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studies of the differ. be considered a minimum even in the most cation. The public is ready for and is ent classes, social and economic, attending sparsely populated areas, yet only about demanding better educational leadership. secondary and higher schools, and the rela3.6 percent of all districts in the Nation The facts show that it is needed. What tive success of the different groups ? have as yet been expanded to that minimum greater challenge could educators through Answer: It is felt in the United States that size.

out the country want than the opportunity secondary education should be open to all In the field of school finance we have to become outstanding leaders in solving children capable of taking advantage of it. talked for a long time about assuring adeproblems such as these; to become the

Ninety percent of the high-school age chilquate educational opportunities for all chil. urgently needed educational statesmen of dren do attend secondary schools. Higher dren, yet such vast differences in wealth

this troubled but promising postwar era! education, college and university, on the have been brought about by our modern in.

other hand, is still the privilege of the more dustrial civilization that, on a relative basis, HELP WANTED-TEACHERS fortunate classes of society. An attempt educational opportunities for large portions

(Continued from page 7)

is being made to remedy the situation by of our children are less adequate today than you probably would lose both your stu- adopting the policy of a wider distribution they were a generation ago. dents' interest and the happiness which

of scholarships. There is a distinct tend. In State after State, largely because of comes from acceptance, by the community,

ency to make universities more democratic. the pressure of the more wealthy school sysas a regular person.

Other questions asked and answered dealt tems, we have set up a large portion of our

Let us remind young people that our with such problems as establishing a balance

schools need thousands of teachers, that if between technical education and other asState support on a flat-grant basis and pretend that we have solved the problem.

their younger brothers and sisters are to pects of education, school building needs in Then, because of other pressures, we often

have an even more happy and profitable the United States as compared with those in

school experience than theirs, we must have other countries where buildings were deset up a series of special aids—for teachers'

more good teachers. Competition is not stroyed during World War II, activities of salaries, for tuition, for exceptional chil.

keen in the good and superior brackets. the "welfare officer,” and whether the recdren, for this, that, and the other and as

Here is a career of service with appeal for ommendations of the President's Commis. sume that all communities will have a com

all outstanding youth. America's future is sion on Higher Education granting greater prehensive balanced program. To make in the hands of her teachers. We should opportunities for higher education in the such assumption is sheer nonsense. There

encourage every high school boy and girl United States will be carried out. are techniques available for solving the to ask, “Is there a future for me in educaproblems in this field. But they cannot be tion?" I think those of us already in solved by “guessing” what the legislature education should be sufficiently convincing can be expected to provide, by assuming to make them realize the answer is de.

Edwin H. Miner Named that a uniform local tax rate based on cidedly-YES!

Director of Armed Forces widely varying assessment practices will be

Education Program equitable, and that a plan of apportionment

GENEVA CONFERENCE that will bring the fewest questions from

(Continued from page 11)

EDWIN H. MINER, Associate Commis. the more wealthy areas will meet the needs. with administrative questions or with peda. sioner of Education, U. S. Office of EduI do not wish to seem pessimistic. I gogical questions?

cation, since July 1947, has been named

Educational Director of the Armed realize that in many parts of the country Answer: The superintendent is primarily an

Forces Education Program, Armed remarkable progress has been made and administrative official who deals with prob

Forces Information and Education Di. even greater progress is in prospect. But I lems relating to buildings and material and

vision, Office of the Secretary of also know what the facts show. They show

sometimes the selection of teachers. The Defense.
essential task of the supervisor is to give

Mr. Miner will serve as director and clearly and unmistakably that we still have

staff advisor for the Armed Forces Eduadvice to the teachers and help them to great unsolved educational problems in

cation Program which was organized by improve in their profession. nearly every State. They show also that

the Army during World War II and now

extends to all armed services. Millions many of our needs are not being met satisItaly:

of servicemen in all theaters of operafactorily; that we have too much isolation

tion were offered educational opporism in education; that we have taken too

Is it a good idea to have consolidated

tunities through this program during rural schools ?

