section B of the 1940 Evaluative the Evaluative Criteria, and Educational a revision office in Boston, Mass.

Criteria revealed that the emphasis was too Temperatures, a set of forms for reporting

strong on educational philosophy. Local graphically the results of evaluations. Characteristics of the Revised

school authorities and teachers too often Evaluative Criteria

were led to think about statements which Why a Revision

The revision resulting in the 1950 edition had been developed by committees and It was realized at the time that the instru

combines the essentials of the three publi- agencies rather than about the needs of the ments thus produced would probably need to cations of 1940 into the one volume of pupils enrolled in their school. It is bebe revised, partly because of new develop- Evaluative Criteria. The new publication

Evaluative Criteria. The new publication lieved that the present section focusing atments in education, partly because, even is somewhat shorter than the three earlier tention upon what is needed by the pupils with the try-out which had been conducted publications it displaces, despite the sub- is likely to yield more valid statements of in 200 schools before publication, further stantial expansions which have been made what a given school is attempting to do. use of the evaluative instruments would be in certain sections of it.

Moreover, there is opportunity in the new likely to reveal ways in which they and pro- The Committee in charge decided early in section for schools to indicate, not only cedures for their application could be im- its deliberations that it wanted a thoroughly what they are attempting to achieve, but proved. Against the possibility that such creative revision. The revision was not to how far they have progressed toward its a revision would need to be undertaken, the be a tinkering job. The Committee also achievement. Cooperative Study through the years after was entirely clear and vocal on another The sections dealing with the educational 1940 assembled reactions from the most im- related subject: It did not want any of the program have been greatly expanded. In the 1940 edition this subject was treated of offerings, physical facilities, direction of method of reporting results. Gone are the mainly in four sections, namely, Cur. learning, outcomes, and special character- "thermometers" and the conversion tables. riculum and Courses of Study, Pupil Ac- istics.

Gone are the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma tivity Program, Instruction, and Outcomes

Scales. Gone are the percentile scales and Staff of the Educational Program. In the revised

the norms of every description. Evaluative Criteria the section on the Pupil Section I in the revised Evaluative Crite- Retained is the idea of a statistical sumActivity Program is retained but with con. ria combines information which in the 1940 mary and a graphic summary, respectively siderable change in the check list and edition was gathered in two sections, one Sections X and Y in the 1950 edition. The evaluation items. The other 3 sections, on school staff, the other on school admin. graphic summaries in Section Y are hori. however, have been substantially reor. istration. In the process there has also zontal bar graphs. Since the number of ganized into 17 sections, 1 on the general been transferred to Section I some of the evaluations has been more than doubled program of studies, 1 on the core program, data on individual staff members formerly (from 450 to 932) in the revised Evaluative and the other 15 on subject areas (English, assembled through the “M Blank.” The Criteria it follows that Section X and Secmathematics, home economics, etc.) com- new Section J, Data for Individual Staff tion Y must be in accord with the changes monly found in secondary schools.

Members, which takes the place of the in evaluations. The simplification which It is not expected that every secondary former Section M, is considerably changed. has taken place in them, however, make school will have all of these subject areas In fact, both the coverage and the plan for them much easier to prepare and interpret. represented in its offerings, but will confine securing data on teaching and administraits evaluation to those which are present. tive staff, it is felt, are improved markedly The Manual Although variety rather than uniformity is in the revised edition.

The reduced complexity in statistical and apparent in the approach to these various

graphic summaries results in a reduced need subject areas there is a certain amount of Reporting Results

for explanation in the manual which now is unity in them in that each conforms to a six- No part of the evaluative instruments has

Section A of the new Evaluative Criteria. point outline involving organization, nature undergone more drastic revision than the

Both on this account and because of the 10

years of experience with evaluations it now The Cooperative Study Committee and Staff

becomes possible to produce a much more

satisfactory statement supplying suggestions Representatives of Regional Associations

North Central Association

on how to proceed with self-evaluation, comof Colleges and Secondary Schools G. E. CARROTHERS, University of Michigan,

mittee evaluation, and follow-up after evalNew England Association

Ann Arbor, Mich., chairman of the Gen-
eral Committee.

uation. This is the nature and strength of Jesse B. Davis, Boston University, Boston,

C. G. F. FRANZEN, Indiana University, the new Section A, Manual.
Mass.
RAYMOND A. GREEN, Newton High School

Bloomington, Ind. and Junior College, Newtonville, Mass.

