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The Community College-
A Challenging Concept for You


HAT IS this community col.
lege idea?"

The name is applied to several types of educational enterprises evolving under a variety of auspices. Now carrying the name “community college” are extension centers of universities, junior col. leges, technical institutes, area vocational and agricultural schools, 4-year colleges, lower divisions of 4-year colleges and universities, church-related institutions, propri. etary schools, general adult education programs, YMCA and YWCA programs, and possibly other arrangements. There is a widespread eagerness to capitalize on the popularity of the name even when the functions inherent in the concept are not all fulfilled. No doubt each of the above organizations serves some of the functions of a community college, but in most instances they leave gaps in our educational pattern which a true community college should fill. The following definition seems to embody elements attributed to the community college by a reasonable proportion of those who use the term as well as by two Office of Education committees working in this and a closely related field."

A community college is a composite of educational opportunities extended by the local public-school system free to all persons who, having passed the normal age

by Homer Kempfer Specialist for General Adult and Post-High School Education and

6. It exists to provide educational service

to the whole community and to the indiWilliam R. Wood

viduals who comprise it; all other objecSpecialist in Junior Colleges and tives are secondary. Lower Divisions

7. While these distinguishing characteristics may not all be true for all community

colleges, they represent desirable directions for completing the twelfth grade, need or

in which to move. want to continue their education.

Through the community college they Groups To Be Served may continue their general education, pre

The community college when fully depare further for occupational life and home

veloped will serve a core group of youth making, or prepare for the upper years of

who have completed the twelfth grade. college and university programs.

Many of this group will be in full-time Note:

attendance during the thirteenth and four1. The community college is first of all

teenth years. Two major types of curan educational program-a “composite of

ricula will be available for them. educational opportunities.” Parts of it

(1) For those planning to enter upper may be formalized but other parts are not

divisions of higher education institutions, likely to be.

approved credit-carrying curricula will be 2. It is an extension of and an integral offered. For most young people, entrance part of the local public school system.


will be based upon comThis concept is in harmony with our tradi- pletion of 12 years of school, sometimes tion of local responsibility and control. including a specified pattern of subjects.

3. The educational opportunities are free Other characteristics may include a conthereby being as financially accessible to trolled sequence of study and other require. all as are the other parts of the public ments largely as determined by the inschool.

stitutions into which the community college 4. Its main center is located in the com

feeds. Occasionally a high school drop

out, after achieving sufficient maturity, may munity geographically accessible to all

be permitted to enroll in this program as a youth and adults.

special student to finish the equivalent of 5. The community college is nonselec- high school through college transfer courses tive. Anyone in the community above

although more often such students will take high-school age, regardless of educational high school courses for adults to qualify background, may participate in its activities for graduation directly or through regular although completion of the twelfth grade day school. may be a prerequisite for entrance to cer- (2) For those who intend to spend only tain courses or curricula.

one or two more years in full-time school

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ing, other appropriate curricula will be program one suited to the life needs of all Special features of the community colprovided. Depending very heavily upon post-high-school youth and adults, whether lege work will include: the needs of individuals and the community, they be students on a full. or a part-time 1. Strong emphasis upon a functional these may include occupational preparation basis. Certainly, all people, young adults system of student personnel services—testin such fields as agriculture, homemaking, especially but older ones as well, are faced ing, counseling, job-placement, and followbusiness, trades and industrial occupations, continuously throughout life with the neces- up consultation-available from the time nursing, and other occupations in which sity of adapting, of making changes, of a student enrolls until he leaves the commore preparation is needed and desired learning. Who can deny the importance munity; than is ordinarily given in high school. of organized education in helping them 2. Certain phases of the high school proIncluded, too, will be curricula in general make such changes satisfactorily?

gram for occupational education that will education, home and family living, and The program of the community college be moved upward on an expanded basis into general civic competence for those who wish must be comprehensive. It cannot be tech- the community college; to improve their general culture before nical only or vocational only or general only 3. A flexible day, evening, weekly, and entering upon full-time employment or or preprofessional only. It should include annual schedule best adapted to the work homemaking.

