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The Race Between School Chi

By Ray L. Hamon, Chief, School Housing Section, Division of School Administration

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been increasing while we deferred new construction and wore out the old schoolhouses.

The accompanying chart shows the race between school children and schoolhouses, with schoolhouses lagging far behind. We'll have to dig deeper and move faster if we are to provide adequate, safe, and suit. able schoolhouses for America's children.

Because of the great variation in construction costs since 1930, dollar volume of capital outlay has but little meaning until related to schoolhousing space provided by the investment. The accompanying table indicates the number of school children by years in relation to the number in attendance in 1930, and the dollar investment in schoolhouses related to equivalent space provided in 1930.

The estimated numbers of school chil. dren are certainly valid up to 1955, because those children have already been born. Be. cause of the accumulative effect of births on school attendance, it is estimated that school attendance will continue to increase until 1958 and then level off as shown by the chart.

If school enrollments should decline after 1960, would a 10 billion dollar school construction program leave the Nation's schools overbuilt? The answer is “no," provided the schoolhouses have been properly planned and located. In the event that

School children







1930 '32

'34 '36








Su 20,000,000 1,079,000,000 1035,000,000 993,000,000 949,000,000 907,000,000

863,000,000 819,000,000 786,000,000 742,000,000

707,000,000 A $10,000,000,000 investment must be made in schoolhouses during the next Il years if schoolhouses are to break even in the race with school children

44 46 48 50 52

'54 56

'58 60


Office of Education


ildren and Schoolhouses

tion and long-range planning at the local, State, and Federal levels of government.

School children and schoolhouses (public elementary and secondary schools)

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525 p.

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Significant School Plant References

During 1949 two very significant books have been published on this subject. It is urged that school officials and architects contemplating school building programs avail themselves of this literature. American Association of School Administra

tors. American School Buildings. 1201 Sixteenth Street NW., Washington, D. C., the Association.

1949 Yearbook. $4. National Council on Schoolhouse Construc.

tion. Guide for Planning School Plants. The Council (W. D. McClurkin, Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn.), 1949 Edition. $1.25.

For further pertinent literature relative to the planning of school facilities, attention is called to the following bibliographies : American Educational Research Association.

Review of Educational Research, “School Plant and Equipment,” Vol. II, No. 5; Vol. V, No. 4; Vol. VIII, No. 4; Vol. XII, No. 2; Vol. XV, No. 1; and Vol. XVIII, No. 1,

dated from 1932 to 1948. American Institute of Architects, Department

of Education and Research. “Building Type Reference Guide No. 1, The Public School Building," reprinted from Bulletin

of the A. 1. A., March 1947. Indiana University, School of Education.

Bibliography of School Buildings, Grounds, and Equipment, Parts I, II, III,

IV, V, and VI, dated from 1928 to 1945. School Life (U. S. Office of Education),

“School Plant Articles,” April 1947. Also

available in reprint. The American School and University, “School

Plant Bibliography,” 1947–48 Edition, p. 226–244. Also available in reprint.

$707 742 786 819 863 907 949 993 1,035 1,079 1,120

82 86 91 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130

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! Office of Education average-daily-attendance data for 1930-46; and thereafter Bureau of the Census enrollment estimates for all elementary and secondary schools, less 10 percent for non-public-school enrollment, less another 10 percent to convert Census enrollment estimates to average-daily-attendance estimates.

2 Estimated.

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Schools To Celebrate United Nations Day

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Thrift-Teaching Aids

HE SCHOOLS of the Nation are once schools. The American Association for the Policy Association Headline Series No. 76; TH

more being asked to participate actively United Nations, 45 East Sixty-fifth Street, 35 cents.) in the world-wide observance of United New York 21, N. Y., has prepared special

How Peoples Work Together: The United Nations Day on October 24, fourth anni- materials, including sets of small paper flags

Nations and the Specialized Agencies, an versary of the coming into force of the of the United Nations, with mounting sticks

illustrated pamphlet prepared by the staff United Nations Charter. By unanimous ($1 a set). Some radio scripts are avail

of the UN Department of Public Informavote of the UN General Assembly that day able from the AAUN as well as from the

tion, available from the Manhattan Publishis to be devoted each year “to making Radio Education Officer, United Nations

ing Co., 225 Lafayette Street, New York 12. known to the people of the world the aims Radio Division, Lake Success, N. Y.

