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Nation's Defense ☆ ☆
position to speak authoritatively for all of releases and bulletins are the basic docu- McGrath said in this release that "the NSRP American education.
ments which govern policies of deferment will record and evaluate the competencies An interim committee was established, and training. They form part of the record of the Nation's specially trained and highly with Willard E. Givens, National Educa. of education's organization for service to skilled personnel in important scientific tion Association, as Committee Chairman, the Nation since the crisis in Korea.
fields. It will report on the character and Edgar Fuller, National Council of Chief The U. S. Department of Commerce re- distribution of the national supply of manState School Officers, as Secretary, and leased a "Tentative List of Essential Activ. power in the various scientific fields and James McCaskill, National Education As. ities.” Ninety major groups appear in this will consider steps which might be taken to sociation, as Coordinator. More than 75 official listing. Major Group 82, Educa- increase the numbers of highly skilled pernational organizations were invited to the tion Services, “Includes establishments fur- sonnel in shortage areas. This is a service second Conference for Mobilization of Edu- nishing
nishing formal academic or technical of obvious significance in the present intercation to Meet the National Emergency held courses, correspondence schools, commer- national situation," said the Commissioner September 9-10.
cial and trade schools, and libraries." of Education. On August 5 the American Council on
The Secretary of Defense on August 1 Education held a conference on The Service
issued a memorandum titled, “Delays in of Education to the National Emergency. MORE COMPLETE reports of educational Call to Active Duty for Members of the The conference authorized a letter to Presi.
mobilization conferences held during Sep
Civilian Components of the Armed Forces
tember and October will be carried in dent Truman pledging that the colleges subsequent issues of School Life.
Possessing Critical Occupational Skills stand ready to give every possible assistance
(M-20-50)." Point 6 in the directive from to the country in the present emergency.
the Secretary of Defense states that "delays At this conference Major W. E. Gernet, A “List of Critical Occupations" (pre- in call to active duty should be made on an Office of the Secretary of Defense, and Mr.
liminary draft) was released by the Depart. individual basis only. Under no circumRobert Clark, of National Security Re- ment of Labor on July 24. According to
stances should blanket delays be granted.” sources Board, announced that the Office
this Department of Labor guide, a teacher in Department of Defense Release No. 989-50 of Education had been selected as the Gov.
a critical occupation "instructs students in of August 3 interprets the “Deferment Poliernment agency through which planning colleges or universities, or apprentices or
cies for Reservists." This release also gives and contacts with educational institutions, other workers in essential industries or ac
detailed information as to where "requests organizations, and school systems of the tivities, for the purpose of developing skills
for delay in call should be addressed" for country would be maintained. and knowledges essential and unique to the
reservists in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, General Hershey of Selective Service told performance of critical occupations. The
Air Force, and National Guard. the conferees that deferment of a college subjects taught may include both the theory
Also on August 3 the Department of Comstudent doesn't mean he escapes military and procedure of job performance.” He merce made public a “Tentative List of duty, only that he postpones his entry until “usually specializes in instruction pertain. Essential Activities” requested by the De. he can get preparation which will make him
ing to one occupation, one aspect of an partment of Defense as a guide for calling more useful to the Nation. He indicated
occupation, or a field of study common to up for active duty members of the civilian that plans were being prepared to give a number of critical occupations. . . components of the Armed Forces. Three objective tests to all 18-year-old men. The "critical occupations" teacher "em- criteria used in assembling the categories in Those with high scores will be deferred as ploys, singly or in combination, such teach- the "essential activities” guide, Secretary long as they maintain grades that keep them ing methods as lecture, discussion, super
of Commerce Charles Sawyer pointed out, in the upper half of their classes.
vised study, supervised practice, or actual are: 1. Activities directly contributing to The American Council on Education held job performance.” He is “usually a quali- the production of war materials; 2. Activa committee meeting on August 31-Sep- fied worker in the occupational field," and ities necessary for the maintenance of the tember 1 on Relationships of Higher “may combine practice or research in the
“may combine practice or research in the production of war materials; and 3. ActivEducation to the Federal Government. occupational field with teaching duties."
ities essential for the maintenance of naPlans were made for the October conference
A defense-related release was issued by tional safety, health, and interest. This is to be attended by more than 1,000 college the Federal Security Agency, Office of Edu
the same listing as that issued in prelimiand university leaders.
