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evaluation and appraisal from the neutral degree of freedom and variation resulting

degree of freedom and variation resulting accumulation by the pupil of Carnegie and often negative and destructive process will impose great responsibilities for co- units, academic marks, and scholastic of grading, selecting, labeling, and elimi- operative planning upon local school ad- standing is so close that any changes in nating pupils to a positive process of dis- ministrators, their staffs, and lay citizens. one will also require changes in the other. covering and developing whatever latent 3. The awarding of high-school diplomas 4. The fixed curriculum with its contalents, capacities, interests, and other assets or school-leaving certificates with their stants and variables, its required and electthey may possess.

infinite variety of meaning and value needs ive courses, its single and multiple form, its 2. The traditional accreditment of high to be seriously revised. This practice has fusion and core aspects, all constitute probschools on the old quantitative and college. its roots solidly in the college-preparatory lems to which the school administrator and preparatory bases, already extensively un- tradition. The criticisms and doubts of his staff must address themselves. der fire, must be entirely abandoned. The educational leaders and commercial and in

Questions for Administrators newer evaluative criteria produced by the dustrial employers concerning the worth Cooperative Study stressing personal, local, and meaning of the high-school diploma

What of credit and noncredit courses? functional, and democratic objectives must must be taken seriously. The tie-up be

What of school-work programs? become operative everywhere. The greater tween the high-school diploma and the

(Continued on page 22)

Steps in Development of Life Adjustment Education

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THE FOLLOWING basic sources set-
ting forth the essential features and
processes of Life Adjustment Educa-
tion are reviewed by Walter H. Gaum-

1. The National Association of Sec-
ondary-School Principals came out in
1936 with a fundamental blueprint of
modern secondary education in its
“Issues of Secondary Education”; in
1939 it published “That All May
Learn,” in 1944 “Planning for Amer-
ican Youth,” in 1947 “The Imperative
Needs of Youth of Secondary School
Age," and in 1948 “Secondary Educa-
tion Programs for Improved Living."

2. The American Council on Education through its American Youth Commission published several documents showing the problems of youth and the high-school's failure to deal with these problems. In 1940 the Council published “What the High Schools Ought To Teach”; in 1942 it followed with “Youth and the Future" and other publications exemplifying many concepts of Life Adjustment Education.

3. The Educational Policies Com. mission also made several salient contributions to the idea of Life Adjustment Education when in 1938 it brought out “The Purposes of Education in American Democracy,” in 1940 “Education and Economic Well-Being" and “Learning the Ways of Democracy,” and in 1944 it published the epoch-making volume “Education for All American Youth.”

Life” published in 1940, “The Story
of the Eight-Year Study” of 1942, the
Harvard Report on “General Educa-
tion in a Free Society” published in
1945, and “Vocational Education in
the Years Ahead” published by the Of.
fice of Education in 1947.

“But these important reports, which
have been generally known in educa.
tional circles," Mr. Gaumnitz points
out, “did not bring about a Nation-
wide plan of action. Neither did they
envisage an organization which would
spark plug a specific program designed
to bring about the desired improve-
ments in secondary education. Of
course, much progress resulted from
these efforts, but it was at best spo-
radic. So far as the major “road

concerned, these too often remained unaffected.

This was largely the situation when in 1945 leaders in Vocational Education met in Washington to consider “Vocational Education in the Years Ahead.” It was this conference that produced and adopted the “Prosser Resolution” and sent it to the Commissioner of Education with the request that specific action be instituted. The following roughly approximates the pronouncements and steps stipulated by this resolution:

1. We believe that with the aid of the report just adopted our secondary schools will be better able to prepare some 20 percent of the youth of secondary school age for the skilled occupations and that they will improve their offerings for another 20 percent preparing for entrance and success in college;

4. To any casual list of sources setting forth recent blueprints for improvements in secondary education there would have to be added “The Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards” made in the middle thirties, later revised and now again under revision, Spaulding's “High School and

2. We believe that about 60 percent of the youth do not now receive the

djustment training they need and to which as American citizens they are entitled;