opportunities for active participation in schedules of people employed full or part The out-of-school youth and young adults recreational, community service, and job. time; who have not completed the twelfth grade for-pay experiences. Education is a part 4. The full-time core staff supplemented constitute a second group. The high school of living and not merely a brief, semirealis- on a part-time basis by leaders from speand other appropriate community agencies tic experience confined to a classroom. cialized activities and occupations in the will retain responsibility for those of sec- Many community college students, espe- community; ondary school age, but beyond this age the cially those in the immediate post-high- 5. Close articulation with the high community college should come into the school years, should be encouraged through schools of the district to insure a gradual picture. Normally most of this group are an extensive and intensive system of student transition from full-time schooling to fullemployed full or part time although many personnel services to explore several fields time work; are in dead-end jobs. The community col. of interest, to broaden their entire scope


6. Participation by students and citizens' lege will maintain a rather continuous edu- understanding, and not to concentrate on advisory committees in local surveys, policy cational and guidance relationship with a some specialization before their general formulation, and in program management; great many of these until complete transition educational background definitely has been 7. Techniques for gearing the community from full-time schooling to satisfactory oc- strengthened. A balanced, full-rounded college program to employment and occucupational life has been achieved. Part- educational program is the bridge over pational conditions of the area served and time classes will play an important part with which community college youth are able to to prevailing economic conditions. (The this group as will many other types of pass surely and easily from teen age to adult- community college must be able to contract activity discussed later. hood. It is a means by which they can

and expand its services readily to keep the grow naturally into full adult responsibil- number of unemployed out-of-school youth A Special Challenge

ities in their communities and realize their to a minimum.) The out-of-school and out-of-work group maximum productive potential.

Educational Approaches presents a special challenge. The size of The community college will recognize

Much pioneering has yet to be done bethis group (age 19–24) varies widely, rang. that learning can go on in many forms and

fore the designers of any community college ing from near zero in times of high employ. in many places. A part of the educational

can formulate all the


facets necesment, such as during war, to 3 or 4 million activities will be organized and conducted or more in periods of economic difficulty. in the conventional classrooms, laboratories. sary to make it worthy of the concept.

Unless many educational approaches are This is the group that gave rise to the NYA and shops, yet these institutional phases will and CCC. A combination of activities can be only a part of the total “composite of developed, or at least adapted, the com

munity college will be restricted to the serv. be required to maintain an educational con- educational opportunities.” A campus

ices now provided a limited number of nection with this group. The methods, ap- center, usually the public high-school build

youth by the conventional junior college. proaches, and content of some of the more ings, to which many groups served may

Among the educational approaches needing institutionalized parts of the community come for educational activity, will also be

further exploration and development are college can be adapted better to meet the a headquarters from which educational

these which, while currently in limited use needs of part of this group. For others services and leadership go out into the

only, seem to offer considerable promise: work-and-study opportunities of various community. In the interest of both econtypes, such as production training pro- omy and accessibility to the people served,

1. Work-and-study programs. This a great deal of the educational services of would seem to be an essential at all times grams, part-time cooperative education in business, trade, and industrial education the community college may be carried on as a significant part of the educational exprograms, and student camps combining in a variety of community locations--in perience of all youth. conservation or seasonal harvest work with the public library, in elementary schools,

2. Camps with work-and-study proa program of studies can be designed. in the city hall, and in settlement houses---

grams. Many of the more successful feaA good community college will provide wherever space can be made available for

tures of CCC camps, with appropriate an attractive and a balanced educational public use.

(Continued on page 140)

Effective Use of Communication Media—One Key to

Improved Education

by Nora Beust, Specialist in School and Children's Libraries; Franklin Dunham, Chief, Educational Uses of Radio;

Floyde E. Brooker, Chief, Visual Aids to Education



HE MODERN SCHOOL has the poten

tiality of a greatly enriched educational program. A significant contribution to this program can be made through the effective use of the various media of communication now available for use in the curriculum of the school. Teachers can make a valuable contribution to the pupils of the school by being aware of the need for relating various learning resources in the development of the curriculum. Books Meet Individual Needs

The school of today almost takes for granted up-to-date, scientifically construct. ed textbooks and supplementary textbooks as fundamental resources in the learning of children. It is recognized that no one set of books is considered essential for all chil. dren. Instructional materials are selected to meet the interests, needs, and abilities of the individual child.