cation, on July 27, announcing the estab. nary form on July 24 by the Department of A number of official pronouncements re. lishment of a National Scientific Register Labor. . lating to national defense have been issued Project in the Office of Education, with
National Headquarters, Selective Servby Federal Government departments and James C. O'Brien, National Security Re- ice System, issued its Operations Bulletin agencies during July and August. These sources Board, as Director. Commissioner No. 1 on August 8 on the subject of defer
said in part:
ment for college students. General Her- branches of vocational education---training this
under the dark clouds of a threat shey, in this bulletin, specified three con- for industry, for agriculture, homemaking,
But you should be reassured in ditions under which local draft boards and business occupations have been mod. your decision to go along increasing your could consider occupational deferment for ernized and expanded. These facilities are knowledge of the world, because lack of registrants. Copies of this bulletin were on call for any emergency in the days ahead. such knowledge is the basis of trouble in the sent to all college and university presidents The Commissioner said also that many world today and chief State school officers by Commis. vocational schools already are training air- Release announcing statement by the Nasioner of Education McGrath in his Com- craft workers and are giving other special- tional Commission on Teacher Education missioner's News Letter of August 9 as ized training in line with needs accented by and Professional Standards of the National Emergency Supplement No. 1. the world situation.
Education Association on "The Signal Role
The vocational education advisory group of Education in National Security.”—This Emergency Supplement No. 2 stressed the need for training of replace- statement was released August 21 at a meet
ments for those going into the armed serv- ing of the Commission held at the University Emergency Supplement No. 2, of the
ices or other essential positions, including of Wisconsin, Madison, and is available Commissioner's News Letter, issued August the training of foremen for industry, as from the University. The Commission 17, informed presidents of institutions of
well as supplemental training to extend the higher education that the Department of skills of persons already employed. Also “In a world torn by conflicting ideologies, Defense has been asked to appoint an official considered was the training of office workers the schools must be a stabilizing force for liaison committee to keep the Office of Edu- needed by business, industry, government, children and youth. In the years of strug. cation continuously informed about deand the armed services. The conferees
gle which inevitably lie ahead, the schools velopments in the National Military Estab
devoted considerable time to discussion of must serve the essential purposes of their lishment that affect civilian educational in- the distribution of the labor force and most communities. Most of all, they must destitutions. The Supplement enclosed an efficient use of manpower resources of the velop in the rising generations the skills, outline of “Types of Information Which Nation for training, education, civilian and the understandings, and the attitudes needed Institutions May Wish To Maintain Cur- military employment, so as to insure the
democratic America and to prorently on File” in their advance planning use of skills where they may be most needed. mote peace and cooperation among the for service to the Nation. The suggested Other significant releases relating to the nations. survey outline has eight major breakdowns: educational action for the Nation's defense "Effective mobilization of America's Housing facilities for students, facilities for include the following:
forces in the present conflict demands wise feeding students and faculty, facilities for Release No. 27 of the U.S. National Com- use of the full potential of our schools. student and faculty health service, build- mission for UNESCO, issued by UNESCO Come war, come peace, we dare not ignore ings and utilities, instructional facilities
Relations Staff, Department of State.-This the long leverage which the schools exert. available, organized programs of teaching release sets forth considerations for pos- In their support, promotion, and improveand research, faculty, and general commu- sible courses of action recommended by the ment lies much of the substantial hope for nity information.
Executive Committee of the L. S. National a decent future for mankind.” Two national committees, serving in an Commission for UNESCO “with respect to advisory capacity to the Office of Education the impact of the Korean situation on the on problems of vocational education, held peace of the world and in regard to other
Featured in Higher Education a 3-day conference August 17-19. The areas where acts of aggression may occur.” conferees discussed the role of vocational Two of the recommendations were: 1. De- HIGHER EDUCATION, the Office of Education schools and classes in helping meet the Na- vising and utilizing all available means for semimonthly periodical, has a lead article in tion's defense and possible emergency the dissemination of the facts concerning the September 1 issue on the Federal needs. Commissioner of Education Earl
the causes of the present situation in Korea Scholarship Bill. The article is by Bernard James McGrath called the conference which and other actions which may threaten the B. Watson, Specialist for Physics, Division was attended by State directors of voca- peace in other areas of the world; and of Higher Education, Office of Education. tional education and chief State school
2. Convening regional conferences for edu- This Bill was introduced in the Senate (S. officers holding membership on the voca- cation and information.
3996) on August 1, 1950, by Senator Elbert tional education advisory committees.
