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Vocational Education Through the Cooperative Part-Time

Diversified Occupations Program

by C. E. Rakestraw, Consultant, Employee-Employer Relations




UR EDUCATIONAL system has its half day spent in employment, the student fied Occupations Program was selected be

problems—the multiplicity and com- secures organized and supervised work ex- cause of the range of occupational training plexity of which tend to become greater perience in accordance with a definite sched- opportunities which can be included. Each with the increase in population and tech- ule of processes developed from an analysis student receives instruction designed to prenological progress. School authorities, of the trade or occupation. This on-the- pare him for a specific vocation and does therefore, must be constantly on the alert job instruction is organized in such manner not, as the terms might imply, receive just for instructional methods, procedures, and as to permit him, by the end of the 2-year a smattering of training in a diversity of types of organizations to suit changing so. period, to receive experience in all phases occupations. cial and economic conditions. These re- or jobs included in the training outline. Since boys and girls enrolled spend part quire frequent additions and adjustments The in-school and work experience sched. of the day in school and part in employment, in order that youth may be better prepared ules may be arranged so that these students the title of student-learner is used. Under to meet his responsibilities as a worker and earn sufficient credits during the certain conditions where programs are conas a citizen. Educators and lay groups in 2 years they are in this program to graduate ducted in conformity with approved standgeneral-particularly labor—have stressed at the end of their senior year. The student ards, student-learner certificates may be isthe need for an educational program which then possesses a high-school diploma plus suea by the Administrator of the Wage and will prepare youth for employment and at 2 years of training in his chosen trade or Hour Division of the United States Departthe same time provide him an opportunity occupation. For the Cooperative Part- ment of Labor which permit employment at to complete high school.

time Diversified Occupations Program to a beginning wage less than the minimum Within the United States there are 3,464 function effectively, school authorities must required by the Fair Labor Standards Act urban communities with a population of insist that it be established and conducted in of 1938. 2,500 or over. It may be assumed that in accordance with approved standards. The each community either a high school or coordinator must have a thorough under

Summer School Guide other arrangement is provided which en- standing and appreciation for organizing

"LAST SUMMER institutions of ables boys and girls to secure a high-school the program in conformity with such

higher education attracted more than twice education. However, many hundreds of standards. Briefly stated these are in con

the number of students they had 10 years such urban areas have inadequate facilities nection with:

ago,” said Earl James McGrath, U. S. Comor none at all for students to receive voca- 1. Creating and utilizing the services of a

missioner of Education, in the Scholastic tional training. In order to meet the needs representative advisory committee.

Teacher, issue of March 1, 1950. This of these high-school students better, not only 2. Determining training opportunities in

issue features a teachers' guide to more in the larger cities and towns but the smaller the community and selecting trades or

than 550 summer schools and tours for as well, the Cooperative Part-time Diversi

occupations which should be included in

1950. Address: 7 East Twelfth Street, fied Occupations Program was planned and the program.

New York 3, N. Y. inaugurated in many local communities by 3. Determining and selecting industrial and State boards for vocational education. The business establishments in which to place Study Braille Codes of All Countries express purpose of this type of program is students for training. to provide vocational training opportunities 4. Selecting qualified students for enroll. UNESCO is working on a plan to standfor high-school juniors and seniors.

ment in the program.

ardize the Braille system in all languages. Students enrolled in the program spend 5. Developing, from trade or occupational At the present time, China, India, and other one-half day in employment in a chosen analyses, schedules of processes to be countries use six or more conflicting Braille trade or occupation and one-half day in learned on the job by the student. codes. Miss Marjorie Hooper, of the high school. Two periods of the time in 6. Preparing outlines of related and tech- United States, working with a group of school each half day are devoted to super- nical subjects, correlated with work ex- seven others, will endeavor to rationalize vised and directed study of related and tech- perience.

the differences in the various codes so that nical subjects pertinent to the student's 7. Placement of students for work expe- standard books for the blind throughout chosen trade or occupation. The re- rience in accordance with Federal, State, the world may be printed. Six members mainder of the time, he pursues the regular and local employment regulations. of the advisory group on Braille problems required high-school subjects. During the The name Cooperative Part-time Diversi

are blind.

OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL CYRIL. F. KLINEFELTER, Consultant, Supervisory Staff Higher Education Division

Training in Industry. (Continued from page 119)

CLARENCE E. RAKESTRAW, Employee-Employer Re- John DALE RUSSELL, Director

lations Consultant.
James H. PEARSON, Field Representative (Central
William A. Ross, Public Service Training Con-

Organization and Administration
Walter F. Shaw, Field Representative (North


Ernest V. HOLLIS, Associate Chief, Administra. Atlantic Region).

