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penditure by business for this purpose has already reached into the millions of dollars.

Working together the Citizens Federal Committee on Education, the National Citizens Commission for the Public Schools, the Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, and the Advertising Council this year in the “Better Schools Campaign” are emphasizing he maintenance of improvements achieved in our Nation's schools since the end of World War II and the raising of substandard school conditions which exist in many parts of the country. Acquainting citizens generally with current facts about school conditions and apprising them of possible pyramiding problems during the 10 years immediately ahead because of sharply rising

trends in population growth are also high-priority objectives.

In line with the effort of the National Citizens Commission for the Public Schools to encourage citizen participation in the solution of school problems, the latest March of Time release will be on “The Fight For Better Schools.” This 2-reel documentary film portrays the story of citizen action programs in Arlington, Va., and in other communities which are paying off in improved school conditions. It will be available for nontheatrical showing after April 1, 1950, from the March of Time, New York 17, N. Y.

Watch your outdoor posters, listen to your radio, read your newspapers and magazines for results of the planning and work that the triumvirate of education, business, and advertising is producing in every community of our country. Your cooperation will number you among the true friends who recognize the fact that “Better Schools Make Better Communities” and are doing something about it.

Emerging Programs for Improving Educational Leadership

in American Education

by John Lund, Specialist in the Education of School Administrators

WTI

THE NATIONAL Conference of Professors of Educational Administration has moved into the third year of its program for the upgrading of Educational Leadership. The accomplishments of its third annual work conference are reported to you in this article by Dr. Lund, who continues to serve as Secretary to the Planning Committee of the NCPEA. It is hoped that the full report of the Clear Lake Conference will be available for distribution later this fall.

ITH the Kellogg Foundation as host,

115 conferees assembled on August 28 at Clear Lake Camp, Dowling, Mich., for the third annual work conference of professors of administration and their consultants. The group was made up of professors and deans from 53 schools and departments of education from coast to coast and representatives of the U. S. Office of Education, the National Council of Chief State School Officers, the American Association of School Administrators, the Division of County and Rural Area Superintendents of the NEA, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, the National School Boards Association, the National Citizens Commission for the Public Schools, elementary school principals, classroom teachers, and consultants from the fields of sociology and political science.

Among the draft reports filed by the working committees at the close of this conference, the following reflects the approach of the group in its thinking and planning for the future:

accidentally: That it has a structure and a technique and inward motivations, highly personal in nature, resting upon abiding convictions; that the welfare of the group is assured by the welfare of each individual; that decisions reached by the cooperative use of intelligence are, in total, more valid than decisions made by individuals; that every idea is entitled to a fair hearing; that all persons can make unique and important contributions; that real growth comes from within the group rather than from without; that democratic methods are efficient methods; and that a real and devout respect and affection for all men is the essential component of a great personal leadership in a democratic society.

Our Concern About Leadership

sources.

“We said at Endicott that education can change community life—that education by its impact on people and institutions can change these people and these institutions. This we believe!

“The school must share in responsibility for community improvement. It must operate so as to make a difference in standards of living, in health and safety, in cultural and spiritual advancement, and in dynamic citizenship. This does not mean that the school is to prepare a blueprint for community acceptance. It could not do this even if it would. It does mean rather that the leadership of the school must play a key role in the cooperative planning processes through which the community seeks to use all available resources in meeting its needs and in realizing its own aspirations.

“We recognize the increasing complexity of the administrator's task. New responsibilities must be assumed for the functional adaptation of instruction, the in-service im

provement of teachers, and the creation of dynamic school-public relations. At the same time the usual functions of school administration are complicated by mounting enrollments which intensify already acute shortages of school buildings and of qualified elementary teachers. The times call for educational statesmanship.

“The administrator and his staff must no longer bask in an aura of complacency, nor can they yield to a sense of futility in the face of these new challenges. The job can. not be done by professionals working in isolation. Educational planning must take on new significance in terms of purposes and of methods. A cooperative process is required for the utilization of all available re

The school must make common cause with other agencies and relate itself to the total service program of the community. The school administrator must become a social engineer.

“What does this emerging concept of educational leadership mean to the conventional patterns of administration? Can we longer justify the line-staff organization? How do we make the transition from centralized to decentralized leadership? How do we prepare for leadership of cooperative effort in organizing school districts more efficiently and in tailoring educational programs to fit com ommunity needs?

These are but a few of the questions that must be answered if significant improvement is to be made in the professional education of school administrators.