Release to students of the Division of D. Thomas, and in the House of RepresentCommissioner McGrath at this conference University Extension, Massachusetts De. atives (H. R. 9429) on August 14, 1950, by said that vocational schools, in cooperation partment of Education August issue).- Representative Graham A. Barden. with the U. S. Office of Education, directed This release says, “We suddenly find our- Other major articles in the September 1 the training of more than 1112 million selves in the midst of a crisis and many of issue of Higher EDUCATION are: “Supreme workers for war production industry and to us not yet adjusted to the situation must be Court Opinions on Segregated Education," meet civilian needs of the armed forces in wondering what direction to take. For in- “Preparation for College History TeachWorld War II. Training programs in- stance, how should we allow the crucial ing," and "Congressional Activities of Involved use of vocational education person- trouble in Korea to affect our educational terest to Higher Education." nel and facilities around the clock and in plans? The best answer we have found is HIGHER EDUCATION subscription price is many communities every day of the week. the one General Eisenhower recently gave $1 a year in the United States and $1.50 a Since 1945, through Federal, State, and to the students attending the Columbia Uni- year to foreign countries. The single issue local funds, training facilities in all versity summer session: You are meeting price is 10 cents.
Organization of Education in the United States
Prepared in Division of Elementary and Secondary Schools, Office of Education
there are large numbers of 3- to 5-year-olds regarded as parts of elementary-secondary who have no opportunity to attend nursery school systems—the chart supplies inforschools or kindergarten.
mation on the three types of organization Leaving out of consideration the college which account for seven-eighths of the years, the nursery school, and the kinder
pupils at present enrolled in elementary and garten-elements which are not universally secondary schools of the United States.
HE ORGANIZATION of schools in any
country is perplexing to those not acquainted with its educational system. The organization in the United States is especially confusing because of differences among the several States and regions. Moreover, not only foreigners, but our own citizens as well, often get lost in the terminology and concepts involved in features of our educational system, such as public, private, nursery, kindergarten, elementary, junior high school, senior high school, junior-senior high school, undivided high school, 4-year and 6-year high school, junior college, community college, liberal arts college, teachers college, university, and the many divisions within each of these.
The attached chart was developed for use in a report of the International Bureau of Education (Geneva) entitled School Or. ganization in 53 Countries. It is reproduced here for such value as it may have in the United States.
The chart attempts to explain what is really a very complex situation. In so doing it errs in oversimplification. Some effort is made in the note at the bottom of the chart to point out that the three pat. terns of organization included are only those found most frequently. If the chart had been developed with the 27 different patterns of organization of elementary-highschool systems existing it would have become so involved as to be useless. Simi. larly there is oversimplification in listing only academic, vocational, and technical high schools, or cultural, technical, and semiprofessional characteristics of junior colleges. This break in continuity between completion of high school and entrance upon college is not so great as may appear from the chart. Especially is this true where the junior college (or community college) is a part of the public school system.
Ages found at the left of the chart are, of course, approximate. No one would contend that no high-school student is over 17 years old or that all college students have passed their eighteenth birthday. Likewise
Bells Will Ring for United Nations Day
by Helen Dwight Reid, Chief, European Section, Division of International Educational Relations
ELLS, universally recognized as sym. the political side of its activities, stressing times to fall short of our expectations, per
bolizing freedom and peace, will play rather its unquestioned success in various haps the fault lies partly in the unthinking a major role in the world-wide observance economic, social, and humanitarian endeav- sentimentality of those who expected it to be of United Nations Day on October 24, the ors---perhaps as a kind of escape from the a panacea. The UN is a living institution, fifth anniversary of the coming into force frustrations of Soviet obstructionism in the
created to meet some of the deepest needs of the United Nations Charter. The Na. Security Council. Yet even in the realm
of the nations, and the United States has a tional Citizens' Committee for UN Day has of politics an impressive measure of effec
particularly important role to play in it. asked that bells be rung in every community tive action can be credited to the UN, if the
Although we spent less than 100 million throughout the land at 11 o'clock that morn- record of the past 5 years is reexamined:
dollars last year on all UN activities (less ing. Schools everywhere will observe UN Mediation in Palestine and Indonesia;
than a dime for every $15 we spent on the Day with special programs of their own, withdrawal of French and British forces and many will take a prominent part in
cold war), ours is the largest single contri. from Syria and Lebanon, and of Soviet local community activities.
