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1928. 1930 1932 1934. 1936. 1938. 1940 1942.
ONPUBLIC elementary and secondary Table 2.-Enrollments in public and Non
Table 2.- Enrollments in Public and Non- Nonpublic Secondary Schools school enrollments increased by 24 per
public Elementary Schools Biennially
From 1926 to 1948, and Forecasts of cent between the school year 1937–38, a
The nonpublic secondary school is highly
Enrollments for Each Year From 1950 responsive to the economic conditions of normal prewar year, and the current year,
the Nation. This was demonstrated dur. 1949-50. Three and a half million children
ing the depression of the 1930's when the are enrolled in nonpublic schools today.
Enrollments in elementary schools
proportion of secondary school pupils en
(kindergarten through grade 8) This is about 12 percent of the 29,000,000
rolled in nonpublic schools dropped from pupils enrolled in all elementary and sec
Total Public Nonpublic 8.8 percent in 1927–28 to 6.3 percent in ondary schools.
1933–34. The school year 1939–40 marked 1926
23, 127, 102 20,984, 002 2, 143, 100 Perhaps more significant than the rise in
23, 557, 872 21, 268, 417 2, 289, 455 the beginning of an upward trend in en
23, 588, 479 21, 278, 593 2, 309, 886 actual numbers is the increasing proportion
23, 566, 653 21, 182, 472 2, 384, 181
rollments in these schools which reflected
23, 262, 371 20, 880, 120 2, 382, 251 of all children enrolled in nonpublic schools.
22, 770, 351 20, 495, 767 2, 274, 584 improved economic conditions. This trend
21, 106, 655 During the school year 1937–38 nonpublic
18,934, 382 2, 172, 273 is still in progress and, during the current
20, 418, 231 18, 267, 335 2, 150, 896 school enrollments constituted 9.5 percent
119,990, 770 17, 803, 770 12, 187, 000 school year, 10 percent of all secondary 1946
20,051, 408 17, 773, 018 2, 278, 390 1948
20, 828, 958 18, 360, 568 2, 468, 390 of the 28,854,121 pupils enrolled in all
pupils are enrolled in nonpublic schools. 1950.
22, 760, 000 20,006, 000 2, 754, 000 1951.
23, 686, 000 20, 780,000 2,906, 000 schools. Twelve years later, in 1949–50,
In contrast, public secondary school en24, 468, 000 21, 424, 000 3,044, 000
26,064, 000 22, 777, 000 3, 287, 000 rollments, having reached a high of 6,635,nonpublic schools enrolled 11.8 percent of
27, 453, 000 23,945, 000 3, 508, 000
28, 652, 000 24,942, 000 3, 710,000 337 in 1939–40, began a decline which is the 29,000,000 total. Should the trend of
29, 334, 000 25, 485, 000 3, 849, 000 1957.
29, 498, 000 25, 578, 000 3,920, 000 still continuing. Enrollments in public the past 12 years continue, it is expected
29, 433, 000 25, 471, 000 3,962, 000
29, 004, 000 25, 051, 000 3,953, 000 secondary schools this year are 16 percent
1960. that by the school year 1959–60, enroll
28, 789, 000 24, 816, 000 3,973, 000
below their 1939-40 peak. Nonpublic secments in nonpublic schools will exceed 1 Revised since originally published.
ondary school enrollments increased 34 per5,000,000 and will constitute about 13.6 perand secondary schools. Historical data on,
cent during the same 10-year period. The cent of the total enrollments in elementary
enrollments in both public and nonpublic impact of the sharp increase in postwar
birth rates is not expected to affect the sec-
Table 3.—Enrollments in Public and NonSchools Biennially From 1926 to 1948, casts of enrollments for each year from public Secondary Schools Biennially and Forecasts of Enrollments for Each 1950 to 1960 are presented in table 1.
From 1926 to 1948, and Forecasts of
Enrollments for Each Year From 1950
Enrollments in secondary schools
4, 132, 125 3, 786, 071 346, 054 1928 27, 879, 233 25, 209, 272 2, 669, 961
4,321, 361 3,940, 855 380, 506 28, 388, 346 25, 705, 301 2, 683, 045 the total number of elementary pupils,
4, 799, 867 4, 426, 708 373, 159 29, 159, 525 26, 347, 366 2,812, 159
5, 592, 872 5, 164, 894 427, 978 29, 358, 859 26, 595, 728 2, 763, 131 compared with 9.3 percent in 1926.