“At Madison we said that democratic educational leadership does not come about

New Techniques

“New techniques of leadership are being discovered and utilized. We are learning 'that an administrator must exercise leadership in group determination of wants and needs, in group evaluation, in devising plans of action, in the implementation of group planning, and must join with others in appraising the quality of his leadership. We are learning that informing people about the school program is not enough; that public relations involves participation in policy and prgram development, and evaluation. We are learning also that the same techniques must be used for stimulating individual and staff growth.

“We are learning that among the functions of leadership are responsibility for group analyses, real knowledge of the groups in the community, and understanding of why they are formed, and what they do, and an appreciation of the importance of the development of group

consciousness and morale. We are learning that capitalizing upon these sociological forces is the best way to bring about the needed improvement of living in the community through the school.

“The school administrator must therefore maintain a clear definition of the expanding task and must utilize these emerging concepts of educational leadership as, along with others, he shares responsibility for putting group plans into action.

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areas of preparation necessary, (3) organizing more effective programs and procedures, (4) improving the techniques of instruction, (5) improving educational services bearing upon the instructional program, (6) improving the administration of the program, (7) raising professional standards and requirements in relation to certification, (8) selecting candidates who show the highest promise of success as leaders, (9) coordinating placement and follow-up services with the preparation program, and (10) improving the preparation of teachers of school administration. Great emphasis was given to programs that reflect the cooperative process within and among institutions.

“The conference at Clear Lake has directed major attention to the problem of implementation. Basic principles have been reviewed and developed. Emerging practices have been described and proposals offered for experimentation and research."

Agencies Responsible

“Whose is the responsibility for bringing about the improvement so urgently needed? Obviously we are faced with a gigantic task of cooperation. No one group should act alone; the key is cooperative action. Progress will be made only as the machinery of cooperation is developed and the processes revised. Leadership in education can be developed and improved only as we purposively involve all persons concerned.

“Already we are seeing evidences of increasing concern and participation on the part of the layman: witness the formation of the National Citizens Commission for the Public Schools, the rapid expansion of State school board associations and their recently established national association, the development by the organized teaching profession of check lists for the evaluation of leadership and the studies made by the Council of State Governments. Institutions and school systems in many areas and regions are responding to the challenge as evidenced by the development of several regional school study councils.

“The organized groups of educational administrators, local, State, and national, must cooperate for the self-improvement of their members. Boards of education must participate by insisting upon hiring those educational leaders who are imbued with the democratic philosophy of educational administration. State departments of education must assume cooperative responsibility in the certification phases of this improvement program.

Administrative officers in institutions preparing, school administrators must ease the way for the organizational and program improvements which must be made before the teachers of educational ad. ministration can discharge the tremendous load thus thrust upon them. Indeed it is this last group, it is we ourselves, who must shoul. der the major responsibility if the kind of administrator we envisage is to be prepared to lead in tomorrow's world.

We therefore earnestly seek the cooperative participation of all agencies, lay and professional, local, State, and national, to assist us in this complex and challenging task.

Committees of the Clear Lake Conference worked intensively on the following problems during their week together and produced reports which will constitute an important part of the full report of the conference:

1. The Institutional Program for the Preparation of Administrators.—This committee reviewed the desirable characteristics of the job of educational administration and the desirable qualities and competencies of educational leaders. Specific program practices and proposals were presented and discussed as they are related to the quali. ties and competencies identified.

2. Institutional Organization for the Preparation of School Administrators.The statements in this report delineate some of the major operational relationships which will maintain the qualities of democracy in the institutions preparing school administrators for educational leadership.

3. Internship Programs for Educational Leadership.-A set of guiding principles was developed by this committee. Present practices and projected plans for internship were reviewed and analyzed. Problems and proposals for further study and experimen. tation were presented.

4. Disciplines Contributing to Educational Leadership. This committee broke its task down into three major divisions: (a) The competencies essential in educational administration the task of the educational leader, (b) the disciplines out of which these competencies stem--the content and methodology from selected disciplines which contribute to these competencies, and (c) the problem of execution-how can these contributions be incorporated into the education of the school administrators.

5. Institutional Evaluation and Re. search.General principles of evaluation are outlined and suggested criteria for evaluating the institutional program are presented in the report of this committee. The discussion of research is limited to that research which may be undertaken to secure evidence appropriate to some aspect of the program of appraisal.