bution, though by no means the heaviest in forces from northern Iran; intervention in
relative burden on the national economy. It was on June 26, 1945, that the United Greece to prevent the Balkan tinder-box Nations Charter was signed with impressive from exploding; the opportunity for casual
Under American constitutional law the ceremony by the delegates of 50 nations, private meetings of the delegates of the four Charter is part of the supreme law of the representing one and a half billion of the
powers which led ultimately to the lifting land, coequal with the United States Con. world's peoples, of all colors, tongues, and of the Berlin blockade—and the necessity stitution, and it deserves therefore our uncreeds. Five years later, at a few minutes of defending their actions in public debate derstanding and respect. That is why after midnight on June 25, 1950, a telephone at Lake Success which has undoubtedly schools throughout the country are incorcall from the Department of State at Wash. exercised a restraining influence on all gov. porating study about the UN into the curington to Secretary-General Trygve Lie ernments susceptible to the influence of riculum at all possible levels. Here are brought the first word that a flagrant viola- world public opinion.
some recent publications that would be partion of the Charter had just taken place in
ticularly helpful in teaching about the Korea. The dramatic story of how the reg. Not Enough
United Nations: ular skeleton staff on duty at Lake Success Moreover, the framers of the Charter
A Selected Bibliography for Teaching About the in the early dawn hours of that quiet Sun- were convinced that it would not be enough
United Nations, by Helen Dwight Reid; third day morning were suddenly called on to to set up machinery for collective security edition, revised August 1950; free on request from mobilize the full resources of the United to maintain enduring world peace. Too Division of International Educational Relations, Nations for prompt action on a major crisis, often the roots of conflict lie in poverty,
Office of Education, Washington 25, D. C. and of how the UN machine for world coop- ignorance, and oppression. The peoples of
Community Action for United Nations Day, by Vireration was able to swing immediately into the world have a common interest in living ginia Parker; a handbook prepared for the Nahigh gear, is too long to tell here, but it safer, happier, freer lives, and they ex- tional Citizens' Committee for UN Day, 816 21st marks a turning point in world history. pressed that interest by placing the Eco
St. NW., Washington 6, D. C., 1950; 25 cents,
from the Committee. Five years after the blueprints were drawn nomic and Social Council on a par with the at San Francisco, collective security has at Security Council as a major organ of the
How To Find Out About the United Nations, a long last become a reality. As the 1950 United Nations. Already almost every hu
pamphlet prepared by the UN Department of PubUnited Nations Day draws near, the blue
lic Information to help teachers and leaders of man being in the world has benefited diand white banner of UN flies over an inter
civic groups; useful lists of resource materials of rectly or indirectly from the work of the all kinds; 1950; 15 cents from the general agent national police force authorized and sup. United Nations and its specialized agencies,
for all UN publications, the International Docuported by 53 of the 59 member nations,
ments Service, Columbia University Press, 2960 united in a common effort to stop a military in many different ways: Better health, more
Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. (Listed hereafter aggression. The Security Council entrusted food, stabilized currency, improved educa
as C. U. P.) tion—the list could fill many pages. to the United States the command of all UN
International Understanding, an annotated selective forces in Korea, so that General MacArthur
In the light of the startling developments
catalog listing 438 16mm films dealing with UN, and the Americans fighting there are en. of recent weeks, this fifth anniversary of the
the Member States, and related subjects, with adgaged on an international mission, under UN takes on new significance, demanding dresses of film sources, information offices of for. the authority of the United Nations. of us a critical reappraisal of the organiza
eign governments, and international agencies; pub
lished by Carnegie Endowment and N. E. A., 1950; Prior to the Korean crisis it had been tion and of our own attitude toward it. If
25 cents from National Education Association, 1201 fashionable for UN supporters to minimize in these past 5 years the UN has seemed at
16th St. NW., Washington 6, D. C.
Citizenship Education by Air
Teaching About the United Nations and the Spe- UN Flag Kits: A packet containing full instructions On successive days the group observed cialized Agencies, a report by the Secretary-General for making a 3' x 5' UN Aag, with transfer patterns city and county government in action at of the United Nations and the Director-General of for appliqued wreath and a patch with the central UNESCO to the Economic and Social Council, July symbol printed in white on blue cloth, 50 cents
Pittsburgh, Pa., State government operation 1950; a valuable comprehensive analysis of the ex from National Committee on Boys and Girls Club
at Harrisburg, Pa., and national government tent and methods of teaching about UN in the Work, 59 East Van Buren St., Chicago 5, II. functions at Washington, D. C. An educavarious member nations, with appendices listing
tional tour of the United Nations headquarteaching aids, etc.; document No. E/1667; 70 The UN Story: Toward a More Perfect World, by
ters at Lake Success, N. Y., topped off the cents from C. U. P.