the war. many steps on the basis merely of expe

At the present time, through diency; and that progress has often been

Answer: In many rural communities in the 1,500 educational centers, 1,000 of
United States the small rural school with a

which are overseas, the armed forces blocked or at least retarded by the short

educational program is carried on by single class has been joined with other sightedness or selfishness of educators and

2,500 instructors, 1,500 of whom are small schools and classes. Thus it has been school officials-by lack of statesmanship

civilians. USAFI courses enroll 107,possible to reduce considerably the expenses 000, university correspondence cours in education.

of the small schools as well as to improve 6,300. Educational centers register This is a crucial period in education. their curricula and teaching methods.

57,000 students, and civilian schools The public is now more conscious than at

6,000. There is a marked tendency now toward

Mr. Miner has already entered upon any recent period of some of the serious centralizing of such small secondary schools

his new duties. problems and needs in education. Now is and classes.

courses

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EDUCATING CITIZENS

(Continued from page 3)

One in particular, the National Education Association, is going all out on this year's American Education Week observance, November 6-12, in cooperation with the American Legion, the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, and the Office of Education. This year's Education Week packet practically brims over with facts useful to citizens education committees which are being urged to sponsor the Week this year. To the theme, Visit Your Schools, has been added, Bring the Schools to the People..

Yes, many organizations and citizens individually are working hard for better schools. By national, State, and local action, citizens are being educated on education and its needs—today and tomorrow.

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Representatives of the recently organized National Citizens Commission for the Public Schools meet with Division Directors of the Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, to discuss the school situation. Left to right at end of table, James F. Brownlee, Vice Chairman of the Commission, Commissioner of Education Earl James McGrath, center, and Roy E. Larsen, Commission Chairman, right. Writing at the conference table is Mr. Sloan Wilson of the Commission staff.

OFF THE ROSTRUM

-OFF THE PRESS

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D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, Mass., April in other ways. This will probably be the 1949 issue.

frontier in teacher education for the next *

dec:ide .. . . There is a deep concern among guid

-W. Earl Armstrong, Associate Chief for ance workers for increasing the level of

Teacher Education, Office of Education, Fedcompetency of those who would call them

eral Security Agency, in Annals, September selves counselors

1949 issue.

* -Clifford P. Froehlich, Specialist for Train- “... It is not enough that we expose the ing Guidance Personnel, Office of Education,

fallacies of totalitarianism. We must, even Federal Security Agency, Vocational Education News, October 1949 issue.

more importantly, keep before us the high * * *

moral and spiritual values of democratic “Teachers do not always have an oppor

living. Nowhere have these conceptions tunity to help design the rooms in which

been set forth better than in the Universal they work. However, each teacher has an

Declaration of Human Rights .. obligation to help make her room a desir- -Earl James McGrath, U. S. Commissioner able school home and a suitable learning

of Education, Office of Education, Federal

Security Agency, in Address at N. E. A. Anlaboratory for the pupils to be housed

nual Convention, Boston, Mass., July 7, 1949. therein.” -N. E. Viles, Specialist in School Plant Management, Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, in N. E. A. Journal, February 1950 issue.

APPLICATIONS for U. S. Navy 4-year col* * *

lege scholarships offered to boys 17 to 21 "... Modern leadership increasingly uses

years of age beginning the 1950–51 acathe “group dynamics' approach. This

demic year, must be submitted to the Naval means simply the process of getting the

Examining Section, Educational Testing people concerned with the problem together Service, Princeton, N. J., by November 12, to discuss it thoroughly and eventually to

1949, for competitive examinations to be arrive at a consensus

held on December 3, 1949. Detailed infor-John Dale Russell, Director, Division of

mation regarding the scholarships is conHigher Education, Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, in address before

tained in NROTC Bulletin of Information, Faculty-Trustee Dinner, Pennsylvania State 1950, available at high school and college College, May 13, 1949.

libraries and at Naval Officer Procurement * * *

and Navy Recruiting offices. The scholar"... there are kinds of problems on which ships lead to a baccalaureate degree and a teachers can work and ways they can work commission as Ensign in the Navy or Second that will yield better results than time spent Lieutenant in the Marine Corps.