“The various regional and national conferences of educational leaders which soon grew out of this resolution, as well as the Life Adjustment Commission appointed late in 1947," according to Mr. Gaumnitz, "adhered strictly to the proposition (1) that the problem be attacked jointly by the school administrators and leaders in vocational education, and (2) that their efforts be centered chiefly upon the youth now poorly served or not served at all by most of the high schools. The five regional conferences called covered the Nation during the calendar year 1946. They were followed by a national conference held in May of 1947. This Chicago conference worked out a far-reaching program of action; it recommended a Commission to determine policy and give leadership. The Office of Education was made the clearinghouse for the activities proposed and given the task of developing a program of implementation. In keeping of these assignments, a notable list of materials has been published; help has been given to a large number of workshops and conferences; consultative services have been provided in working out new programs and in launching and coordi. nating experiments. Appraisal techniques are being developed and the work of the Commission is being facili. tated."


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SCHOOL LIFE is pleased to present this arti. Shortly after World War II there was a cle on atomic-energy study at Keene High

recognition at Keene of the need for atomic School, Keene, N. H. The article is based upon information furnished originally to the

energy education, but how much and what Atomic Energy Commission by Mr. Arthur shape it should take had to be decided. As Houston, Head of the Science Department at

information was collected, two decisions Keene High School, to whom credit must be were made that some sort of atomic engiven for this effective atomic-energy educa

ergy study must be included in the regular tional program.

Both L. 0. Thompson, Superintendent of Schools at Keene, and

physics course, and that, if necessary, some Edward A. Sillari, Headmaster, lent fullest

of the old course would have to be transcooperation in helping make the Keene pro

ferred to other science courses or omitted gram a success. Much credit also goes to entirely to make room for the new, vital, Miss Constance Brennan, Head of the Art

and stimulating material. Department at Keene High School, Miss

But information on atomic research was Mildred Turner, the student who coordinated the study, and other Keene educators, lay

not easy to find. The Smythe report was men, and students.

welcomed. Science publications and other
magazines were scanned for atomic energy

articles or references.
MERSON is credited with having writ-

Each pupil was ten the words, “If a man can ..

given a copy of “The World Within the make a better mouse trap than his neighbor

Atom” prepared by The Westinghouse ... the world will make a beaten path to

Company. Nuclear physics charts were ob

tained from the same source for their use. his door.” This quotation comes to mind as more

A guide sheet pointing out what should be than usual public attention is given a pro

learned from “Adventure Inside the Atom,"

a comic presentation of the General Elecgram of atomic energy education at Keene High School, Keene, N. H., in which,

tric Company, helped the pupils learn fun

damental facts. A book, by Wesley Stout, strangely enough, two dozen mouse-traps

titled "Secret” and published by the Chryswere brought into play to help demonstrate chain reaction.

ler Corporation also proved useful.

What to teach? How to teach it? The The Keene High School experience in this new area of education was a pioneering

answers, based upon the type and content

of information available, boiled down to one which should show the way to many

this teaching outline: other high schools desiring to bring atomic energy education into their classrooms and 1. History of atomic research. into their communities.

2. Structure of the atom.


3. Natural radioactivity.
4. Nuclear fission. Chain reaction.
5. High energy imparting devices—Van

de Graaff Generator, cyclotron, etc.
6. The atomic pile.
7. Isotopes.
8. The story of the atomic bomb.
9. Artificial transmutation.
10. Radioactivity detection.
11. Applications in war, medicine, power,

heating, and agriculture. 12. The necessity for universal understand

ing of atomic energy. How to teach the program with understanding? Using the printed page was not in itself sufficient. High-school pupils needed to translate abstractions in the literature into concrete and meaningful ideas.

An atomic energy exhibit from the Brookhaven National Laboratory on display at Boston was viewed with interest by the pupils. They studied the Westinghouse charts, attended a lecture at Massachusetts Institute of Technology given by Dr. Lyle B. Borst, chairman, Nuclear Reactor Project, Brookhaven National Laboratory.

The high school art department under Miss Constance Brennan made the study of atomic energy a cooperative project. More charts were needed. They had to be neat, simple, and in quantity. The art department furnished them, ranging all the way from a model of the hydrogen atom to a

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the Keene pupils in the position of atomic energy teachers to the public.

