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Education of Crippled Children-
A Matter of Widening Interest


in the residence schools for the deaf and the blind, is now employed to teach physically handicapped children. There are a few other teachers in the island qualified by training to work with physically handicapped children.

Among those from continental United States who participated in the conference were: Mr. Michael Shortley, Director of the

Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, Federal EYOND the boundaries of continental The American delegates emphasized the Security Agency, Washington, D. C.; Mr. United States, two conferences were possibility for services in both special

K. Vernon Banta, Special Assistant of the

Chairman of the President's Committee on recently held which dealt with the edu- classes and regular classes in day schools. cational needs of crippled childrena The program of the conference was built National Employ the Physically Handimatter of increasing interest in the world around the following topics: (1) The psy.

capped Week, Department of Labor, Washtoday. This interest in the crippled is, of chology of orthopedically handicapped ington, D. C.; and Miss Bell Greve and Dr. course, a part of the deepening interest of

Romaine Mackie, both referred to in conchildren; (2) the coordination between

nection with the Geneva conference. the general public in all types of physically medical treatment and education; (3) the handicapped children.

relationships with the family and commuA UNESCO-sponsored conference of nity; (4) the problem of employment;

WAR SURPLUS PROPERTY experts convened in Geneva, Switzerland, (5) the training of educational, welfare,

(Continued from page 133) February 20, 1950, to study (for 1 week) and medical personnel; and (6) respon

those agencies as it becomes available. The the educational problems of orthopedically sibility for the care and education of ortho

State agency for surplus property and the handicapped children. The conference was pedically handicapped children. Resolu

field representative will assist in the prepaheld under the auspices of the International tions were proposed by members of the

ration of the necessary applications and in Union for Child Welfare and was attended conference which will be printed in the pro.

providing such information as is desired. by 59 experts from 16 different countries. ceedings and will be available in both

The flow of surplus personal property to Representatives from the United Nations, English and French.

educational institutions is continuing at an the World Health Organization, and Another conference took place in Puerto

average monthly rate of more than $8,000,UNESCO also contributed to the confer. Rico early in February, which also included

000 in terms of acquisition value and inence, making a total of approximately 75 consideration of the educational needs of

cludes all items used by Federal agencies participants. The Office of Education was crippled children. This conference was

for which there is an educational need and represented by Dr. Romaine Mackie, designated “The First Institute on Rehabil

It is estimated that surplus real propspecialist, schools for the physically handi- itation Problems," and it was sponsored by

erty with an acquisition value of well over capped. Others attending from the United the State Insurance Fund of Puerto Rico in

$300,000,000 will be available for disposal States were: Dr. John I. Lee, dean of the cooperation with the Department of Health

during the next 12 months, and is widely graduate school at Wayne University, Deand Education.

distributed as to location. Costs involved troit, Mich.; Mr. Lawrence J. Linck, execu- It was the purpose of this institute to

in transferring such property must be paid tive director of the National Society for consider an over-all program which would

by the institution acquiring it but the bene. Crippled Children and Adults; Mr. Eugene meet the needs of the physically handi

fits possible are reflected in a recent stateTaylor of The New York Times, New York capped, particularly the crippled. A set

ment by one county school superintendent City; Miss Bell Greve, secretary general of of recommendations was prepared by the

that he had saved his county $100,000 in 12 the International Society for the Welfare members of the institute. Here, again, the

months through acquisitions of surplus of Cripples; and Dr. James F. Garrett, of importance of education was stressed as a

property. Such savings will be reflected in the Institute of Rehabilitation and Physical necessary element in a well-rounded pro

extensions and improvements of the educa. Medicine, New York City. gram providing also medical care, guid

tional program which otherwise would The purpose of the conference was to ance, and vocational placement. Leading

have been impossible. consider the needs of war-handicapped educators in Puerto Rico are aware of the children in Europe, but attention was given educational needs of physically handi

In Higher Education also to the other crippled and physically capped children, but this is only one of the handicapped who have similar needs. The problems they face in that island territory. MAJOR ARTICLES appearing in the members of the conference agreed that edu