6. Cooperative Research Projects.—A special conference committee arrived at two basic conclusions. First, that the next phase of conference work should be to test and apply the Conference's philosophy of education and of leadership by factual studies, research, and trial applications and that, after considering several types of co

(Continued on page 30)

INSTITUTIONS (70) represented at one or more work conferences: Alabama Polytechnic Institute ** Colorado State College of Education, Columbia University,** Cornell University, ** Indiana University, Michigan State College,** New York University,** Ohio State University, ** Okla. homa A & M College,** University of Buffalo,** University of California at Berkeley, ** University of Chicago,

** University of Kentucky,** University of Maryland, * University of Mississippi,** University of Pennsylvania,** University of Pittsburgh,** University of Tennessee, ** University of Texas,** University of Utah,** University of Wisconsin,** Ball State Teachers Col. lege,* Boston University,* Butler University, * Claremont Graduate School,* Drake University, * Duke University,* East Carolina Teachers College,* Harvard University,* Indiana State Teachers College, Iowa State Teachers College,* Northwestern University,* Ohio University,* Pennsylvania State College,* Stanford University,* State College of Washington,* Syracuse University,* University of Denver,* University of Florida,* University of Georgia, * University of Idaho,* University of Illinois,* University of North Carolina,* University of Omaha, University of Oregon,* University of Rochester,* Washington University (St. Louis),* Wayne University,* West Virginia University,* Bowling Green State University, Dartmouth College, George Peabody College for Teachers, George Washington University, Illinois State Normal University, Mississippi State College, Purdue University, Temple University, Texas Christian University, Southern Ilinois University, University of Alabama, University of Con. necticut, University of Iowa, University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, Univer: sity of Nebraska, University of North Dakota, University of Oklahoma, University of Washington, University of Wyoming, Yale University.

*

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** Represented at 3 conferences. * Represented at 2 conferences. Institutions in italics, not represented at Clear Lake.

Some Radio Programs for Good Listening

a. m. 7:00 ABC 7:00 CBS 12:00 ABC 12:00 NBC

Newswith Martin Agronsky
News-with Phil Cook
Baukhage Talking
News Roundup

p. m. 2:55 ABC Ted MaloneTravels 5:00 NBC News-with Kenneth Bang

hart. 5:00 CBS Eric Sevareid 5:15 CBS World Affairs with Bill

Costello 5:45 CBS Lowell Thomas 6:15 NBC News of the World 6:15 ABC News with Elmer Davis 6:45 NBC H. V. Kaltenborn 6:45 CBS Edward R. Murrow 7:00 CBS The Goldbergs 7:30 ABC This is Your FBI 8:00 NBC Screen Directors Playhouse 9:00 MBS Meet the Press 9:45 NBC Pro and Con with Leif Eid 11:00 NBC News Roundup 11:00 CBS News Roundup 11:00 MBS News Roundup

Saturday a. m. 7:00 NBC News-with Johnny Andrews 7:00 MBS News-with Prescott Robin.

son 7:00 ABC News-with Martin Agronsky 7:00 CBS News with Phil Cook 7:30 NBC Frank Luther-Baritone 8:15 NBC Stamp Club 9:00 NBC Fred Waring Show 10:30 CBS Junior Miss-with Barbara

Whiting 11:00 NBC News—with Charles F. Mc

Carthy 11:00 MBS Man on the Farm 11:00 CBS Theatre of Today 11:15 NBC Americans the World Over 11:30 CBS Grand Central Station 12:00 NBC National Farm and Home

Hour. p. m. 2:00 NBC Football Games 2:00 ABC Metropolitan Opera 2:00 CBS Football Games 3:30 MBS Proudly We Hail 4:30 MBS Scattergood Baines 4:30 CBS Make Way for Youth 4:45 NBC Confidential Closeups-with

George Fisher. 5:00 NBC News-with Kenneth Bang

hart. 5:00 MBS News—with Lyle Van 5:15 CBS CBS Views the News 5:30 NBC NBC Symphony Orchestra

Arturo Toscanini. 6:00 ABC Here's Hollywood with Owen

James. 6:00 CBS Johnny Dollar 7:00 NBC Hollywood Star Theater 8:30 CBS Escape-Sketch 9:00 MBS Chicago Theatre of the Air 11:00 NBC News Roundup 11:00 CBS News Roundup 11:00 MBS News Roundup

Programs for Children

Tuesday

a. m.
7:00 NBC
7:00 CBS

News of the Day
News with Phil Cook

THIS LIST of programs for adults and youth
along with suggested listening for boys and girls
both in and out of school has been selected for
SCHOOL Life readers under the direction of Frank-
lin Dunham, chief, Educational Uses of Radio, and
representative of Association of Education by
Radio on the Federal Radio Education Committee.