N. Y. (50 cents; rates for quantity orders). and achievements of the United Nations" through celebrations in all the 59 member Other Organizations

United Nations Map of the World, by L.

G. Bullock. 1946. A colorful nations. Commissioner of Education Earl

of the

map Among the other organizations publishJames McGrath has sent a letter to the chief ing useful and inexpensive pamphlets and

world showing the United Nations with State school officers in all 48 States, the Dis

their flags and seals, together with approstudy guides are the Foreign Policy Assotrict of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, and

priate quotations and historical informaciation, 22 East Thirty-eighth Street, New Puerto Rico, offering the assistance of the

tion, distributed by Frederick Warne, 79 York 16, N. Y.; the Carnegie Endowment U. S. Office of Education to American

Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. ($1.50). for International Peace, 405 West One schools wishing to plan special assemblies, Hundred and Seventeenth Street, New York class discussions, and exhibits. A Selected 27, N. Y.; the League of Women Voters of Bibliography for Teaching About the the U.S., 726 Jackson Place NW., Washing.

A WEALTH of material useful in thrift United Nations, prepared by Dr. Helen ton 6, D. C.; Rotary International, 35 East

education is available to teachers from the Dwight Reid of the Division of Interna- Wacker Drive, Chicago 1, III.; and the Na

Education Section, U. S. Savings Bond Divitional Educational Relations, is available on tional Education Association, 1201 Six

sion, Treasury Department, or from Sav. request from the Office of Education. The teenth Street NW., Washington 6, D. C. The

ings Bond Offices in each State. supply is limited but permission is granted Instructor had a special United Nations

These thrift-teaching aids, many of them for reproduction for wider distribution issue, May 1949, with many practical sug prepared by teachers and endorsed by leadwhere local facilities for mimeographing gestions for use at various grade levels

. The ing educators who serve on the National are available. Several State Departments UNESCO headquarters in Paris recently Advisory Committee on School Savings, of Education have already done this. published a small pamphlet, Towards World

range all the way from posters to plays, Understanding: Some Suggestions Department of State and UN

song sheets to radio scripts, clipsheets to Teaching About the United Nations and Its

curriculum guides. The Department of State is issuing a Specialized Agencies. This is available on

Specific manuals for teachers include number of helpful publications, including request from the UNESCO Relations Staff, “Teaching Mathematics Through School a pamphlet, The United NationsFour Department of State, Washington 25, D. C.

Savings," for grades 7-9, “Budgeting for Years of Achievement; a popular leaflet, The United Nations at Work; a Guide to the Recent Materials

Security," for grades 6-12, and two new

social studies units, “Learning To Use US and the UN; posters, and background A few of the more recent and particularly Money Wisely,” for grades 4–7, and “Plans information for lecturers. These materials helpful materials are suggested below:

for Spending and Saving," for grades 7–12. are available on request from the Division

The World at Work: The Economic and So- For information on the School Savings of Public Liaison, Department of State,

cial Efforts of the United Nations and the Program and the teaching aids available Washington 25, D. C. The Secretary of

Specialized Agencies. Texts of the basic for use in thrift education, teachers are State has appointed a National Citizens'

documents, with explanations, questions, urged to address their State Savings Bond Committee for United Nations Day, with

and charts. (Rotary International, 50 Offices or the Education Section, U. S. Sav. headquarters at 700 Jackson Place NW.,

cents, special rates for quantity orders.) ings Bond Division, Treasury Department, Washington 6, D. C., to promote observ

This is a companion to Rotary's excellent Washington 25, D. C. ance of the Day through the cooperation

illustrated commentary on the UN Charter, of all the major national private organizaFrom Here On! (35 cents).

In Limited Number tions and Government agencies. They also have prepared special kits of materials to Report on the UN, by Thomas J. Hamilton

DO YOU need copies of School Life assist schools and communities in developand Vera Micheles Dean. (Foreign Policy

to complete your 1948-49 files? We have ing their plans for local celebrations. Other Association Headline Series No. 75: 35

a limited number of copies of each issue of materials have been prepared by the Departcents.)