For example, only a little more than half March 15 issue of HIGHER EDUCATION, cational plans must be flexible enough to

of the school-age children in Puerto Rico Office of Education semimonthly publicameet the needs of children with various have the opportunity for schooling. It was tion, are “Regional Education: A Case physical conditions. This means that the reported that 400,000 children are in school Study,” by Albert Lepawsky, professor of school must serve the child wherever he while another 300,000 are at present out of public administration, University of Alais in the day school, the hospital, the con. school because of lack of facilities. It bama, and “Radio Curriculums Quesvalescent home or the sanitorium, or in his seems that in all of Puerto Rico only one tioned,” by Harry M. Williams, professor own home when no other plan is feasible. special education teacher, aside from those of speech, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.


The Office of Education-Its Services and Staff

the National Council of Chief State School Officers and other educational organizations and groups. Top emphasis is helping America plan for its children the best possible school systems and lending cooperation in trying to bring about the most efficient management and administration of schools throughout the Nation.

School Administration Division

H. F. Alves, Director.
ANDREW H. Gibbs, research.
Myrtis KEELS, research.

General Administration
FRED F. BEACH, State school administration.
Ward W. KEESECKER, school legislation.
John Lund, school administrator education.

Division of International

European Education Educational Relations

Helen Dwight Reid, Chief, European Educational

Relations. THE PROGRAM of the Division of Inter

J. H. GOLDTHORPE, Specialist for the Exchange of national Educational Relations is designed Professors, Teachers, and Students. to help the schools of this country under

ALINA M. LINDEGREN, Assistant Specialist for Exstand the life and culture of other nations

change of Information on Education and Evalu

ation of Credentials. and to make our own civilization under

MARGARET L. King, Research Assistant. stood and appreciated abroad. This it ac

Near and Far Eastern Education complishes through services which include

Abul H. K. SASSANI, Assistant Specialist for Exthe preparation and publication of basic

change of Information on Education and Evalustudies of foreign educational systems, the ation of Credentials. evaluation of credentials of foreign students

Division of School Administration who wish to enter educational institutions in this country, the operation of exchange THE DIVISION of School Administration programs for students and teachers, the

makes studies, furnishes information, and maintenance of a roster of teachers in this provides advisory and consultative services country seeking positions in foreign regarding State and local school organischools, the preparation and exchange of zation and administration; financing of materials for use in schools, the promotion public schools; school housing; pupil transof extracurricular activities designed to de- portation; education of school administravelop understanding among students of the

tors; legal provisions relating to the advarious nations, assistance to visiting edu

ministration, financing, and related phases cators from abroad, and cooperation in

of the public-school system. carrying out the educational projects of Through its Surplus Property Utilization UNESCO.

Section, it makes available to the schools For general purposes, the Division is or

and colleges surplus federally-owned perganized in three geographical sections- sonal and real property usable for educaAmerican Republics, Europe, and the Near

tional purposes or adaptable for such use. and Far East; in practice, however, many

This Division also cooperates with other of the programs cut across geographical Federal Government agencies in their edulines to use the abilities of specialists in cer.

cational programs affecting the public tain broad functions.


Its staff members, working closely with Staff, International Educational State departments of education and local Relations Division

educational agencies, are called upon for

leadership through conferences, workshops, KENDRIC N. MARSHALL, Director.

committee and commission membership, Paul E. Smith, Assistant Director, in charge of

surveys, addresses, and writings, to promote Exchange of Persons Program.

better school organization and direction. American Republics Education

A number of studies made by these staff Thomas E. COTNER, Specialist for Exchange of

members are carried on in cooperation with Professors, Teachers, and Students. DELIA GOETZ, Assistant Specialist for Preparation

and Exchange of Materials for Use in Schools. MARJORIE C. JOHNSTON, Assistant Specialist for

THIS IS THE THIRD in a series of Exchange of Information on Education and

statements appearing in School Life on Evaluation of Credentials,

the work of the Office of Education. RAYMOND Nelson, Assistant Specialist for Ex

Services and staff members of the Divi. change of Information on Education and Evalua

sions of International Educational Retion of Credentials.

lations and School Administration are CORNELIUS R. McLaughlin, Research Assistant.

reported in this issue. Nancy M. STAUFFER, Research Assistant.