(All times listed CST (Central Standard Time). EST (East. ern Standard Time), 1 hour later; PCT (Pacific Coast Time), 2 hours earlier; MST (Mountain Standard Time), 1 hour earlier. These programs may be heard generally over both FM and AM stations of the network.)

p. m.
2:55 ABC Ted Malone Travels
5:00 NBC News with Kenneth Banghart
5:00 CBS News-Eric Sevareid
5:45 CBS Lowell Thomas
6:15 NBC News of the World
6:15 ABC News with Elmer Davis
6:45 CBS Edward R. Murrow
7:00 NBC Cavalcade of America
7:00 ABC Carnegie Hall
7:30 ABC America's Town Meeting of

the Air
9:00 NBC Big Town
11:00 NBC News Roundup
11:00 CBS News Roundup
11:00 MBS News Roundup

Programs Suggested for
Youth and Adults

Wednesday

Sunday
C. S. T.
a. m.
7:30 NBC NBC String Quartette
7:45 CBS Memo from Lake Success
8:00 NBC World News
8:45 CBS Trinity Choir
9:30 ABC Southernaires Quartette
10:05 CBS The Newsmakers
10:15 ABC Fine Arts Quartette
10:30 CBS Mormon Tabernacle Choir
11:00 CBS Invitation to Learning
11:30 CBS Peoples Platform

a. m.
7:00 NBC
7:00 CBS
7:55 ABC
12:00 ABC

News of the World
News with Phil Cook
Gems of Thought
Baukhage Talking

p. m.

p. m.
12:15 CBS Elmo Roper
12:30 NBC University of Chicago Round-

table.
1:00 NBC NBC University Theatre
1:00

ABC The World This Week 1:30 ABC Mr. President-with Edward

Arnold. 2:00 NBC One Man's Family 2:00 CBS New York Philharmonic Or

chestra. 3:00 NBC NBC Documentary feature 3:30 NBC American Forum of the Air 4:00 NBC Radio City Playhouse 4:30 ABC The Greatest Story Ever Told 5:00 CBS Family Hour of Stars 5:30 CBS Our Miss Brooks-Adventures

of a Teacher. 7:00 NBC Four Star Playhouse 7:30 NBC Theatre Guild of the Air 9:15 ABC Ted Malone-Poetry and

Stories.
10:15 CBS United Nations in Action
10:15 NBC Clifton Utley
11:00 NBC News Roundup
11:00 CBS News Roundup
11:00 ABC News Roundup

2:55 ABC Ted Malone-Travels
5:00 NBC News-Kenneth Banghart
5:00 CBS News-Eric Sevareid
5:45 CBS Lowell Thomas
6:15 NBC News of the World
6:15 ABC News with Elmer Davis
6:45 CBS Edward R. Murrow
7:00 NBC This is Your Life-with Ralph

Edwards.
7:00 ABC Amazing Mr. Malone
7:00 CBS Mr. Chameleon
7:30 ABC Adventures of Sherlock

Holmes,
7:30 CBS Dr. Christian with Jean Her-

sholt.
8:30 NBC Mr. District Attorney
9:00 NBC The Big Story
9:30 NBC Curtain Time
9:30 ABC On Trial
9:30 CBS Capitol Cloakroom
11:00 NBC News Roundup
11:00 CBS News Roundup
11:00 MBS News Roundup

Thursday
a. m.
7:00 NBC News of the World
7:00 ABC News-Martin Agronsky
7:00 CBS News with Phil Cook
11:00 NBC News Roundup
12:00 ABC Baukhage Talking

Monday
a. m.
11:00 NBC News Reports
12:00 ABC Baukhage Talking
12:00 NBC Dress Rehearsal Boston Sym-

phony Orchestra
p. m.
5:00 NBC News with Kenneth Banghart
5:00 CBS News-Eric Sevareid
5:45 CBS Lowell Thomas
6:15 NBC News of the World
6:15 ABC News with Elmer Davis
6:45 NBC H. V. Kaltenborn
6:45 CBS Edward R. Murrow
7:00 NBC The Railroad Hour
7:30 NBC The Firestone Hour
7:45 ABC Henry J. Taylor
8:00 CBS Lux Radio Theatre
11:00 NBC News Roundup
11:00 CBS News Roundup
11:00 MBS News Roundup

p. m.
5:00 NBC News-Kenneth Banghart
5:00 CBS News-Eric Sevareid
5:45 CBS Lowell Thomas
6:15 NBC News of the World
6:15 ABC News with Elmer Davis
6:45 CBS Edward R. Murrow
7:00 CBS FBI in Peace and War
7:30 NBC Father Knows Best-with

Robert Young.
9:00 CBS Hallmark Playhouse
9:10 ABC Robert Montgomery Speaking
9:30 NBC Dragnet-Sketch
9:30 CBS The First Nighter
11:00 NBC News Roundup
11:00 CBS News Roundup
11:00 MBS News Roundup

Sunday

a. m.