There is a trend to purchase more than one textbook in a given subject area for a group rather than the same book for each pupil. It is believed that teachers should be encouraged to use their skill in determining which of several acceptable books should be used by the group in their charge. Instructional materials are then in many instances being selected for the individual and group rather than on a grade basis. Teachers should be given an opportunity to examine many textbooks in active partici. pation with children. They should also have the privilege of discussing the books with other teachers, supervisors, and principals so that they may be assisted in the evaluation of the books in terms of possible contributions to the development of individual children.

The textbook and suppiementary textbook, however, are only two sources of printed instructional materials that should be available for the use of children and teachers in the school program. The so

called library books further enrich the cur- Grimalkin, and These United States and riculum and tend to broaden the interests How They Came To Be. To keep them up of children and youth. They too can only to date there are such magazines as Model serve their best purpose when selected in re- Airplane News and Junior Natural History lation to the interests, needs, and abilities Magazine. Dictionaries, encyclopedias, and of individual children.

other reference books constructed for their Library books are of many types and maturity level serve to give the accurate in

many purposes. Beginning with formation they seek. Books for fun are young children, there are the illustrated edi

another important type. They may include, tions of Mother Goose by such artists as depending upon the preference of the Leslie Brooke, Randolph Caldecott, and reader, Jungle Book, Let's Make Something, Blanche F. Wright, which not only help to Electronics for Boys and Girls, or Homer introduce children to the world in which Price. Publishers have produced suitable they live but aid in developing reading materials for all school-age groups that can readiness. There are many other types of be used in supplementing and enriching the picture books of real worth, both in the curriculum. realm of reality and in that of imagination. Easy reading stories that are attractively Recordings Enrich the Curriculum illustrated and published as individual

ANOTHER RICH SOURCE of material is books for the youngest readers, such as to be found in the catalogs of records and Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel and

radio recordings now available to all Angus and the Ducks, may bring great sat

schools and usually to be found in school isfaction of accomplishment to this age

libraries and in collections in various

curriculum divisions of central school group.

systems. Many of these records are reFor the next age group there are readable

corded at standard 78 r. p. m. phonograph books of science, history, biography, and

speed and are usually published by the folklore in which pupils can find more about

leading record companies, especially for a special area than is usually included in a

the use of children. They consist of stories, textbook, for example, First Electrical

stories in music, great dramatic works in Book for Boys, Benjamin West and His Cat

excerpt form performed by great actors,

poetry frequently given by the poets from Mr. Milton Gold, Supervisor of Cur

their own collected verse, and collections of riculum in the office of the State recorded radio broadcasts from current Superintendent of Public Instruction,

history. Lessons in English, in music, in Olympia, Wash., requested informa

the social studies, in speech and dramatics, tion of the Office of Education on the importance of relating all types of in foreign languages, are enhanced by learning materials in the education of the use of living sound, with all its power children. The reply to this request by

of creating reality and its even greater staff specialists of the Office of Education is of such general interest to school

power of appeal to the imagination. administrators and teachers that a de- In the years since World War II, great cision was made to publish it in

integrity has been shown by record comSCHOOL LIFE. The information was

panies in presenting authentic settings for originally furnished for publication in the Washington Curriculum Journal.

these materials, classics in the life of chil. dren everywhere. Rumpelstiltskin, for

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Conference on Education and Human Rights