School Finance
E. L. LINDMAN, Chief.
Clayton D. HUTCHINS, school finance plans.
School Housing
Ray L. Hamon, Chief.
Nelson E. Viles, school plant management.
Surplus Property Utilization
CLAUDE HIRST, Head, real property.
Donald P. Davis, real property.
JESSE M. DUNN, executive agencies liaison.
Floyd L. BARLOGA, field representative.
Hiram S. BURDETTE, field representative.
L. Fred Carson, field representative.
Ralph I. Choplin, field representative.
Guy H. CLARK, field representative.
DAN A. DollarHIDE, field representative.
W. E. DRISKILL, field representative.
Theodore P. Eslick, field representative.
John P. GIFFORD, field representative.
Paul T. JACKSON, field representative.
William R. LAWRENCE, held representative.
David H. McEwen, field representative.
THEODORE L. Roswell, field representative.
STEPHEN L. SIMONIAN, field representative.
Harley E. TALLEY, field representative.


(Continued from page 130) counterparts for young women, could be so adapted under local administration that youth not otherwise employed could be provided with useful work under educa. tional auspices. Employment conditions might make a period of youth service-tothe-community very desirable.


3. Community improvement projects. sumer education, and other fields likewise attention, and enlarges the picture so that The possibilities for learning-by-doing can be approached in these ways.

all may see it clearly. It is doubtful that abound in every community. The estab. 13. Mass media. Films, the press, radio, there exists a school where the teacher canlishment of needed recreational, social and television are most useful in dissemi- not be exercising ingenuity, cannot devise service, and health facilities for children, nating information to great segments of the visual aids that will assist her as no other youth, and adults are only a few. community.

materials can in providing a richer and a 4. Community surveys and studies.

more effective experience for the student. Live and meaningful civic education comes COMMUNICATION MEDIA

An invaluable source of instructional ma. to those who participate in planning, doing

(Continued from page 132)

terial is the local still picture. The comresearch, interviewing, analyzing, and in- sage across to the students. All of us know, munity is always a good place with which terpreting in community surveys.

from personal experience, the effectiveness to start. Here the history of the commu5. Supervised participation in commu- of the comic book and the sound motion nity, the city plans, the transportation, the nity organizations. With high percentages picture. In addition to these, the term industry, the architecture-are all available of young adults not participants in any audio-visual aids also includes the sand in the form of still pictures or filmstrips. community organization, a program of table, the chart and poster, the working These can be made locally and with the first-hand acquaintance with community model, the diorama, the still picture, the

most inexpensive type of camera. resources, agencies, and organizations is a slide, and the filmstrip.

One school uses water color to paint the good investment in civic education.

The task of the instructor, once she has map of the community on the classroom 6. New-voter preparation programs.

decided how she wishes to "change"--edu- floor. In the primary grades, this is a Age 21 is the psychologically ripe time to cate--the student, is to decide what experi. simple map showing where the roads in sharpen civic consciousness and induct all ence will be most effective and efficient in front of the school lead to and extending young people into full participating citizen- effecting that change. Also, she must de. only as far as necessary to show the location ship.

cide what medium of communication will of all the homes of all the students. Each 7. Educational tours. These may grow

provide the most effective kind of experi. spring the map is washed off the floor, and out of previous study or may themselves ence. There are, of course, practical con- each fall the incoming class paints their provide a form of learning. siderations of cost and availability to be

As the children move upwards in 8. Leadership training, training, consultation considered. But, in the main, the modern

the grades, the maps become more comservices to leaders of community organiza- skilled instructor needs to consider the plex, including the routes of the mailman, tions and direct leadership, and supplying whole range of instructional materials in the milkman, and eventually they become educational materials and equipment to terms of what each can do best and in terms scale maps showing transportation systems these groups. With roughly half of the of the quality of the specific item, in order and the like. adults in the typical community organized to select those materials which provide the Other visual aids, such as motion pictures into groups with weekly or monthly pro- most effective and efficient educative ex- and filmstrips, are available on a purchase grams, any improvement of group leader. perience.