HARTMAN C. DIGNOWITY, Program Specialist tion. Silas M. RANSOPHER, Field Representative (Spe

(Southern Region); Equipment Specialist. WILLARD W. BLAESSER, Specialist for Student Per. cial Problems).

NATHAN B. GILES, Program Specialist (Central Re- sonnel Programs. JAMES T. GEARON, Head Reports Analyst.

gion); Apprentice Training Specialist.

AMBROSE CALIVER, Specialist for Education of Iva G. PRISK, Educational Statistician.

George A. McGarvey, Program Specialist (North Negroes.

Atlantic Region); Building Trades Specialist. ROBERT E. IFFERT, Specialist for Student Aid ProAgricultural Education Service ALLEN T. HAMILTON, Research Specialist.

grams. William T. SPANTON, Chief.

William P. LOOMIS, Teacher Training Specialist. FRED J. KELLY, Land-Grant Colleges and UniDUDLEY M. CLEMENTS, Assistant Chief.

LOUISE MOORE, Specialist, Training for Girls and versities. ELMER J. JOHNSON, Program Specialist (Pacific Women.

GEORGE E. VAN DYKE, Specialist for Business Region).

EDWARD R. NAUGHER, Program Specialist (South-
Division of Higher Education

William R. Wood, Specialist for Junior Colleges ern Region); Part-time and Evening Schools

and Lower Divisions. Specialist.

SERVICE TO the Nation's colleges, uni- ELIZABETH N. LAYTON, Research Assistant. HERBERT B. SWANSON, Program Specialist (North

versities, and professional schools is the Theresa B. WILKINS, Research Assistant.
Atlantic Region); Teacher Training Specialist.
WILLIAM N. Elam, Specialist, Special Groups.
responsibility of the Division of Higher

Professional Education
Alvin H. HOLLENBERG, Farm Mechanics Specialist.
Education. This service is furnished

HENRY H. ARMSBY, Associate Chief, Engineering. A. WEBSTER TENNEY, Program Specialist (Cen through three major sections—Organiza.

W. Earl ARMSTRONG, Associate Chief, Teacher tral Region); Subject Matter Specialist and tion and Administration; Education for the Preparation. Executive Secretary, Future Farmers of Professions; and Liberal Arts Education.

LLOYD E. BLAUCH, Associate Chief, Health ProAmerica.

Administrators of higher education and fessions. Business Education Service college and university staff members look to

Arts and Sciences B. FRANK KYKER, Chief. the Division of Higher Education for in

CLAUDE E. HAWLEY, Associate Chief, Social John B. Pope, Program Specialist (Southern Re- formation to help improve institutional and

Sciences. gion); Adult Education Specialist. individual efficiency. The Division's field

JENNINGS B. SANDERS, Specialist for History. G. Henry Richert, Program Specialist (North

of interest covers such problems as educa- BERNARD B. WATSON, Specialist for Physics. Atlantic and Central Regions). tional organization on institutional, State,

Specialist for Sociology.
CLYDE W. HUMPHREY, Program Specialist (Pacific
Region); Research Specialist.

regional, and national levels; finance, in

cluding both sources of income and pur- FOR 50,000,000 ADULTS Home Economics Education Service

poses expenditures, as well as systems of Edna P. AMIDON, Chief. financial and student accounting used; and

(Continued from page 115) BERNICE MALLORY, Assistant Chief.

student personnel services. Also within the seems required. In general, though, poor MARY LEE Hurt, National Adviser-Future Home.

scope of this Division's interest and research readers are not highly interested in reading makers of America. Rua Van Horn, Program Specialist (Central and

are materials and methods of instruction in and, as many are in the lower economic Pacific Regions).

the various subject-matter fields, such as the groups, they have less purchasing power. Ata LEE, Program Specialist (Southern Region). social sciences or physics. Special atten- Further invention in the publishing field MARGARET M. ALEXANDER, Program Specialist tion is given to problems of professional seems needed. The answer may lie in some (North Atlantic Region).

preparation in such fields as teacher educa- combination of pictures and line drawings, MURIEL W. BROWN, Family Life Education Specialist.

tion, the health professions, and engineer. controlled low reading level, attractive BEULAH I. Coon, Research Specialist.

ing. One staff member devotes full time format, large type, color, pocket size, MARY Laxson, Research Assistant.

to the special problems of higher education pamphlet thickness, and low cost. Maybe for Negroes.

each issue of a periodical could carry Occupational Information and Guidance Service