H. C. MARDIs, Lincoln High School, Lincoln, The Contents

Nebr.
Carl A. MAGNUSON, Bristol High School,
Bristol, Conn.
W. E. McVey, De Paul University, Chicago,

The new Evaluative Criteria were tried
III.

out in 19 schools and were examined criti. Middle States Association M. R. Owens, State Department of Educa.

cally by the members of the Cooperative H. A. FERGUSON, Montclair High School,

tion, Little Rock, Ark.

Study Committee before being cast into final Montclair, N. J.

Northwest Association E. D. GRIZZELL, University of Pennsylvania, Donald A. EMERSON, State Department of form for printing. They are being offered Philadelphia, Pa., chairman of the Ad. Public Instruction, Salem, Oreg.

now with a great deal of confidence that they ministrative Committee. F. L. STETSON, University of Oregon,

are much more valid, much more usable, EARLE T. HAWKINS, Maryland State Teach- Eugene, Oreg.

and in general much improved over the eval. ers College, Towson, Md.

Western Association
Karl G. Miller, University of Pennsylvania, A. J. CLOUD, San Francisco Junior College,

uative instruments which the Cooperative Philadelphia, Pa. San Francisco, Calif.

Study produced and offered to schools 10 C. C. TilliNGHAST, Horace Mann School Advisory Members

years ago. Those instruments were used for Boys, New York, N. Y. PAUL E. ELICKER, National Association of

year after year with satisfaction in thouSouthern Association Secondary-School Principals, Washing

sands of evaluations throughout the Nation. ROBERT B. CLEM, Shawnee High School,

ton, D. C. Louisville, Ky.

Carl A. JESSEN, U. S. Office of Education, Because of experience gained from those J. H. Highsmith, State Department of Pub

secretary of Administrative and General evaluations it is believed that the present lic Instruction, Raleigh, N. C. Committees.

instruments are better than the earlier ones. JOSEPH ROEMER, on staff of U. S. High

Galen Jones, U. S. Office of Education,
Commissioner for Germany (formerly
Washington, D. C.

The contents of Evaluative Criteria, 1950 with George Peabody College for

GEORGE F. Zook, American Council on edition, are as follows:
Teachers, Nashville, Tenn.; until Feb.
Education, Washington, D. C.

Basic Information
ruary 1949 chairman of Administrative Revision Staff
Committee).
Roderic D. MATTHEws, University of Penn-

Manual -

A W. R. SMITHEY, University of Virginia, sylvania, director.

Pupil Population and School CommuCharlottesville, Va. JAMES F. BAKER, Boston University, re.

nity-----

B C. R. Wilcox, Darlington School, Rome, Ga. search assistant.

Educational Needs of Youth---

С (Continued on page 7)

Section

Recent Federal Court Decisions Affecting Education

by Ward W. Keesecker Specialist in School Legislation

D'

[ocr errors]

URING the months of May and June attendance amounted to $239.50, which she appellant was modified, he having been as.

1950, three noteworthy Federal Court deducted in computing her net income on signed to a seat in the classroom in a row decisions were rendered affecting education. her income tax return. The income tax specified for colored students, assigned to a The principles of law established by these officials disallowed these expenses on the

table in the library on the main floor, and decisions are:

ground that they were personal expenses. was permitted to eat at the same time in the 1. Where a public school teacher is required

The question for court determination was: cafeteria although he was assigned to a under State law to attend summer school Was the taxpayer in this case correct in de.

special table. (or take an examination on five selected ducting the summer school

expenses as

The Supreme Court reversed the decision books) as a prerequisite for renewal of

“ordinary and necessary expenses” incurred her teacher's certificate, the amount ex

below and held that “State-imposed rein carrying on her trade or business? pended by the teacher in attending a

strictions which produce such inequalities summer school is deductible as “ordinary