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example, a universally loved story, is told Constitution. This Land We Defend, a not been previously used. Radio stations with characteristic sound effects now so U. S. Department of Agriculture series, will make transcribed copies of programs valuable to radio production and so famil- gives the story of our land, our forests, heard at more inconvenient hours so that iar to the young radio listener outside of floods, dust storms, snow, rain, hail, and

floods, dust storms, snow, rain, hail, and they may be made available for pupils at school. Stories in music, like the saga of what they mean to the welfare of all our proper towns and proper times in the lesson. Peer Gynt, the mischievous hero of Nor. people. No less valuable are the programs School public address systems may carry way, are told in tone with program notes, on science, health, welfare, safety. Eng. them to audiences assembled at scheduled prepared by competent teaching staffs, pro- lish literature not only speaks but portrays hours. Individual play-back machines at vided to go along with such records. The the graphic appreciation of words which cost now no greater than $50 will play both voice of Raymond Massey recreates notable make up the language.

types of disk recordings at either speed. scenes from the first play Abraham Lincoln, To these records and recordings must be Radio programs now being made by school making the beloved President actually added the recent invention of the magnetic radio workshops are just as readily respeak from the American legend now sur- tape recorders, which make it possible for corded for use by individual schools and rounding his memory. The works of us to record the voices of the children them. whole school systems. As a famous radio Shakespeare performed by Orson Welles selves on inexpensive tape, erase, edit, and and motion picture program says, “Time and his Mercury Theatre are no less valu- otherwise arrange for filing our best lessons, Marches On"! able for upper grades and high school. our individual performances for illustraThe transition is easily made from English tion in talks to parents, to teacher groups,

Audio-Visual Aids Provide to speech and dramatics when records are and for records of speech and composition

Effective Experiences used for further analysis in these arts. The improvement through the school develop- A THIRD AREA of instructional materials limpid verse of Edna St. Vincent Millay and ment of the individual or class.

includes those commonly called the “audiothe homespun quality of Robert Frost are All this material becomes a new addition visual aids." These refer to materials that quite different things when actually heard to library service and function. It creates

depend primarily on pictures to get a mesas the creators wished their verse to be a new kind of school, in fact, when it has

(Continued on page 141) read.

To recreate Franklin D. Roosevelt, we must hear him speak. To understand his genius for gathering millions in his Fireside Talks, we can analyze through recordings not merely his style but his emphasis and his heart-warming reassurance so necessary to a people who, when war stricken and with sons valiantly defending thei country overseas, counted on these words from the great War President as fraught with the somber meaning of the times. These records are available in the collections of radio recordings made at 331/3 r. p. m. speed on large 16-inch records, and playable for 15 minutes without interruption. An extension library is provided (for loan or purchase) by the Federal Radio Education Committee of the U. S. Office of Education in Washington.

Every subject matter field, except music, is touched upon by these extraordinary recordings of successful teaching programs.

FSA photograph by Archie Hardy Science, social studies, English, languages, SCHOOL AND COLLEGE officials attended Teachers; Hilda

Teachers; Hilda Taba, University of vocational arts, health, welfare and safety,

an Office of Education conference at the Chicago; Louis Wirth, American Council and many other fields are covered by this

Federal Security Agency March 27 to dis- on Race Relations; William G. Carr, Nafree loan service. Americans All-Immicuss the ways in which schools and colleges

tional Education Association; Leo Shapiro, grants All, a series on Americanization,

could develop techniques for teaching about gives the principal contributions brought to the universal declaration of human rights.

Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith; our country by people of other lands. Let

At the invitation of Earl James McGrath,

Mrs. Anna Hedgeman, Federal Security Freedom Ring, another series available in United States Commissioner of Education,

Agency; Rayford Logan, American script form for amateur performance, tells the following persons joined with Office of Teachers Association; Charles Thomson, of the struggle surrounding the adoption of Education staff members in the 1-day meet- Ruth McMurry, Mrs. Rachel Nason, Deour bill of rights, essential body of law rep- ing: C. 0. Arndt, New York University; partment of State; and W. C. Toepelman, resented in the first 10 amendments to the Layle Lane, American Federation of American Council on Education.