Friday

7:30 MBS Here's Heidy 9:30 NBC Just for Children p. m. 1:30 ABC Mr. President-with Edward

Arnold.

a. m.

7:00 NBC

News-with Bob Smith

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EPRESENTATIVES of 33 national, lay, sult of the high birth rate during the war personnel and all citizens, whether or not

and professional organizations, upon peak (1942–1943), but that a far greater they have children or pay taxes, working toinvitation of the Office of Education, at- tidal wave of children born in 1946, 1947, gether through the instrumentality of the tended the Third Annual Conference on 1948 will completely overwhelm them from Board of Education. This may be accomElementary Education held in Washington, 1952 on unless immediate steps are taken plished by D. C., during the past summer. These repto do the following things:

(a) The creation of some kind of comresentatives analyzed and discussed present (a) Increase the number and usability

munity council representing every orcritical conditions in the public elementary of classrooms. This means new build

ganization and agency in the commuschools of the United States. They recom

ings and additions to present build

nity having any concern with the edumended unanimously that their constituent

cation of children, and

ings, located, designed, and equipped associations and all other organizations in

(b) Provision for investigation and re

to promote most effectively the work any way concerned with the educational

search which will produce all the facts,

of elementary education in all its broad growth and development of America's chil.

phases. It also means land sufficient

pro and con, needed for the full condren concentrate during the coming year on for and suited to recreational and ed

sideration of any given problem. promoting the widest possible understand

ucational purposes. ing on the part of the public generally and (b) Increase the supply of qualified ele. “Plentiful Foods" Education of the teaching profession itself concerning

mentary school personnel by: (1) Rethe following areas of need:

cruitment of the best potential young

TEACHERS, especially those in the home1. That the teaching of children today

economics field, and school-lunch workers

men and women to be elementary involves not only the training of their minds

are being encouraged to make use of teach

teachers; (2) reexamination, with in the 3 R's and other skill subjects, but

ing aids available from the Department of

a view to making necessary changes, also concern for their balanced growth and

Agriculture on “The Plentiful Foods

of the pre-service training and certifidevelopment as human beings and as citi

Program." cation of elementary teachers; (3) in

This program urges increased consumpThis involves :

creased in-service training through

tion of plentiful foods. Consumers thus (a) Recognition that each child is unique leaders who understand and are sym

get more for their food dollar by taking and different and needs individual un- pathetic toward the program outlined derstanding and guidance.

under No. 1, above; (4) improvement lective buying of plentifuls. Producers re

advantage of economies resulting from se(b) Recognition that each child must in the status of teachers in the com

main in better position to maintain efficient learn to work with others in groups, munity, including a single salary production when their produce finds a ready which is the essence of civic education. schedule for elementary and secondary

market at a fair price and the food trade is (c) Recognition that the program of teachers; (5) sufficient provision for

aided through merchandising opportunities individual and group instructions special services to children.

created by accelerating consumer purchases should aim to: (1) Keep children sen- (c) Increase greatly the tools of instruc

of plentiful foods. sitive to the world about them; (2) tion (study materials, reading mate

Specially prepared monthly lists of plendevelop skills, habits, and attitudes that rials, reference materials, audio-visual will function effectively now and later; aids, experimental apparatus, play

tiful foods may be requested for educational

use from area office of the Food Distri(3) develop understanding rather than equipment, and other tools) in order

bution Programs Branch, Department of mere memorization of facts; (4) culti- that teachers may do the best possible

Agriculture, at Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, vate a desire for learning; (5) develop job with the least waste of effort.

New York, and San Francisco, or from the physical health and emotional balance.

3. That the most effective solution of edu- Production and Marketing Administration, 2. That elementary schools, with rare ex. cational problems in any community is ar- Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, ceptions, are already overcrowded as a re- rived at by the joint efforts of all the school D. C.

zens.

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