6, 096, 488 5, 715, 608 380,880 1936. 29, 206, 054 26, 516, 035 2,690, 019
6, 435, 703 6.020, 268 415, 435 28, 854, 121 26, 112, 467 2, 741, 654 Catholic schools account for aproximately 1938
6, 747, 674 6, 269, 723 477, 951
7, 123, 009 6, 635, 337 487, 672
6,933, 265 6, 420, 544 512, 721
16, 124, 656 5, 584, 656 1 540,000 26, 288, 541 23, 437, 546 2, 850, 995 school enrollments. The high postwar
6, 237, 133 5, 664, 528 572, 605 1948 27, 134, 126 24, 036, 505 3, 097,621
6, 305, 168 5, 675, 937 629, 231 29, 000, 000 25, 591, 000 3, 409, 000 birth rates and the increasing proportion
6, 210, 000 5, 585, 000 655, 000 29, 828,000 26, 259, 000 3, 569, 000
6, 142, 000 5, 479,000 1952 30, 636, 000 26,907, 000 3, 729, 000 of children attending nonpublic elemen- 1952.
6, 108, 000 5, 483, 000 685, 000 32, 327,000 28, 329, 000 3,998, 000
6, 263, 000 5, 552, 000 711, 000 33, 861, 000 29, 610,000 4, 251, 000 tary schools indicate that about 4,000,000
1930 1932 1934
1926 1928 1930 1932 1934. 1936
1938. 19-10 1912 1944 1946
6, 408, 000 5, 665, 000 743, 000 35, 209,000 30, 722, 000 4, 187, 000
6, 557, 000 5, 780, 000 777, 000 1956 36, 159, 000 31, 484, 000 4,675, 000 children will be enrolled in these schools
6, 825, 000 5,999,000 1957
826, 000 36, 784, 000 31,966, 000 4,818,000
7, 286, 000 6, 388, 000 898, 000 37, 186, 000 32, 251, 000 4,935, 000 by 1960. Table 3 gives enrollments and
7, 753, 000 6, 780,000 973, 000 37, 105,000 32, 117, 000 4,988, 000
8, 101, 000 7, 066, 000 1,035, 000 37, 138, 000 32, 080, 000 5,058, 000 enrollment forecasts for public and non
8, 349, 000 7, 264, 000 1,085, 000 public elementary schools. 1 Revised since originally published.
1 Revised since originally published.
Three Presidents Meet
ondary school enrollments until late in the present decade. In fact, public secondary school enrollments as large as those of the 1940 peak year probably will not be reached before the 1957–58 school year (table 3).
Church-affiliated schools enroll the greater part of the nonpublic secondary school pupils. Data for the year 1947–48, reported to the Office of Education by 93 percent of the nonpublic secondary schools, indicate that 87 out of every 100 pupils are enrolled in denominational schools. Table 4 gives number of schools and enrollments in nonpublic secondary schools, by denomination.
THREE PRESIDENTS met in Washington recently to talk over the work and accomplishments of the Future Farmers of America, national farm boy organization sponsored by the Agricultural Service of the Office of Education, Federal Security Agency. They were, left to right, President Harry S. Truman; George Lewis, Hersman, III., national F. F. A. president; and John H. Kraft, president of the Kraft Foods Co. and national chairman of the sponsoring committee for the Future Farmers of America Foundation. President Truman, familiar with the work of the Future Farmers, expressed keen interest in the organization's current activities and plans for the future.
Bringing the Smithsonian to Your Pupils
by Elinor B. Waters
OU DON'T HAVE TO be in Washington logical Area, the International Exchange ton, and Joseph Priestley; period cos
to view the exhibits of the Smithsonian Service, and the Astrophysical Observa- tumes; and dresses of the President's wives Institution. This private foundation under tory-do not have exhibits for the public. (or other official White House hostesses) governmental guardianship, with its variety Here are a few examples of the photo from Martha Washington to Eleanor of exhibits of scientific, historical, and cul. graphs you could get from the Institution: Roosevelt. tural importance, sells photographs of a
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM Engineering and Industries Department large number of its exhibits.
includes six departments, five of which If the Institution already has taken a pic
has several packets of photographs on the have public exhibits.
following subjects which it can lend to ture of the exhibit you desire, 8- by 10-inch
teachers or sell individually at the regular glossy prints cost 40 cents each; if no pic. History Department has pictures of
rate of 40 cents a photograph: American ture of it has been taken, the charge is busts, portraits, statues, masks, and scenes
inventors, American inventions, land trans$1.65 for the first picture and 40 cents for of historical importance. Its collection each additional print. In general, any includes pictures of Abraham Lincoln, portation, water transportation, pioneer
steamboats, and typewriters. The Departpermanent exhibit can be photographed George Washington, Samuel F. B. Morse,
ment also has pictures on wood technology, which is not copyrighted.