The Morrill-Nelson and Bankhead-Jones enough specialized material to warrant a Harry A. JAGER, Chief; Acting Program Spe

funds for instruction in the 69 land-grant special subtitle which could appeal to regucialist (North Atlantic Region). Royce E. BREWSTER, Assistant Chief; Program

colleges and universities, are handled lar readers and to those having specific inSpecialist (Southern Region).

through the Division of Higher Education. terests. Undoubtedly a combination of Clifford P. Froehlich, Program Specialist (Cen- In addition to publishing the results of its distribution channels would be required tral Region); Guidance Personnel Training

studies, the Division is responsibile for a certainly newsstands, corner stores, and all Specialist. Walter J. GREENLEAF, Educational and Occupa

semimonthly publication, HiGHER EDUCA- the pocketbook outlets. Or materials tional Information Specialist.

TION, which is distributed to all the institu- especially slanted to and sold through cer. FRANK L. SIEVERS, Program Specialist (Pacific Re- tions of higher education without charge tain organized groups such as churches,

gion); Individual Inventory and Counseling and to individuals on subscription, price labor unions, farmers, lodges, and nationTechniques Specialist.

75 cents per year. The Division also pre- ality clubs, may be the way. Trade and Industrial Education Service

pares the annual Directory of Higher Edu- The answer is yet to be found and dem. WALTER H. COOPER, Chief.

cation in which appear essential data about onstrated. A market of approximately Tom Watson, Assistant Chief; Acting Program

each of the 1,808 colleges and universities 50,000,000 people awaits the writers and Specialist (Pacific Region). throughout the country.

publishers who can solve the problem.


New Books and Pamphlets

York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1950. 440 p. lllus. $3.75.

Surveys, Polls, and Samples: Practical

Procedures. Adult Education in Rural Communities, ern Illinois State College, 1950. 69 p.

By Mildred Parten. New by Yang Hsin-Pao. Developing Adult Edu- Illus. (The Western Illinois State College York, Harper & Brothers, 1950. 624 p. cation Programmes, by Homer Kempfer. Bulletin, vol. 29, No. 3).

(Harper's Social Science Series) $5. Paris, United Nations Educational, Scien- Group Thinking and Conference Leader- The Teen-Age Driver: From the Program tific and Cultural Organization, 1950. 27 ship: Techniques of Discussion. By of the Driver Education and Training Secp. (Occasional Papers in Education) William E. Utterback. New York, Rine- tion, School and College Division, National Processed.

hart & Co., Inc., 1950. 248 p. $2.50. Safety Council, Held During the 1949 NaAmerica's Stake in Human Rights. By Practical School Administration. By tional Safety Congress and Exposition. Ryland W. Crary and John T. Robinson. Albert J. Huggett. Champaign, Ill., The

Chicago, National Safety Council, 1950. Washington, D. C., The National Council Garrard Press, 1950. 284 p. $3.

31 p. Illus. 15 cents. for the Social Studies, 1949. 51 p. Illus. Radio and Television Acting: Criticism,

The Theory and Practice of Teaching. (The National Council for the Social Theory and Practice. By Edwin Duerr.

By Ernest E. Bayles. New York, Harper Studies, Bulletin No. 24) 25 cents.

New York, Rinehart and Co., Inc., 1950. Curriculum Revision for More Effective 417 p. $6.50.

& Brothers, 1950. 362 p.. (Education for Living. Prepared under the Direction of Student Teaching in the Elementary

Living Series) $3. the Social Science Department of Western School. By James B. Burr, Lowry W.

-Compiled by Susan 0. Futterer, Associate Illinois State College. Macomb, Ili., West- Harding, and Leland B. Jacobs. New Librarian, Federal Security Agency Library.

Selected Theses in Education


THE THESES in this list are selected from Children's Interests in Moving Pictures, Developing a Reading Readiness Promany on file in the Education collection of Radio Programs, and Voluntary Book gram in a First Grade in Waverly School. the Federal Security Agency Library and Reading. By Florence E. Hickey. Mas. By Ruth L. Bynum. Master's, 1946. are available for interlibrary loan upon

ter's, 1948. Boston University. 139 p. Hampton Institute. 110 p. ms. request.

Discusses environmental factors influencing Surveys the interests of children in the fourth,

reading readiness in a Negro elementary school in An Analysis of the Work Being Done by fifth, and sixth grades in these activities.

Columbia, S. C. Existing Agencies in Marion and Vigo

Children's Voluntary Reading as an Ex- The Function of the University in Teacher Counties in Indiana Toward the Educational and Physical Development of Crippled Wollner. Doctor's, 1949. Teachers Col. pression of Individuality. By Mary H. B. Training. By Evan R. Collins. Doctor's,

1946. Harvard University. 235 p. ms. Children. By Martha C. Stanger. Maslege, Columbia University. 117 p.

Traces briefly the history of the development of ter's, 1947. Indiana State Teachers Col.