War Surplus Property Program Converted to Peacetime

Basis for Schools, Colleges, and Universities

by Arthur L. Harris, Chief, Surplus Property Utilization Program



HEN “surplus property” is mentioned agency as may be designated by State law educational and for public health purposes,

in many circles today, it usually for the purpose of distributing donated respectively. Such property is to be sold elicits the comment, “I thought all of the property to both public tax-supported and or leased at a price which takes into conwar surplus had been disposed of by this nonprofit tax-exempt schools, school sys- sideration the benefits which have accrued time.” In general that comment is true with tems, colleges, and universities.

or may accrue to the public through the regard to equipment, supplies, and mate- Since it is the policy of the U. S. Office educational or public health use. rials. A considerable number of real prop- of Education to observe Federal-State Available surplus real property may vary erties, including structures, improvements, relationship in its operations, and since the from single buildings or small parcels of and installed equipment, which were ac- staff provided for the Federal Property Dis. land with or without improvements to large quired for the war effort, are now or soon posal and Utilization Program in the Office installations complete with buildings and will be in the process of disposal. How- of Education is inadequate to perform even

all utilities installed. Occasionally, in adever, the experiences of educational insti. the minimum functions of screening and dition to buildings, a sewage disposal plant, tutions throughout the country during the allocating all of the potentially donable

electrical or water distribution system, last few years brought about the realization property becoming available, all allocations fencing, bleachers, heating plant, and other that benefits to the public through educa- are made among States to the respective improvements may be purchased with pubtional use of Federal Government propState educational agencies for surplus prop

lic benefit allowance for educational use erty no longer needed by any Federal erty. Therefore, any educational institu. after removal from the site. The public agency need not cease with the disposal tion wanting to acquire such property must benefit allowance granted to the transferee of war surplus. This resulted in the in- make its needs known to its own State edu- is, in effect, amortized over a period of years clusion of sections 203 (j) and 203 (k) cational agency for surplus property. Any ranging from 5 years where no land is transin Public Law 152, the Federal Property inadequacies in the resources or operations ferred to a maximum of 25 years where a and Administrative Services Act of 1919, of the State educational agency for surplus complete large installation is transferred. Eighty-First Congress, authorizing the do- property cannot be compensated for by an The transferee earns equal increments of nation of surplus personal property and

extension of the services of the U. S. Office the public benefit allowance each year of the sale or lease of surplus real property

of Education to the individual school the period during which an approved eduwith public benefit allowance for educa. system, college, or university within the cational use is made of the property. The tional use.

State. Only active participation in and U.S. Office of Education is also responsible Under the new law, obsolete or excess unified support of the program by all of the

for the periodic approval of the program of personal property of all Federal executive educational institutions within a State can

utilization of transferred property, for the agencies which is surplus to the needs of assure a maximum volume of donable prop

retransfer of property to other educational the Federal Government may be donated erty and optimum benefits to those institu

claimants, for authorizing other disposals by the Administrator of General Services tions.

by a transferee, and for changing the terms, to schools, colleges, and universities upon

The new law also authorizes the Admin

conditions, and limitations in a transfer in. a determination by the Federal Security istrator of General Services, upon recom

strument when conditions warrant. Administrator that such property is usable

mendation by the Federal Security Adminand necessary for educational purposes and istrator, to assign to the Federal Security

Surplus real property cannot be distrib

uted on an equitable basis geographically, upon allocations by the Federal Security Agency for disposal for school, classroom, Administrator on the basis of need and utilior other educational purposes, or for public

of course. However, any educational in. zation. The Federal Security Adminishealth purposes, surplus real property in- stitutions (including research institutions

and libraries) interested in the availability trator has delegated the operating functions cluding structures, improvements, installed

of surplus real property or of buildings and and responsibilities of the Federal Security equipment, and related personalty located Agency in relation to such donations to the thereon. The Federal Security Adminis- improvements, should make inquiry of the United States Commissioner of Education. trator has delegated most of the disposal State educational agency for surplus propThe law further provides that donated functions under this section to the Commis. erty since Office of Education field repreproperty may be transferred to State De- sioner of Education and the Surgeon Gen- sentatives report all of such property to partments of Education or to such other eral of the U. S. Public Health Service for

(Continued on page 139)

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