The Court answered this question affirm

cannot be sustained.” Speaking further, and necessary business expenses” for in- atively, saying:

the Court said: come tax purposes. (Hill v. Commis

Our conclusion is that the expenses incurred by sioner of Internal Revenue, decided May the taxpayer were incurred in carrying on a trade

It may be argued that appellant will be in no 19, 1950, U. S. Court of Appeals, 4th or business, were ordinary and necessary, and were

better position when these restrictions are reCircuit.) not personal in nature. She has ... complied

moved, for he may still be set apart by his fellow 2. A State may not, after admitting a stu- with both the letter and spirit of the law which

students. Thiis we think is irrelevant. There is a dent to its State University, afford him permits such expenses to be deducted for federal

vast difference-a Constitutional differencebedifferent treatment from other students income tax purposes. We do not hold . . . that tween restrictions imposed by the state which solely because of his race. (McLaurin all expenses incurred by teachers attending sum- prohibit the intellectual commingling of students, v. Oklahoma, decided June 5, 1950, mer school are deductible. (Hill v. Commissioner

and the refusal of individuals to commingle where U.S. Supreme Court.) of Internal Revenue, 181 F.2d 906, May 19, 1950.)

the state presents no such bar. ... 3. A Negro student has a constitutional

... the Fourteenth Amendment precludes difright to an education equivalent to that

ferences in treatment by the state based upon race. Racial Equality of Education offered by the State to students of other Sustained by the United States

Appellant, having been admitted to a state-supraces. The Court found that the legal Supreme Court

ported graduate school, must receive the same education which was offered at a sepa

treatment at the hands of the state as students of rate law school was not substantially

McLaurin v. Oklahoma, June 5, 1950.

other races. ·.. equal to that offered at the State Univer- The question presented in this case was Sweatt v. Painter, et al., June 5, 1950.sity. (Sweatt v. Painter, et al., decided whether a State may, after admitting a stu- This case presented the question: To what June 5, 1950, U. S. Supreme Court.) dent to graduate instruction in its State Uni

extent does the Fourteenth Amendment Because of the wide interest in the prin- versity, afford him different treatment from limit a State to distinguish between students ciples of law established by these decisions other students solely because of his race. of different races in professional and gradand also the conditions under which these The Court decided only this issue.

uate education at a State University? The principles are applicable, there is presented This case arose over an attempt on the petitioner had been rejected from the Unibelow a brief resume of the facts in each of part of the Oklahoma State University au- versity of Texas Law School solely because the three decisions above cited.

thorities to maintain separate treatment of he was a Negro. He therefore sued for

a Negro student after having admitted the mandamus to compel his admission. Later Teacher's Summer School Expenses student to the graduate courses at the Uni- a separate School of Law of the Texas State Deductible for Income Tax

versity. The Negro student was required to University for Negroes was established at Purposes

sit apart at a designated desk in an ante- Austin. The petitioner refused to register Hill v. Commissioner of Internal Rev- room adjoining the classroom; to sit at a at the new school, contending that the This case arose in Virginia and was

designated desk on the mezzanine floor of facilities of such school were not equal to decided by the United States Court of Ap- the library; and to sit at a designated table those offered by the State to white students peals, Fourth Circuit, May 19, 1950. The and eat at a different time from the other

at the University of Texas. Virginia law required teachers, as a constudents in the cafeteria. The lower court

The Supreme Court of the United States dition for the renewal of their certificates, held that these conditions did not violate the

took judicial notice of the facilities and to attend a summer school or to take an ex- provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment.

opportunities offered by the different law amination on five selected books. Nora During the interval between the decision schools. The Court observed: Hill, a teacher, attended summer school. of the lower court and the hearing in the

In terms of number of the faculty, variety of The expenses incurred by summer school Supreme Court the treatment afforded the

courses and opportunity for specialization, size of

enue.

History in Facsimile

the student body, scope of the library, availability of law review and similar activities, the University of Texas Law School is superior. What is more important, the University of Texas Law School possesses to a far greater degree those qualities which are incapable of objective measurement but which make for greatness in a law school. Such qualities, to name but a few, include reputation of the faculty, experience of the administration, position and influence of the alumni, standing in the community, traditions and prestige. It is difficult to believe that one who had a free choice between these law schools would consider the question close. In accordance with these cases (others cited by the Court), petitioner may claim his full constitutional right: legal education equivalent to that offered by the state to students of other races. Such education is not available to him in a separate law school as offered. ... We hold that the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment requires that petitioner be admitted to the University of Texas Law School. ...