“Where are the boys of high-school age who might be attending school? Why weren't they, why aren't they in high school?” -Ellsworth Tompkins, Specialist for Large High Schools, Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, in School and Society, July 2, 1949 issue.

* * * “Less than 10 percent of our teachers are trained in the use of audio-visual materials and methods, and few of our major universities and teacher-training institutions offer adequate training." -Floyde E. Brooker, Chief, Visual Educa. tion, Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, in The School Executive, September 1949 issue.

* * * "A recent inquiry shows that only 4,000 out of 26,000 secondary schools claim to have any kind of guidance provisions ..." -Harry A. Jager, Chief, Occupational Information and Guidance Service, Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, in Occupations, April 1949 issue.

* * * '. .. Imagine that! First grade! Doing the teacher's work! ...

-Bess Goodykoontz, Director, Division of Elementary Education, Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, in “The Packet,”

College Scholarships

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Aids to Education-By Sight and Sound

by Gertrude Broderick, Radio Education Specialist, and Seerley Reid, Assistant Chief, Visual Aids to Education

99

Recordings

tions in Paris. The program deals with the she has diabetes and both she and her hus. Forest Conservation. The Forest Serv

progress achieved by the United Nations in .

band are extremely disturbed, but their political, economic, and social fields and ice, U. S. Department of Agriculture, has

fears are quieted by their doctor. Placed includes graphic illustrations of the work on insulin and a special diet, Wendy leads produced a second series of six recorded

of some of the special UN agencies. It is healthy, normal life. Prints of this film, programs emphasizing the importance of

a compellingly dramatic presentation of au- which is 16-mm. sound, color, and runs 19 forest conservation. The staff of New York

thentic information which might well be minutes, may be borrowed from State City's Board of Education Station WNYE

used for a special United Nations Day Health Departments and can be purchased served as counsellors in the preparation program.

from Castle Films, 1445 Park Avenue, New of script material and in the production of the dramatized programs. A teacher's “UNESCO World Review.” A radio

York 29, N. Y. manual accompanies the records. Scripts script bearing this title is issued by A Career. Medicine as a career is porfor this series, as well as for the first six UNESCO in Paris and is distributed weekly trayed in the State Department film Jour. programs which were produced more than in this country by the U.S. National Com- ney Into Medicine, recently released for a year ago, likewise are available. Re- mission. Purpose of the review is to pro.

educational use in the United States through corded on 16-inch discs, they require play

mote a type of understanding among the U. S. Public Health Service. The film back equipment having turntable speed of peoples that will lead to peace. Its method follows a single student through medical 3313 r. p.m. Recordings may be borrowed is to highlight in news-reporter fashion, con- school, internship, further study in pedifor the customary 2-weeks loan period from structive progress and cooperation in the atrics ( and finally his entrance into public the Script and Transcription Exchange,

educational, scientific, and cultural fields. health . . . his journey into medicine. Office of Education, Federal Security Copies are available on request to Commis. Prints of Journey Into Medicine, 16-mm. Agency.

sion headquarters in the Department of sound, black-and-white, 39 minutes, may be State.

borrowed from the Regional Office of the “Voice of America." “This is the Voice

U.S. Public Health Service and can be purof America" is the title of a recorded pro- Films

chased from Castle Films. gram prepared especially for distribution Health Films. Eleven motion pictures,