or rental basis. When there are local ship and enrichment of the educational con- We know that a child can gain a better libraries of film material, the task is much tent of these programs will affect a large impression of the irregularity of the coast simpler than when the instructor must conready-made segment of the population. line of the eastern seaboard of this country sult general catalogs and then locate the

9. Volunteer leadership systems. Block by looking at a map for 2 minutes, than he material. In every school system there leader organizations, friendly visitors, and could through many, many words. On the should be some source of information resimilar volunteer services can combine edu- other hand, no picture of any kind can take garding these visual materials. Once such cation with social and civic service and can the place of oral discussion of the values of information is available, the teacher needs reach many who cannot be effectively in. not being tardy. A picture may be worth to acquaint herself with their content. It is volved in educational activities in less per- 1,000, 10,000, or 100,000 words-only unlikely that a teacher could teach a chap

when the picture is on a subject that the pic. ter she had never read. In the same man10. Supervised correspondence study, in. ture can cover best, when both teachers and ner, teachers must see the films or filmstrips dividual tutoring, directed visiting, and di. students understand the picture, when it is or other material before using them in class. rected reading. All but the largest of com- a “good” picture, and when the teacher In the course of doing this, she will discover munities will always have people with spe- knows how and when to use the picture. that in many instances the title may be mis. cialized interests in numbers too few for The use of the sand table, the chart, the leading, or that the material in some way group study.

poster, and the still picture depends largely does not fit the needs of her instruction at 11. Creative production programs in arts on the ingenuity and alertness of the teacher that particular time. An evaluation form and crafts, music, dramatics, literature, and herself. There are few sources of central that provides the kind of information which related fields.

supply of these materials. Still pictures of will enable other teachers to form accurate 12. Forums, lectures, discussion groups, the kind available in many popular maga. judgments relative to the quality of the visfilm forums, workshops, and short institutes zines are rich sources for many subjects ual material, which is used over a period of to help develop understanding of inter- ranging from science to art and for all grade years, and which is available to all teachers, national affairs, U'NESCO, and national levels. Using the still picture in an opaque will eventually prove invaluable in eliminatState, and local problems. Much of the projector provides the opportunity for

projector provides the opportunity for ing this very basic difficulty. less intensive educational activity in parent making use of the picture as a group activity The instructor also must learn how to education, intergroup understanding, con

instead of an individual one, heightens the use these materials. We have learned in

sonal ways.

the theaters and from the comic books just own experience how to use audio-visual
to look and then to leave. The educational aids effectively.
use of pictures is quite different. All of us The community, the textbooks, the audio
have consciously to overcome this tradi-

aids, the visual aids--all these and many tional experience. The basic rules of good more are “instructional materials." These use are essentially those of all good in- may seem like a great many sources, a struction. First familiarize yourself with "confusing” wealth of sources, but they are the material; prepare the class; use it; no richer, no greater in number, than the then follow up to make certain it is under- sources through which the child learns outstood. These materials require individual side of school hours. No one of them is consideration, and the teacher will need to

"best." Each does a different kind of job. develop variations. With some motion

Each has a contribution to make. The task

of all educators interested in giving the pictures, you simply show the film and do not discuss it until the next day, particu

children of this Nation the best possible

education is that of learning just which larly if it is a film serving emotional ob. jectives. In other instances, the film may

source will do the best job in each specific

instance. need to be shown several times. No one

In conclusion, it is suggested that one knows all the answers to these problems of

master card catalog in which teachers and usage--there are too many differing kinds

pupils can find information regarding all of films serving a wide variety of objectives media available in the school will do much and the time has been too short for experi- to improve the educational program. Such ence to provide us with definitive answers.

a catalog will suggest to the user the various Each teacher will need to experiment in- media of communication that can be corformally and to learn on the basis of her related in the school program.

move forward from their present positions, the Commission on Life Adjustment Education for Youth exists to provide a broad base for encouragement and a service of coordination.”

-J. Dan Hull, Assistant Director, Division of Elementary and Secondary Schools, Office of Education, in article, “Progress in Life Adjustment Education,” Educational Leadership, March 1950 issue.