Ulysses S. Grant and his family, Elias Altogether there are 10 bureaus of the Howe, and the battle of the Monitor and agricultural industries and manufactures, Smithsonian Institution. Six of them- the Merrimac. The original Star Spangled and textiles. For example, pictures of unthe United States National Museum, the Banner, the desk at which Thomas Jeffer
usual coverlets, old models of sewing maNational Air Museum, the National Col.
are available. son wrote the Declaration of Independence, chines, and cork exhibits lection of Fine Arts, the Freer Gallery of a face mask of Lincoln, and Dolly Madi- Anthropology Department's photographs Art, the National Gallery of Art, and the son's sewing table are found in this depart. include exhibits of human skulls showing National Zoological Park-have public ment and have been photographed. The the brain surgery performed by early Inexhibits; the other four—the Bureau of Department also has pictures of scientists dians; the Herbert Ward African SculpAmerican Ethnology, the Canal Zone Bio- including Charles Darwin, Sir Isaac New- tures, which are portrait sculptures of Central African types, such as chief, slave, and NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE activities. It encourages study of any kind witch doctor; and life-size groups and fig. ARTS sells many post-card-size reproduc- that can be done without injuring visitors ures of Eskimo and Indians. Photographs tions and 8- by 10-inch prints of any object or animals, and has a limited number of of period art and of the cultural materials of art in its permanent collection. You can pictures of animals (birds, amphibians, of Greece, Italy, and Egypt, are also to be get a catalog of the post-card-size reproduc- reptiles, and mammals) which you can buy found here.
tions on request. Its collections include at the regular 40 cent price. Zoology Department has many exhibits of sculptures, miniatures, enamels, carved To obtain any of the photographs menbirds and mammals in lifelike positions, ivory, glasswork, jewels, antique furniture, tioned above, write to the Smithsonian Instiand a fairly inclusive section showing the and paintings from the old masters to con- tution, Washington 25, D. C. flora and fauna of the District of Columbia. temporary artists.
The history of the Smithsonian Institution Many of these have been photographed. FREER GALLERY OF ART is devoted pri. is an interesting one. James Smithson, an
Geology Department's exhibits include marily to oriental art. Its extremely valu- Englishman who had never been in the dinosaurs and other extinct monsters, as able collections include ceremonial bronze United States, left his entire fortune of well as smaller fossil forms. A few of the vessels used 4,000 years ago, carved jade $550,000 to this country to found an estabother geology exhibits available in photo- pieces, pottery from many countries of the lishment "for the increase and diffusion of graphic form are ores, minerals, gems, and
He chose the East, enameled glasswork of Syria, Chinese knowledge among men." meteorites. and Japanese paintings on silk, early Bible name “Smithsonian Institution.”
Legally the Smithsonian Institution has NATIONAL AIR MUSEUM has the larg.
manuscripts, and miniature Persian paint
ings. The Gallery also has some American as its members the President of the United est aeronautical collection in the world.
art, including a large collection of etchings, States, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, Although most of its exhibits are now stored
lithographs, and water colors of James Mc- and the members of the President's Cabinet. in Chicago awaiting completion of a buildNeill Whistler.
It is governed by a Board of Regents, coning to house them, many well-known planes NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART was dis
sisting of the Vice President, the Chief Jusare on exhibit in Washington and have been cussed in an article by Dr. Raymond Stites,
tice, three members each of the United photographed. Lindbergh's “Spirit of St. curator in charge of education of the Na.
States Senate and the House of RepresentaLouis,” Wiley Post's “Winnie Mae," and tional Gallery, in an earlier issue. (See
tives, and six citizens of the United States the original Wright brothers' Kitty Hawk School LIFE, April 1950.)
appointed by joint resolution of Congress. plane of 1903, are three of the more famous NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK carries The Secretary of the Institution is its execuones now available.
on educational, research, and recreational tive officer and the director of its activities.
New Publications of Office of Education
AN INSPIRING STORY about how grade. During the course of the "project," the all those concerned with planning homeschool children worked to make their town boys and girls tried many new techniques making departments. It presents suggesa healthier and better place to live is told for gathering information such as field tions for planning location and lay-out, in another new publication of the Office of trips, interviews, questionnaires, and pho- furnishings, equipment, and storage faciliEducation, “Petersburg Builds a Health tography. They learned to share their ties; and it gives some general consideraProgram."
findings with others by means of reports, tions in building plus a few hints on making As a result of their efforts, these children maps, charts, newspaper articles, bulletin the department safe, sanitary, and attractive. not only made great strides in improving boards. Probably most important of all, Ata Lee, program specialist for the home health conditions in Petersburg, but also they learned how to pool their information economics education service of the Office of added greatly to their own skills and knowl- and to use suggestions from many different Education and author of the booklet, em. edge. The "project," as it came to be people.
phasized that “The present day homemakknown, had widespread effects on the en- Copies of “Petersburg Builds a Health ing curriculum includes all the areas of tire school program.