Analyzes data on the voluntary reading of eighth- teacher training. Discusses concepts fundamental lege. 106 p. ms.

grade pupils in the Horace Mann-Lincoln School to the university training of teachers. Discusses the work being done by public and of Teachers College, Columbia University, in A Study of the Factual Knowledge of private organizations for the education and phys- 1944–45. Studies data on psychological and en

Current Events Possessed by 1,000 Highical development of the 297 crippled children in vironmental factors, and their reading activity in Vigo County and for the 1,380 crippled children terms of the number of books read and the amount School Seniors. By Vyron L. Jones. Mas. in Marion County. of time devoted to reading.

ter's, 1947. Indiana State Teachers Col.

lege. 50 p. ms. .

Analyzes results of a specially constructed test School Life Subscription Blank

which was administered to more than 1,000 highschool seniors in 19 schools of West Central In.

diana, cluding rural and urban high schools of SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS,

varying sizes. Recommends that a period each Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.:

week be set aside for the study of current events. Please send me School Life for 1 year, and find $1 (check or money order)

The Value of Dramatics as an Activity in enclosed as payment.

the Fairfield Township School, Hamilton, School superintendents please note: On all orders for 100 copies or more to

Ohio. By Doris M. Lusk. Master's, 1948. be sent to one address, there is a discount of 25 percent.

University of Cincinnati. 82 p. ms. 1

1 Concludes that dramatics is equal in value to 1 Name

music and athletics and should be given a place 1 Address

in the curriculum. 1 City-State--

-Compiled by Ruth G. Strawbridge, Federal Security Agency Library Bibliographer.

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p. 130

“... Education is a part of living and not merely a brief, semirealistic experience confined to a classroom.".

* * * “Every subject matter field except music, is touched upon by these extraordinary recordings of successful teaching programs.

* “How can States and cities improve their programs

of home economics educa. tion?”

p. 132

p. 134

Cover photograph, courtesy Fort Lauderdale News, shows John H. Lloyd III, 1820 G. Street NW., Washington, D. C., receiving diploma from Mrs. Ruth Chester, teacher, Pine Crest School, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., upon his graduation from kindergarten to first grade. Another graduate, Marilyn R. Dichtenmueller, 2411 East Las Olas, Fort Lauderdale, also appears in the photograph.

Page The Community College-A Challenging Concept for You..

129 Effective Use of Communication MediaOne Key to · Improved Education -

131 Conference on Education and Human Rights

132 War Surplus Property Program Converted to Peace

time Basis for Schools, Colleges, and Universities--- 133 Education for Homemaking in Today's High School -- 134 Why Do Boys and Girls Drop Out of School, and What Can We Do About It? --.

136 The Library of Congress Can Help You--

138 Education of Crippled Children-A Matter of Widening Interest

139 In Higher Education.

139 The Office of EducationIts Services and Staff

140 Off the Rostrum-Off the Press

142 It Pays Off---

142 Aids to Education-By Sight and Sound_.

143 New Books and Pamphlets_

144 Selected Theses in Education

144 School Life Subscription Blank_

144 Educational Aids from Your Government. Inside Back Cover This Issue of School Life.

Back Cover

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SCHOOL LIFE is indexed in Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, and in Education Index (single copy price of SCHOOL LIFE-15 cenis)

‘What!' they cried, “Would you tax one man to pay for the education of another man's child?'"

Published each month of the school year, October through June. To order SCHOOL LIFE send your check, money order, or a dollar bill (no stamps) with your subscription request to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. SCHOOL LIFE service comes to you at a school-year subscription price of $1.00. Yearly fee to countries in which the frank of the U. S. Government is not recognized is $1.50. A discount of 25 percent is allowed on orders for 100 copies or more sent to one address within the United States. Printing of SCHOOL LIFE has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget. OSCAR R. EWING........... Federal Security Administrator EARL JAMES MCGRATH... Commissioner of Education RALPH C. M. FLYNT..... Executive Assistant to the Commissioner GEORGE KERRY SMITH... Chief, Information and Publications Service JOHN H. LLOYD............ Assistant Chief, Information and Publications

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p. 142

THE Office of Education was estab.

lished in 1867 “for the purpose of collecting such statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress of education in the several States and Territories, and of dif. fusing such information respecting the organization and management of schools and school systems and methods of teaching, as shall aid the people of the United States in the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the


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