An Ohio Town. through the Script and Transcription Ex

The life and people of a produced in 1944–45 by Walt Disney for change by the Department of State. It is

typical American community--Mount Verthe Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs intended to enlighten interested listeners of

non, Ohio—are portrayed in a series of five and withdrawn with the termination of the high-school age and above about some of

films originally produced by Julien Bryan CIAA at the end of 1945, are now avail. the basic facts concerning the purpose and

for the Coordinator of Inter-American Af. able from the Institute of Inter-American

fairs and now available, through the comethod of operation of the “Voice of Amer

Affairs. Nine of the films deal with health ica.” Recorded at 331/3 r. p. m.

operative efforts of the Department of subjects, one portrays the history of corn,

State and the U.S. Office of Education, for Student Government. Now available is and one is a travelogue on the Amazon

noncommercial, educational use within the a recording of a simulated broadcast from River country.

United States. Titles are: Ohio Town (19 a high-school student council meeting in All of the 11 motion pictures are 16-mm.

minutes), The County Agent (17 minwhich is demonstrated the techniques of a sound color films and are available with

utes), The Doctor (14 minutes), The Me. well-organized council as it deals with prob- English, Portuguese, or Spanish narrations.

chanic (14 minutes), The School (21 minlems of mutual interest to students, high Prints can be purchased from the Institute

utes). Prints of the films, 16-mm. sound, school administrators, and teachers. It is of Inter-American Affairs, 499 Pennsyl- black-and-white, can be purchased from titled “Roots of Student Government." The vania Avenue NW., Washington 25, D. C.

Castle Films or rented from many educascript was written by Ellsworth Tompkins,

Write to the Institute for descriptions, tional film libraries. Neither the DepartSecondary Education Specialist, U. S. Office prices, and a purchase application form.

ment of State nor the U'. S. Office of Educa. of Education, and recorded by the Phila- Titles are: The Amazon Awakens, Clean

tion lends these films. delphia Radio Workshop over Station liness Brings Health, Defense Against InKYW. Recording was done at 331/3 r. p. m. vasion, Grain That Built a Hemisphere, Requests for copies to be loaned should be How Disease Travels, The Human Body, addressed to the Script and Transcription Infant Care, Tuberculosis, Water-Friend

Atomic Energy Education Exchange. or Enemy? What Is Disease? Winged

RHODE ISLAND College of Education is United Nations Day. “No Other Road” Scourge.

conducting during the fall semester an inis the title of a 30-minute program produced On Diabetes. A common sense attitude service workshop in atomic energy educa. by the British Broadcasting Co. and broad- toward diabetes is emphasized in a new tion. The course carries credit for the cast September 5, 1948, as a prelude to the C. S. Public Health Service motion picture, Master's degree. Sessions are held twice a Third General Assembly of the United Na- The Story of Wendy Hill. Wendy learns week for 15'weeks, beginning September 28.

From the Printed Page

Nation. We hope that widespread interest izations by setting up a clearinghouse of will result in more support for local com- information to enable one to find out what mittees now working for the improvement others are doing. Although we are fully of their schools, and we also hope that more conscious of the fact that no two commit. such local committees will be formed. tees face exactly similar situations, we feel

Our Commission is made up of laymen, that each will be able to profit from the for we want to exemplify the responsibility experience of others. laymen have to join the professional edu- To encourage the formation of additional cators in working for better schools. such groups, we are cooperating with the Eventually we will expand our present Advertising Council in its present campaign membership of 28 to 60. None of our to bring the problems faced by the public members are professionally connected with schools to the attention of the public. Adeducation, religion, or politics. They come vertisements dramatizing the necessity to