Program” (Office of Education Bulletin homemaking involved in the management Subjects ceased to be arbitrarily divided. 1949, No. 9), are for sale by the Superin
of a home and in providing for the welfare Spelling and reading lessons took on new tendent of Documents, U. S. Government
of the family."
For quick and easy checking, there's a meaning, as they were necessary for carry. Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C., for
list in the appendix which reminds those ing on the “project.” Letters weren't 20 cents.
planning a homemaking department of the make-believe, they were written to thank “SPACE AND EQUIPMENT for Home
space and equipment they should think real people for real services performed. making Programs,” a recent Office of Edu- about including And arithmetic classes were devoted some- cation bulletin, should be of interest to This publication (Office of Education times to counting and adding pigs or home economists and school building Miscellaneous No. 9) may also be ordered chickens within town limits, and sometimes people.
from the Superintendent of Documents. to tabulating the results obtained from The booklet is designed to help teachers,
It costs 35 cents. questionnaires. supervisors, architects, school boards, and
-Elinor B. Waters.
The Office of Education-Its Services and Staff
Division of Vocational Education
The controlling purpose of vocational THE DIVISION of Vocational Education
THIS IS THE SECOND in a series of education is stated in the Smith-Hughes Act,
statements appearing in SCHOOL LIFE administers Federal funds appropriated by
"to fit for useful employment," i. e., to pro
on the work of the Office of Educa. Congress for this type of education, promul.
vide training to develop skills, abilities, un
tion. Seryices and staff members of gates policies which govern the use of these the Division of Vocational Education
derstandings, attitudes, working habits, and funds, aids States in determining what their
and the Division of Higher Education appreciations, and to impart knowledge vocational education needs are, how to pro
are reported in this month's presenta- and information needed by workers to enter
tion. vide for them, and in many other ways as
and make progress in employment on a sists the individual States in promoting and
useful and productive basis. Vocational developing their vocational education pro
education is an integral part of the total The latest of these is the Vocational Edugrams. The Division provides services in
education program. It makes a contribucation Act of 1946, commonly known as the the fields of agriculture, business, home eco
tion toward the development of good citi. George-Barden Act. The Smith-Hughes nomics, trades and industry, and occupa
zens, including their health, social, civic, and George-Barden Acts are the only acts tional information and guidance. Its
cultural, and economic interests. currently effective. These and the several administrative functions are performed other vocational education acts were passed
The needs of two distinct groups of peothrough the office of the Assistant Commis
ple are recognized by the acts in stating that for the purpose of promoting and developsioner for Vocational Education, which also
the education provided shall be designed ing vocational education through a plan for provides service to the States to facilitate
to meet the needs of persons over 14 years cooperation between the Federal Governprogram planning and the development of
of age (1) who are preparing for, or (2) ment and the States. an adequate program of vocational educa
who have entered upon, the work of various
This plan of cooperation for the develoption for youth and adults in city and
occupations in the fields of agriculture, disment of vocational education is based upon country.
tributive occupations, home economics, and The program of vocational education in two fundamental ideas: (1) That vocational
trades, and industry. Vocational educathe United States has been developed in education is a matter of national interest
tion is intended to meet the training needs conformity with the provisions of the
and essential to the national welfare, and of persons who are preparing for employ. Smith-Hughes Act, approved by the Con- (2) that Federal funds are necessary to ment and to supplement or extend training gress February 23, 1917. Supplementary stimulate and to assist the States in making for those who are employed. Training opacts have been enacted from time to time. adequate provisions for such training. portunities are not restricted to young per
sons who are enrolled in the regular day FEDERAL-STATE-LOCAL RELATIONS IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
schools but are extended to serve all out-ofschool youth and adults, both employed and unemployed, who are in need of the kinds of training which can be provided best in organized classes.
PLANS AND REPORTS BRANCH
OFFICE OF ASST. COMMISSIONER
PROGRAM PLANNING BRANCH
Staff Vocational Education Division
sioner for Vocational Education and Director,
Division of Vocational Education.
Vocational Education, in charge of Program
Vocational Education in charge of Plans and
STATE DIRECTOR OF
(Continued on page 127)
LOCAL BOARD OF EDUCATION
Superintendent of Schools
How To Obtain U. S. Gover
'HE following chart contains information on those Government films which were available for public use in
the United States on March 15, 1950. Because of space limitations, agencies with only a few such films have been omitted from the chart.
Borrow from CAA, Washing- Not for sale.
Office of Aviation ton 25, D, C., or from
tration, U. S. Depart-
Washington 25, D. C.
U. S. Coast Guard,
Information films not Washington 25, D. C.
Office of Education,
Federal Security Agency,
Borrow from Fish and
Not for loan.
Purchase 5 films from Branch of Commercial
Washington 25, D. C.
Laboratory, U. S.
Fe, N. Mex.