Dorothy Robbins; a brief history designed for high-
3-day tour. The graduates were privileged The UNESCO Story, a resource and action booklet Nations, 1950; 25 cents.
to attend a session of the UN Security Counfor organizations and local communities, profusely
cil while at Lake Success. Throughout the illustrated, with many practical suggestions; pre
U. N. Gram: A weekly wall newspaper in color, pared by the U. S. National Commission for 18" by 24", for classroom use; 39 weeks for $15;
trip government officials elected to office and UNESCO, May 1950; 55 cents from the Superin- an accompanying weekly 4-page Discussion Guide, representing the home districts of the gradtendent of Documents, Government Printing Office,
$3; order both from U. N. GRAM Publishing Co., uates were hosts and guides and completed Washington 25, D. C. P. O. Box 1128, Grand Central Station, New York
many arrangements to help make the trip 17, N. Y.
most profitable. United Nations in the Schools: Suggestions for class.
While in Washington the young people room and extracurricular activities at elementary and secondary levels; 1950; American Association
visited the Library of Congress, the National for the United Nations, 45 E. 65th St., New York
Capitol, the Department of Justice, Supreme 21, N. Y.; 10 cents.
Court, and other Federal Government build
ings and offices. Officials of the Civil AeroVisitors' Guide to the United Nations, a leaflet of useful information about the UN buildings, how
nautics Administration spoke to them on the to reach them, what to see, etc.; 1950; free, from
future of aviation. Willis C. Brown, Spe. UN Dept. of Public Information, Lake Success,
cialist for Aviation, Office of Education, N. Y.
Federal Security Agency, described the World Understanding Begins With Children, by Delia
place of the Office of Education in the FedGoetz; a guide to assist teachers in selecting and
eral Government and its services to Amerevaluating materials and sources, with suggested
ican education. The graduates also dined methods of incorporating international relations in
with their Senators and Representatives in the elementary curriculum; Office of Education
the Speaker's Dining Room, House of RepBulletin 1949, No. 17; 15 cents from the Superin
resentatives, and visited the Senate and tendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
House in regular session. Food and People, a series of six booklets for study and discussion, prepared for UNESCO and FAO by noted experts; 1950; complete set with Discus
Accent on Health sion Guide, $1.65, from Manhattan Publishing Co., 225 Lafayette St., New York 12, N. Y.
HEALTH PROBLEMS of the child of school Guide to the United Nations Charter, third ed., 1950:
age are not what they used to be, writes Describes briefly the conferences leading to drafting
Leona Baumgartner, M. D., Associate Chief of the UN, and explains the provisions of the
of the Children's Bureau, in the AugustCharter; prepared by UN; 50 cents from C. U. P.
September issue of The Child, the Bureau's How the United Nations Began, a simple classroom
periodical. The issue is devoted to the text prepared by the UN for pupils 12–16 years of A FLYING Citizenship Class, probably health of school-age children. age; 1949; 15 cents from C. U. P.
the first of its kind, was established for a What we are after—both educators and
group of 25 students graduating from Avon- doctors-Dr. Baumgartner continues, is to Reference Pamphlets: A series prepared by the UN
worth Union High School, Ben Avon, Pa., help in rearing a new generation of human Department of Public Information, describing briefly the functions, powers, structure, and activ
This educational project was beings who are buoyantly healthy in body ities of The General Assembly, No. 1; The Security designed to make the study of Government
and spirit; whose creativeness and sense of Council, No. 4; The Economic and Social Council, more effective by supplementing classroom
social responsibility are given the greatest No. 2; and The International Trusteeship System, work with first-hand observation of GovernNo. 3; all could be used as texts for senior high
possible opportunity for expression; who ment in action at all levels, from local to school; 15 cents each from C. U. P.
have an unshakable conviction of their own world organization.
worth and the worth of other people. This The Struggle for Lasting Peace, a pamphlet describ
A 3-day tour was arranged by Dr. A. G.
is the kind of positive health that we—as ing briefly the first 5 years of UN activity, prepared Clark, supervising principal of the Avon
educators and medical workers are after. by the Department of Public Information for UN worth Union High School, and Miss ElizaDay, 1950. beth Warnock, Specialist for Aviation,
Discovery of children in need of medical Pennsylvania State Department of Public attention is not a task for medically trained The United Nations: Its Record and Its Prospects, an up-to-date analysis, even including Korea; August Instruction, Harrisburg, Pa. Air travel was
people alone, writes Thomas E. Shaffer, 1950; 20 cents from Carnegie Endowment for Inused to demonstrate how aviation has
M. D., in this issue of The Child. Parents, ternational Peace, 405 West 117th St., New York speeded up opportunities for students to teachers, nurses, social workers, and many 27, N. Y. observe as well as study.
(Continued on page 15)