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THE members of the National Citizens Commission for the Public Schools are, besides Mr. Larsen: JAMES F. BROWNLEE, former deputy director of the OPA, vicechairman; John A. STEVENSON, president of Penn Mutual Life Insurance Co., treasurer; LEO Perlis, director of the National CIO Community Services Committee, secretary; Mrs. BARRY BINGHAM, vice president, Louisville (Ky.) CourierJournal and Times; STUART BRADLEY, member of the executive board, Louisiana Education Foundation, New Orleans; John Cowles, president, The Minneapolis Star and Tribune; EDWARD R. EASTMAN, president and editor, American Agriculturist, Ithaca, N. Y.; GEORGE GALLUP, director, American Institute of Public Opinion; Mrs. BRUCE GOULD, editor, Ladies' Home Journal; LESTER B. GRANGER, executive director, National Urban League; RALPH A. HAYWARD, president, Kalamazoo Vegetable Parchment Co., Parchment, Mich.; ROBERT HELLER, Robert Heller & Associates, Inc., Cleveland; PALMER Hoyt, editor and publisher, The Denver Post; Mrs. SAMUEL A. LEWISOHN, chairman, Board of Trustees, New York Public Education Association; WALTER LIPPMANN, columnist, Washington, D. C.; ROBERT LITTELL, senior editor, The Reader's Digest; STANLEY MARCUS, executive vice president, Neiman-Marcus Company, Dallas, Tex.; JAMES G. K. McCLURE, president, Farmers' Federation, Inc., Asheville, N. C.; GEORGE HOUK MEAD, honorary chairman of the board, The Mead Corporation, Dayton, Ohio; Mrs. EUGENE MEYER, The Washington (D. C.) Post; RAYMOND RUBICAM, cofounder of Young and Rubicam, Inc. (N. Y.), Scottsdale, Ariz.; BEARDSLEY RUML, New York; HARRY SCHERMAN, president, Book-of-the-Month Club; Louis B. SELTZER, editor, Cleveland Press; RICHARD JOYCE Smith, partner in law firm of Whitman, Ransom, Coulson & Goetz, New York; CHARLES ALLEN THOMAS, executive vice president, Montsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis; and Judge CHARLES E. WYSANSKI, Jr., U. S. District Judge for Massachusetts, Boston.

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from many sections of the Nation. They work for better schools are currently apreflect many different kinds of experience pearing in newspapers and magazines. Spot and many points of view.

radio announcements are also used, and We, members of the Commission, do not billboards are carrying the message, “Our pose as experts on school affairs-like all Schools Are What We Make Them—Good laymen, we have to find out what the prob- Citizens Everywhere Are Helping.' lems are and what solutions to work for. As the Commission's program develops, We will formulate our program slowly, it plans a series of studies dealing with varbuilding each new project on the experi- ious problems, both local and national, conence gained in previous ones.

fronting public education in this country. We are beginning by learning all we can All our current plans center, however, on about local citizens' committees which the key problem—that of inspiring the have made substantial contributions to- broad citizen interest in the schools which ward the improvement of their schools. we believe is so necessary for any largeWe hope to be of assistance to such organ. scale improvement. *See pages 24 and 25 for further information on how this Commission and other national

groups are cooperating in the Better Schools Campaign.

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THE PHILOSOPHY behind Life Adjust- interest on the part of students and their nized the needs of pupils for practical types ment Education is not new. parents in doing so.

of education, they have done so chiefly by especially in the elementary schools, we The problem of Life Adjustment Edu. adding a limited number of vocational have talked about serving “all the children cation, therefore, comes down to this:

Pupils unable to benefit from of all the people.” We have emphasized 1. Can we develop curriculums and other either of these types of instruction are left teaching in terms of individual needs and high-school activities which will have such to flounder or to leave the schools as soon interest. We have said education is life. meaning, value, and appeal as to attract and as the compulsory education laws will

Even in the secondary schools the basic retain all youth of high-school age, and permit. emphasis of Life Adjustment Education has especially those not now in school?