School Life for 1948-49 available upon ment of Public Information, United Na

Freedom's Charter: The Universal Declara. request. Address : Information and Pub. tions, Lake Success, N. Y., including films tion of Human Rights, by 0. Frederick lications Service, Office of Education, Fedand filmstrips available free of charge to Nolde and Eleanor Roosevelt. (Foreign eral Security Agency, Washington 25, D. C.


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tors and screens. This is not true of the small rural schools, some of which do not have electric current.

“... We have a supreme dutyto help, as teachers, to organize a society in which every man will be able to shake hands, in brotherly trust and friendship, with his kinsman from Europe or Asia, with the black man from Africa and the red man from America. All races, all peoples, all national aspirations must have scope for expression in this postwar world .

Without doubt the two most difficult things for humanity to learn are the art of ruling men and the art of educating them We who are educationistsand those we have to guide-must all be the architects of that society in which, if we have well fulfilled our task, human rights and human liberties will flourish.DR. JAIME TORRES BODET, Director-General of UNESCO, who addressed the opening session of the Twelfth International Conference on Public Education at Geneva, Switzerland, on "The Right to an Education." Above excerpts are from Dr. Bodet's address.




Great Britain:

Does the Citizens' Committee mentioned in the United States Report have a local influence or does it extend its activities throughout the country? Answer: The Citizens' Federal Committee has an important part in forming public opinion and awakening interest in all prob. lems relating to education. Also, almost every school has a parent-teacher association. These various associations are fed. erated on a State and national basis. The National Congress of Parents and Teachers has about 6 million members.

Twelfth International Conference

on Education

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On page 9 of the United States Report "general education" is mentioned. Would

the delegate from the United States explain R. Ruth E. McMurry of the UNESCO Relations Staff, Department of State, and

this term ? Dr. Rall I. Grigsby, Deputy Commissioner of Education, were U. S. delegates

Answer: The term "general education" is at the Twelfth International Conference on Public Education which met at the Palais understood to mean, most of all, the knowl. Wilson, Geneva, Switzerland, July 4–12. The delegates reported on education in

edge which would be useful to pupils in the United States during the past year and answered questions asked by delegates

life. In the secondary schools and those of from other countries. School Life is pleased to present several of the questions

higher level the United States has gone asked and the answers given by Dr. Grigsby. See School Life, November 1948 very far in the field of specialization. Now issue, for questions asked at the 1948 conference.

an effort is being made to reestablish the educational program in favor of a deeper

culture. Belgium:

Answer: The use of educational films is be

coming more and more general in the France: Has the United States succeeded in

United States. About 90 percent of the sec- Does the superintendent help the teacher equalizing the salaries of teachers in the ondary schools are equipped with projec

(Continued on page 13) lower grades and those in the higher grades? How do teachers' salaries compare with the salaries of administrators ? Answer: It is difficult to make general statements in regard to teachers' salaries in the United States because there are 48 different school systems. There is, however, a tendency toward the adoption of a single scale of pay for all primary school and secondary school teachers. Comparison with the sal. aries of other public employees is not favorable to teachers, because stenographers may sometimes receive a higher beginning salary and more rapid increases.



Is the use of educational films included in the regular school curriculum in teaching geography, for example? Is it possible to obtain such films for the teaching of geography and where?

Delegates attending the Twelfth International Conference on Public Education held at Geneva, Switzerland,
July 4-12, 1949. Representing the United States at the Conference were Dr. Rall I. Grigsby, Deputy Com-
missioner of Education, second at table on right, and Dr. Ruth E. McMurry, of UNESCO Relations Staff,
Department of State, third delegate sitting at table on extreme right.


town to another part of the district. In spite .ion of higher learning is psychologically

of possible economies from cooperative considered to be bounded by the lines that (Continued from page 2)

purchasing of supplies or from rendering mark the limits of the physical properties. tors themselves and that mutual understand

certain services cooperatively, such prac- (7) States and the Nation. If all the ing and cooperation are essential for best

tices were almost nonexistent. What was best educational practices that have been results. Statesmen are needed in education,

needed there, and what is needed in many developed in any State could be put into

similar situations in other States, is more not to sell the public” a bill of goods about

operation in every State we would have a the schools, but to get enthusiastic coopera

real educational statesmanship-leadership far better situation in education than we tion in working out a program which will be

in bringing about a recognition of the fact have today. But many States, like many understood and supported by all.