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chart showing nuclear fission with the nity, the Keene High School's annual scifamous equation E-MC?.

ence fair served to show the pupil-made Models and mock-ups were produced by charts and exhibits to the public. Lights boys in the physics classes. They de- flashed, sparks flew, radioactive material veloped a Van de Graaff generator, nuclear registered on the Geiger counters, pupils exfission cabinet, atomic models, atomic plained, and charts made the story complete. power plant, Tesla coil, radioactivity de- A large display window of the Public tector, and chain reaction demonstrator. Service Company in Central Square put

The nuclear fission cabinets strikingly demonstrated the splitting of the nucleus. Models of atoms were made with varicol

Atomic Energy Education Aids ored wooden spheres glued together in a

Available From the Office of cluster to represent the nucleus, with other

Education and the Superinten

dent of Documents spheres on the ends of wires extending out from the nucleus to represent electrons in Atomic Energy Here To Stay (Special Suptheir orbits.

plement to School LIFE, March 1949

issue), 10 cents. Atomic piles had moderators, control

Reprint of articles on Atomic Energy rods, and insulation against radioactivity.

(which appeared in School LIFE, March These piles were dummy models, but they 1949, Vol. 31, No. 6),5 cents. were made quite real by buckling a lumi- Special Atomic Energy issue of HIGHER nous wrist watch around one of the control

EDUCATION (Feb. 1, 1949, Vol. V, No. 11),

5 cents. rods. When a Geiger counter was thrust

(Order above from the Superintendent of into the pile, radioactivity was registered.

Documents, U. S. Government Printing One boy constructed an amplifier for Office, Washington 25, D. C.) use with the school-owned Geiger tube.

* This amplifier had both visual and audio indicators, and registered radioactivity as

Series of Atomic Energy Bibliographies

compiled by Israel Light for the Interwell as one could wish.

Divisional Committee on the Educational Coarse mesh screening and inch-square Implications of Atomic Energy (available wooden strips, a quantity of rubber stop- free upon request from the Office of Edupers, and the two dozen mouse traps, previ

cation, Federal Security Agency, Wash

ington 25, D. C.): ously referred to, were used to demonstrate

1.-Bibliography of Bibliographies chain reaction.

Atomic Energy. Thus we see how pupil-made charts and 2.-Introductory Bibliography on Atomic devices made atomic energy principles

Energy. meaningful. All the pupils learned about

3.—Teaching Aids in Atomic Energy:

Bibliography for Teachers. atomic energy with understanding.

4.-Inexpensive Books and Pamphlets on To bring the benefits of this classroom Atomic Energy. experience and experiment to the commu


(Continued from page 20) What of definite scheduling of pupils and teachers which at the same time leaves room for essential flexibility?

When should general education cease and specialization begin?

Can extracurricular activities be curricularized ?

How can study procedures and programs be individualized ?

Should the school year be extended on a year-round basis to facilitate closer identity with community life?

5. Then there is a whole family of “road blocks" to Life Adjustment Education inherent in the policies and procedures of training, selecting, and programming the work of the teaching staff.

If more emphasis is to be given to guiding the growth, development, and behavior of youth, and less to the mastery of subjectmatter as such, then more of the teachers' education needs to be concerned with the nature, diversity, and learning problems of youth and less to majors and minors in the usual subject matter fields. If all types of youth are to be served by the high school, teachers must learn to understand, respect, and work with all types of youth.

If the general education period of youth is to be extended, and more closely related to life, then the teachers need more education in the nature and problems of the worka-day world than most teacher-education programs contain today.


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Federal Communications Commission Hears
Plea for Educational Television Channels



as "paying businesses.” Hence, the time available to schools is likely to be at unsuitable hours, because it depends upon commercial commitments to sponsors and on meeting the broad tastes of the general

listening audience. by Ralph M. Dunbar, Acting Director Auxiliary Services Division

In view of these facts, the Office of Educa

tion has asked the Federal Communications DUCATION has an important stake in with school and college television specialists

Commission to set aside, exclusively for the hearings on television which began who are familiar with the problem.

use by school systems, colleges, and univeron Sept. 26, 1949, before the Federal Com- The Office of Education based its argumunications Commission in Washington.