REPRODUCTIONS of historic documents, the originals of which are preserved by the United States Government in the National Archives, are now available at low cost. These invaluable aids to teaching may be ordered from the Exhibits and Publications Officer, National Archives, Washington 25, D. C. Orders for 100 or more copies of the Bill of Rights (No. 1) or the Emancipation Proclamation (No. 16) should be sent directly to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C., with check or postal note remittances made payable to the Treasurer of the United States.

The latest list of historic document facsimiles announced by The National Archives is as follows:

New Assistant to the Commissioner

No. 1. Bill of Rights (32" x 34")------- 55 cents No. 2. Oath of Allegiance of George

Washington at Valley Forge (10'' x 8'')-

20 cents No. 3. Deposition of Deborah Gannett,

Woman Soldier of the Revolutionary
War (11" x 14").-

20 cents No. 4. Photograph of Sitting Bull (8'' x 10'').

20 cents No. 5. Photograph of Abraham Lincoln (8" x 10'')

20 cents No. 6. Revolutionary War Recruiting Broadside (11" x 14")-

20 cents No. 7. Photograph of Robert E. Lee (8'' x 10')---

20 cents No. 8. Letter From Dolly Madison Agreeing

To Attend Washington Monument Ceremonies, 1848 (8" x 10").

20 cents No. 9. Historical Sketch of the Washington

National Monument to 1849 (11" x 14")----

20 cents No. 10. Broadside Soliciting funds for

Completion of Washington Monument, 1860 (11" x 14")-----

20 cents No. 11. Certificate of Membership in the

Washington National Monument Society (10'' X 8'')--

20 cents No. 12. Appeal to Masons for Funds for

Washington Monument, 1853 (11" x 14'')-

20 cents No. 13. Photograph of John J. Pershing (8'' = 10'')-

20 cents No. 14. Photograph of Dwight D. Eisenhower (8" x 10").

20 cents No. 15. Petition of Authors and Publishers

for a Copyright Treaty, 1880 (10'' x 12'')----

20 cents No. 16. Emancipation Proclamation (1242" x 1912").

$1 New Evaluative Instruments

(Continued from page 5)
School Evaluation
Educational Program
Program of Studies---

D
Core Program.-

D-1
Agriculture

D-2 Art

D-3 Business Education...

D 4 English---

D-5 Foreign Languages.

D-6 Health and Safety-

D-7 Home Economics-

D-8 Industrial Arts--

D-9 Industrial Vocational Education - D-10 Mathematics

D-11 Music

D-12 Physical Education for Boys D-13 Physical Education for Girls -- D-14 Science---

D-15 Social Studies

D-16
Pupil Activity Program-

E
Library Services --

F
Guidance Services..

G
School Plant.--

H School Staff and Administration... I Individual Evaluation

Data for Individual Staff Members ------ J

[graphic]

Federal Security Administrator Oscar R. Ewing congratulates Ambrose Caliver, promoted from the position of Specialist for the Higher Education of Negroes and Adviser on Related Problems on the Office of Education staff to the position of Assistant to the Commissioner of Education. Dr. Caliver came to the Office of Education in 1930 as the first Federal Government specialist in Negro education. He was recently designated Adviser to the United States Delegation on the United Nations Special Committee on Information from Non-Self Governing Territories and served as one of the chairmen of the Secretariat of the Education Section for the National Conference on Aging, sponsored by the Federal Security Agency. Left to right, Earl James McGrath, Commissioner of Education, who appointed Dr. Caliver to his new position, Dr. Caliver, and Federal Security Administrator Oscar R. Ewing.

[blocks in formation]

☆ ☆ Education Organizes for tl

W

area.