that we are living in a cooperative society communities, have difficulties in seeing any (2) The Teaching Staff.-In many com

and that isolationism should no longer good beyond their own borders. Again munities the passing years and short-sighted

be condoned. Just think how many neg. and again States have continued practices policies have resulted in a growing gap be

lected opportunities there are in every State that are outmoded and can be shown to be tween the administrative and teaching staffs.

for voluntary cooperation among local wrong long after neighboring States have The situation is often considered somewhat

school systems in studying problems, in solved the problem. While representatives like that frequently existing between capital rendering services, in planning programs, from States and local school systems get and labor, yet there should be no basis for and in many other respects.

together, from time to time, for conventions similarity. Bridging the gap is not merely

(5) States and Local School Systems.- and meetings, States far too infrequently a matter of talking about democratic ad- Every school system in a State is handi- consciously cooperate in studies for their ministration; it involves real leadership in capped to some extent by what is happening mutual benefit. Moreover, to only a limdeveloping a cooperative program which is

or failing to happen in the weakest school ited extent has there been any serious study based on mutual understanding and respect.

system. That important fact is frequently by the States of the educational services There is no longer any place for an isola

overlooked. All too often the wealthy which are, or should be, provided by the tionist philosophy in relationships between school systems are too little concerned with U. S. Office of Education or other agencies administrators and teachers.

what is happening in some remote section of the Federal Government. What we are (3) Phases of Education.--Artificial

of the State. All too often large city school saying is merely that we live in an era of cobarriers have been erected in the minds of systems are satisfied to have a weak or polit- operation rather than a period of isolation teachers and administrators between vari.

ical State department of education. Again and that many school officials do not yet ous integral aspects of education such as and again the opportunity for a progressive seem, in practice, to have recognized that

fact. We have made some progress, of elementary and secondary education, Eng- step has been lost because supposed school lish and social studies, and so on.

leaders were too isolationist in their think- course, but the possibilities to be realized of the biggest mental barriers that seems to

ing or did not have enough statesmanship through cooperative effort have thus far have been erected thus far is between voca

to cooperate for the common good. This is scarcely been touched. What we need are tional education and other aspects of edu

one of the most serious situations in educa- more leaders whose vision extends beyond

tion in the Nation today. If the educators the artificial boundaries of their own fields cation. Too often the programs have been

and whose lives are dedicated to the ad. conducted in practical isolation even though throughout each State could always coop

erate for what is best for the children in- vancement of the common good. they have been housed in the same building.

stead of seeking to protect their own posiI am not concerned at this time with how

tions or to enhance their own prestige, the Improving Organization this came about, but with the fact that it

and Finance educational program would be far ahead of often exists and that real educational states

where it is at present. More opportunities There are many other important issues in manship is required to deal with the prob. for progress have been lost because of lack

education which require better and more lems involved.

of real statesmanship on the part of educa- capable leadership if satisfactory progress (4) Other School Systems.-A study tors than because of any inherent opposi

is to be made. At this time I want to single made in one State last year showed that, in tion on the part of the lay public.

out just two others because of their imspite of the fact that representatives of local (6) Schools and Colleges.--How can any

portance and urgency. school systems in each county were required real progress be made if there is a wall of One of these is the organization of more to meet together one or more times during isolationism between the schools and col- adequate local school administrative units the year, there was little real cooperation. leges of any State? Yet far too infre- or districts. We have played around with Each district was operating pretty largely quently have the schools sought opportuni- that idea for a generation and have made as an independent principality. The arti- ties to learn about and use to maximum ad- some limited

progress. But, if we face the ficial lines used to bound the many small vantage the services that could be provided situation realistically, we must admit that districts were, in practice, almost as form- by the colleges. Equally infrequently have many school districts which exist today are idable barriers as the walls surrounding the colleges explored fully enough the possi- more obsolete in terms of modern condi. medieval castles. Competing busses some- bilities of services to the public schools. tions and needs than the districts which extimes ran along district boundary roads. Fortunately there have been many encourag. isted a generation ago. Our vision has been Busses from rural districts sometimes hauled ing illustrations of cooperatively developed too limited and our courage too uncertain to children from one part of a rural district programs during recent years but it is still make much progress in solving this imthrough a portion of an independent small too often true that the

of an institu- portant problem. A district large enough


But one

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