sities, an adequate number of channels in ments in the main on these facts: (1) Tele

the new ultra-high frequency television The decisions, when rendered, will deter- vision is an essential instructional medium

broadcast band; and to make all future mine in large measure, the extent to which in the classroom; (2) television can render

station assignments in the existing twelvethe educational program of the Nation can invaluable educational service to the com

channel very-high frequency band with a be served by this new medium of communi- munity; (3) educational television broad

view to having at least one locally usable cation. Among other things the Commis- casting can be rendered best by stations

television broadcast frequency available for sion will decide what channels, if any, are to owned and operated by school systems, col

assignment to educational-station applicants be set aside exclusively for educational tele- leges, and universities; and (4) enough tele

in every metropolitan and in every college vision broadcasting. Since the number of vision broadcast frequencies must be re

center. such channels is limited and many have served for educational institutions so that been applied for or are already in use, the their needs can be met. competition for the remaining frequencies

In support of the essentiality of television is very great. Once the channels are as. to classroom instruction, examples have

PRINTED PAGE signed, no more will be available. been assembled from program directors and

(Continued from page 18) In view of the importance of these de. others to show the effectiveness of this new

show interest in things they do not know cisions to education, the Office of Education medium of communication. It is signifi

exist. Here the teacher gives assistance in requested permission to have witnesses pre- cant that television, combining the advan

suggesting possibilities ... Our whole sent arguments at the hearings showing the

tages of both the radio and the motion picneed for reserving a certain number of

program could stand a stiff fumigation to ture, can bring immediately to the teacher

kill off the extraneous material that has little television channels for the exclusive use of the visual image of an event as it happens,

or no bearing on the lives of children and school systems, colleges, and universities

together with the associated sounds. A new for educational broadcasting. In this ac

make room for the meaningful to flourish." experience of reality becomes possible, tion, the Office of Education has cooperated when a musical concert, a laboratory ex

-Glenn O. Blough and Paul E. Blackwood, closely with educational associations and periment, or a current news event can be

Specialists in Elementary Science, in Bulle

tin 1949 No. 5, Science Teaching in Rural and "loaded on" the radio frequency carrier

Small Town Schools, price 20 cents. waves and distributed with the speed of

* make friends

light from a distant point to a classroom. with BOOKS

The argument for the potentiality of edu- “IT IS APPARENT that the extremely cational service to the community outside small high school is growing into a larger the classroom parallels that used in the fre

high school or is being abandoned ..." quency modulation hearings in 1944. The Office of Education maintains that television

-Carl A. Jessen, Chief, School Organization broadcasting can explain vividly the work

and Supervision, Division of Secondary Edu

cation, in Statistics of Public High Schools, and purposes of schools and colleges to the

1945–46, Chapter V of Biennial Survey of public; can demonstrate to home listeners Education in the United States, 1944–46, samples of student achievement; can pro- 25 cents. vide instruction to shut-ins and physically

* * handicapped individuals of public school age; and can offer adult education and con- "PARENTS will be better able to under

tinuation courses of accredited grade. stand the program of the school if they keep NOVEMBER 13 - 19 1949

On the matter of the use of time on com- in close touch with the teacher. The teacher mercially owned television stations, the also needs the help of parents to give the Office of Education has taken the position best guidance to the child. Success of a

that educational needs are best served when child in school is dependent in large measBook Week will be observed from November

the school systems, colleges, and universi- ure on close cooperation between home and 13 to 19. Headquarters for the availability ties own and operate their own stations. school.” of materials in connection with the special The commercial stations have shown a will

-Hazel F. Gabbard, Specialist for Extended week is The Children's Book Council, 62 ingness to cooperate with educational au

School Services, in Pamphlet No. 108, PreWest 45th Street, New York 19, N. Y. thorities, but they naturally have to operate paring Your Child for School, price 15 cents.



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School Life presents on these pages reproductions of advertise penditure ments to appear in daily and large weekly newspapers across the millions country this year. These advertisements, planned with educators Worki and produced by the advertising industry, also are being sent to the Natio newspapers and superintendents of schools in communities of of Educa 2,500 population and over. Cost of their publication will be borne til this largely by business firms, their public service investment in better the main schools. You may wish to offer cooperation to local newspapers in getting business sponsorship of these important announcements school You may also wish to express appreciation individually and in acquaint behalf of your school or school system to the business firms which litions pay the cost of publishing the advertisements. The national es during the

since the

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