HEN THE Korean crisis occurred the partments and agencies of the Government. vocational defense training, experience

last week in June, most schools and Commissioner McGrath's report thus went with rationing, draft registration and other colleges were closed for the summer vaca- to the top planning body for any possible forms of teacher and school personnel servtion period. Dispatches from the area of emergency

ice, secondary school curriculum modificaaggression reaching the United States within Commissioner McGrath's first memoran. tions, emergency allocation of equipment hours of the surprise attack, however, soon dum relating to national defense which he and supplies for education, problems in alerted the Nation's educational leaders to addressed to administrative officers of war-congested areas, manpower problems a situation which could call for all-out effort higher education institutions, to chief State and their effect upon education, teacher on the part of every educator and educa- school officers, and to other educational supply and demand, aviation training, and tional institution.

leaders, on July 26 explained that the surplus property distribution to schools and Earl James McGrath, U. S. Commissioner "National Security Resources Board has colleges Said Pearl Wanamaker, Presiof Education, formed an advisory commit- stated as a general policy that mobilization dent, National Council of Chief State School tee within the Office of Education to consider planning and operation will be the responsi- Officers, who presided at the conference, plans for education in view of the world bility of the existing departments and agen- “Whether this struggle lasts 6 months, 5 situation, and invited all division directors cies, and has indicated to the Federal years, or 25 years, America's schools and and staff specialists of the Office to suggest Security Agency and its Office of Education colleges will see it through.” She conways of gearing their programs to national that it looks to the latter to serve as the focal cluded that “we can best prepare youth for and international needs. Shortly after point for all planning in the educational peace, international tension, or war through President Truman had outlined to the Con.

the day-to-day work of good schools." gress and the public on July 19 the military The same memorandum urged institu- "Somehow, this time, a way must be and economic measures the United States tions of higher education “to proceed with found to make training for and continuance had taken and should take in connection their own planning on an individual basis in an essential civilian field as patriotic as with the Korean crisis, Commissioner Mc- and to suggest the kinds of services they can enlisting,” Francis J. Brown, American Grath submitted a report to the National render most effectively."

Council on Education, told the conference. Security Resources Board. This statement Other educational leaders and organiza- S. M. Brownell, President, Department of set forth ways in which the Office of Educa- tions were busy also during July, making Higher Education, National Education Astion could serve the Nation's defense. The plans and stimulating action in behalf of the sociation, asked that a way be found for stustatement refers to two general categories defense effort by American education. The dents entering service before completion of or types of service which the Office of Edu- American Council on Education sponsored high school to complete high school in a cation stands ready to perform in this an exploratory meeting early in the month. shorter length of time. emergency. One would be that in which

Also in July the National Council of A. L. Raffa, of the National Security Rethe Office of Education would be the operat- Chief State School Officers sponsored a sources Board, who attended the meeting as ing agency. In the second function the

conference of educational leaders “to ex- an observer, reaffirmed that his agency looks Office of Education would serve in an plore the place of education in the develop- to the Office of Education “as the focal planadvisory and consultative capacity, with the ing war situation and to plan how to make ning point for education.” operating administrative responsibility and the forces of education totally effective in the funds channeled through some other the national interest." Held at the head- Three Guiding Principles agency. quarters of the National Education Associa

The educators agreed on three guiding tion in Washington, D. C., July 28, this

principles: one, that the main business of During July meeting brought together local, State, and

schools and colleges during the internaThe National Security Resources Board national representatives of education at all

tional tension is to continue their full pro. levels. was established by the National Security Act

Spokesmen for the Office of

grams of education and instruction; two, of 1947 to advise the President concerning

Education were Rall I. Grigsby, Deputy that the needs of education for teaching perthe coordination of military, industrial, and Commissioner of Education, Henry F.

sonnel, materials for construction and supcivilian mobilization. The work of the Alves, Director, Division of School Admin

plies, and equipment for classroom use must Board is concerned with both current and istration, R. W. Gregory, Assistant Com.

have No. 2 priority after the needs of the long-range problems from the standpoint of missioner for Vocational Education, and

military are met; and three, that in order to the national security. In the performance John Dale Russell, Director of the Division

maintain orderly relations between the Fedof its functions, the National Security Re- of Higher Education. Nine topics were eral Government and the Nation's schools sources Board is authorized to utilize the considered at the morning session: The role and colleges there must be created a unifacilities and resources of the various de. of education in World War II such as fied council of educators who will be in a

« ÎnapoiContinuați »