* * * “When next you take advantage of counseling services to help you solve employment or other kinds of problems, you may well remember that you are using a profession which may soon be as common as that of the lawyer or the doctor. Just as neither the lawyer nor the doctor can promise that you will win your case or maintain perfect health, so vocational guidance services cannot assure you of vocational success or adjustment. They are, however, another means, becoming world-wide in scope, by which the prospective worker may secure better satisfaction and greater progress in a kind of work he likes and is able to do well.”

Off the Rostrum-Off the Press

-Harry A. Jager, Chief, Occupational Information and Guidance Service, Division of Vocational Education, Office of Education, in article, “Vocational Guidance Becomes an International Service to Youth,” Employment Service Review, May 1950 issue.

It Pays Off

“When we survey the new information and impending technological developments
processes which have become realities in the which will eliminate many existing difficul.
last decade, we realize that science teaching ties and overcome many programming
and testing at all levels must develop some problems.”
new patterns.”

--Floyde E. Brooker, Chief, Visual Aids to
- Philip G. Johnson, specialist for science, Education, Division of Central and Auxiliary
Division of Elementary and Secondary Services, Office of Education, in article “How
Schools, Office of Education, in article, “Some

Television is Progressing in Schools,” The
Developments in Science Teaching and Test- School Executive, April 1950 issue.
ing" reprinted from School Science and
Mathematics, March 1950 issue.

“If higher education is to be made acces

sible to many students who must remain in “As much as we might wish it otherwise, our

their own homes, those communities in higher educational facilities are utilized for

which it can be shown that higher educa. war as well as for peace. Education for

tion is not accessible for geographic or international understanding has a place in financial reasons have a responsibility to the college curriculum immediately next to

extend public-supported educational opportraining for national defense. College tunity 2 years beyond the high school.” students must hurry from their classes on

-Earl James McGrath, U. S. Commissioner the United Nations to the armory for mili- of Education, in address “Expanding Opportary drill."

tunities for Higher Education in the United --Claude E. Hawley, Associate Chief for So

States," delivered before the Annual Convencial Sciences, Division of Higher Education,

tion of the American Association of Collegiate Office of Education, in article “Higher Edu

Registrars and Admissions Officers, San cation and National Defense,Higher Educa

Francisco, Calif., April 21, 1950. tion, April 15, 1950, issue.

* * *

"The secondary schools of the Nation are “There are educators who believe that the moving forward functional education and schools eventually will need their own tele- education for all American youth. For vision stations and should look forward to those school staffs eager to get started or to

EDUCATION IS ONE of the crowning
examples of the passing of the negative no.
tion of public expenditure. A century ago,
as the idea of universal free compulsory
schooling was battling to win its way, there
were those who condemned the whole notion
as socialistic and dangerous. “What!”
they cried, “Would you tax one man to pay
for the education of another man's child?”
But a century of the common school in
America has demonstrated its value so con-
clusively that no responsible voice attacks
the basic idea that it is wise to put public
moneys into public schools for all the chil.
dren. It pays off, in better citizens, better
producers, finer people. It pays off, too,
in dollars and cents, as any comparison of
the man-hour productive efficiency of an
educated labor force with an uneducated
labor force shows.
-John L. Thurston, Assistant Administrator
for Program, Federal Security Agency, in
address, “Investments in Human Resources"
April 22, 1950, before the Association of
Credit Unions of the State of Michigan,

Aids to Education-By Sight and Sound

by Gertrude G. Broderick, Radio Education Specialist, and

Seerley Reid, Assistant Chief, Visual Aids to Education

Radio Recordings

from the NBC “Living—1949” series, it indicates--a visual documentation of the THE FOLLOWING described radio record gives a step-by-step account of a successful importance of a healthy childhood as the ings have been added to the library of the plan for slum clearance that was begun preface to a healthy life. The film is 16Script and Transcription Exchange of the

mm sound, b/w, runs 29 minutes, and can more than a year ago in Philadelphia when Office of Education and are available for representatives of Federal, State, and city

representatives of Federal, State, and city be borrowed from State departments of free loan distribution upon request.

governments, in cooperation with civic or. health, rented from 16mm educational From the National Broadcasting Co.'s

ganizations and individuals in a community, film libraries, or purchased from United “Living—1950” series, the two broadcasts joined hands to accomplish a creditable World Films, Inc. (Castle Films), 1445

Park Ave., New York 29, N. Y. Purchase of February 14 and 11 which were devoted job. Program is suitable for classroom to the subject of education. In the first study purposes as well as for discussion price is $35.85, less 10 percent to schools. As the Twig Is Bent, is mirrored an examina- purposes in community organizations.