Certain administrative problems or “road long been discussed under such themes as 2. Can we produce an administrative and blocks" to Life Adjustment Education seem teaching the common learnings, function- instructional climate which will be con- to emerge. These problems could be spelled alizing the high-school subjects, extending ducive to the happy and successful growth out in some detail. Indeed, they have been general education and delaying specializa- of all youth, and especially to those now lost quite fully spelled out in a number of Office tion, and developing a pupil-centered, ex- by our schools ?

of Education reports, conferences, and perience-centered, or life-centered school. 3. Can we develop positive and recurrent workshops on Life Adjustment Education

Much has been said and written in recent opportunities for the high-school staff, the primarily concerned with giving specificity years about bringing the life and the prob. students, and their parents to study, eval- to problems, principles, and projected solulems of the community into the high schools uate, and plan so that their high-school pro- tions of Life Adjustment Education. and using its various resources for edu- gram will better serve the real needs of

No Ready-Made Solutions cational purposes. Some have urged that youth today and tomorrow rather than the the high school test all parts of its program traditional academic needs which now so

To achieve the desired results, the attack against the very simple and pragmatic largely rule the situation?

must be a cooperative one.

It is hard to criterion of "teaching youth to do better Increasingly, leaders in education are

say, therefore, which of the basic problems those desirable things they will do anyway." thinking, planning, and organizing their

involved belong primarily to the school Others have, simplified the matter even secondary schools so as to place greater

administrator and which depend upon the further by suggesting that we teach in terms emphasis on Life Adjustment Education for

interrelationships of pupils and teachers, of "what comes naturally." Every Youth. Some of these leaders have

or require parent, professional organizafor years been busily at work to help this

tion, guidance officer, or other assistance. Unmistakable Challenge part of the school system reformulate its

Certain "road blocks" involving adminThe challenge to the high school seems governing philosophy, reexamine its objec

istrative policies and procedures will have unmistakable. Nation-wide statistics tell us tives, and reorganize its programs. Under

to be removed, however, before much real that, despite the progress made, the senior such leadership many high schools have

progress can be made either in the classhigh school fails entirely to reach about 30 progressed a long way toward the develop

room or in the community. These “road

blocks" are deep-seated in our traditions. percent of the youth, and that it loses about ment of programs of study and other edu30 percent more of its students before

They are complicated in character. I shall cational services which are basically meangraduation. ingful to each participating pupil and to the

point out a few of them for which there are enrichment of his daily living.

no ready-made solutions. These must be In recent years the number of high-school

forged in the heat of much careful study, students reaching the senior year has in- Academic Emphasis

numerous discussions, many carefully concreased somewhat. This can be ascribed Other high schools continue to be dom- trolled experiments, and some real soul to the return of many veterans to their high. inated largely by the desire to select and searching into deeply held traditions and school studies. Entrance figures have fallen educate youth for success in college, regard- concepts, some of them bordering on slightly, however.

less of the few destined for higher education prejudices. Several “road blocks” are: Granting that certain factors—inacces.

or the many in need of functional learn- 1. The Carnegie unit, with all that this sibility, lack of funds the pupils believe ings. Their emphasis is primarily upon implies in the way of marks, passing and necessary to meet the costs of attendance, such academic objectives as mastery of col. failing grades, pupil cataloging, pupil exneed or desire to supplement the family lege preparatory subjects, textbook assign

lege preparatory subjects, textbook assign- pulsion, retardation and repetition of income, carelessness in dealing with labor ment and study, deferred learning values, courses, bluffing, teacher's pets, teacher's and attendance provisions-account for the achievement and maintenance of ac- scapegoats, becomes obsolete if we take many of the approximately 60 percent who creditment standards, the administration of seriously the challenge to keep in school all now fail to reach high school or complete tests, ruthless grading against scholastic youth of high-school age and to give all of high-school study, educators seem to agree norms, and elimination of those regarded as them an opportunity to grow and to develop that any block to high-school attendance “unfit."

their assets to the maximum. can be overcome if there is an all-impelling

Insofar as such high schools have recog. We must shift the emphasis of student

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