Directory of 16mm Film Libraries. tion of the Nation's public schools, past,

Each of the last two mentioned programs Do you have your copy of A Directory of present, and future, as reflected in the story are 30 minutes in length and are recorded

897 16mm film Libraries? Order from of a typical American teacher over a 50-year

on reverse sides of 12-inch microgroove the Superintendent of Documents, U. S.

records at 331/3 r. p. m. span.

Government Printing Office, Washington 25, The second program, Action at the Grass 1949-50 Voice of Democracy Essays.

D. C. Price: 15 cents. Roots, is a drama document based on the

The prize-winning essays in this year's “How To Obtain U. S. Government case history of an experiment in Delaware

annual Voice of Democracy radio contest Motion Pictures, 1950." Reprints (sin. which began with a local parent-teacher as- have been recorded by the four student gle copies only) of the chart, "How To sociation and progressed to the State legis- winners for distribution through the ex- Obtain U. S. Government Motion Pictures, lature with resulting State-wide improve change. In a competition that drew a 1950,” which appeared in last month's ments in teachers' salaries and school equip- million entries, high-school girls and boys

million entries, high-school girls and boys School Life, may be had without charge. ment. Program closes with a brief talk by wrote and recorded scripts on the subject Send requests to Visual Aids to Education, Henry Toy, Jr., who was president of the "I Speak for Democracy.” This year's Office of Education, Federal Security Council for Delaware Education at the time winners whose voices are heard on the Agency, Washington 25, D. C. of the experiment, and presently is execu; recordings are Richard L. Chapman, 1950 Catalog Supplement. Single coptive director of the National Citizen's ComBrookings, S. Dak.; Gloria Chomiak, Wil

ies of the 1950 Supplement to the 1949 mission for Public Schools.

mington, Del.; Anne Pinkney, Trinidad, catalog, “U. S. Government Films for Clearances permit the use of these record. Colo.; and Robert Shanks, Lebanon, Ind.

School and Industry,” are now available and ings only by educational groups and over Teachers and students have found it ad

will be sent upon request. This supplenoncommercial facilities. Each program vantageous to borrow these recordings each

mentary catalog, published by Castle Films, is 30 minutes in length and is recorded on year as models in preparation for future

lists and describes 331 motion pictures and reverse sides of 16-inch disks at 331/3 competition.

filmstrips of United States Government r. p. m.

agencies which have been released for eduGod Helps Those ... The title of a Visual Aids

cational use within the last year. Send reprogram from NBC's “Living—1949” Emotional Needs of Children. Preface quests for the 1950 Supplement to Visual series which tells the story of Penn-Craft, to a Life is the story of Michael Thompson, Aids to Education, Office of Education, the cooperative community in the heart of newly born, and the way his parents can Federal Security Agency, Washington 25, the coal mining region of Pennsylvania. influence his behavior during childhood D. C. No charge. Beginning in the job-hungry thirties, the and his character during adolescence and

Color Pictures of Common Insects. program documents unfortunate conditions adulthood. The equally harmful effects of

The Department of Agriculture has prein a community hard hit by the depression, a mother who babies him excessively and pared a series of 25 “picture sheets" on and the successful plan of personal rehabili- of a father who expects too much of him

common garden and farm insects. Each tation which was arranged by the American are demonstrated to point up the desir- sheet is devoted to a single insect, shown in Friends Service Committee. Story points ability of Mike's developing as an individ- natural colors. The Picture Sheets (except up sharply the efforts of a group of men ual, loved by his parents but respected and No, 3—-out of print) can be purchased from practicing democracy by the self-help appreciated for what he is. Produced for the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. technique.

the National Institute of Mental Health, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, The New Philadelphia Story. Also Preface to a Life is exactly what its title D. C. Price: 5 cents each.

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