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Sir To. Welcome, ass. Now let's have a catch. Sir And. By my troth, the fool has an excellent breast.24 I had rather than forty shillings I had such a leg,25 and so sweet a breath to sing, as the fool has. In sooth, thou wast in very gracious fooling last night, when thou spokest of Pigrogromitus, of the Vapians passing the equinoctial of Queubus: 26 'twas very good, i' faith. I sent thee sixpence for thy leman:27 hadst it?

Clo. I did impeticos thy gratillity; 28 for Malvolio's nose is no whipstock: my lady has a white hand, and the Myrmidons are no bottle-ale houses. Sir And. Excellent! why, this is the best fooling, when all is done. Now, a song.

Sir To. Come on; there is sixpence for you; let's have a song.

Sir And. There's a testril 30 of me too: if one knight give a―31

Clo. Would you have a love-song, or a song of good life ? 32

Sir To. A love-song, a love-song.

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In delay there lies no plenty;

Then come kiss me, sweet and twenty,3
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Youth's a stuff will not endure.

Sir And. A mellifluous voice, as I am true knight.

A contagious breath.

Sir To. Sir And. Very sweet and contagious, i' faith. Sir To. To hear by the nose, it is dulcet in contagion. But shall we make the welkin dance 34 indeed? shall we rouse the night-owl in a catch that will draw three souls out of one weaver?35 shall we do that?

Sir And. An you love me, let's do 't: I am dog at a catch.36

Clo. By'r lady, sir, and some dogs will catch well.

Sir And. Most certain. Let our catch be, "Thou knave."

Clo. "Hold thy peace, thou knave," 37 knight? I shall be constrained in't to call thee knave, knight.

Sir And. 'Tis not the first time I have constrained one to call me knave. Begin, fool: it begins, "Hold thy peace."

Clo. I shall never begin, if I hold my peace.
Sir And. Good, i' faith. Come, begin.

Enter MARIA.

[They sing a catch.

Mar. What a caterwauling do you keep here! If my lady have not called up her steward, Malvolio, and bid him turn you out of doors, never

trust me.

was represented two louts drinking, and beneath which was the inscription, "We three loggerheads be;" making the reader thereof call himself a loggerhead. The Clown waggishly turns this allusion into a means of calling the two knights fools equally with himself, the acknowledged fool.

24. An excellent breast. "Breast" was often used for 'singing-voice' in Shakespeare's time.

25. I had rather than forty shillings I had, &c. This same phrase is used by Master Slender ("Merry Wives," Acti., sc. 1); between whose vapid yet vapouring diction and that of Sir Andrew there exists a wonderful folly-family likeness; and yet how individually distinct are the portraits of the two men kept! 26. Pigrogromitus, of the Vapians, &c. A specimen of the jester's wonted style of inventive mystification; similar to his quoting "Quinapalus." See Note 67, Act i.

27. Leman. Lover,' 'sweetheart;' a term applied to both men and women. See Note 15, Act iv., "Merry Wives." 28. I did impeticos thy gratillity. The Clown's facetious mode of saying, 'I did impetticoat thy gratuity.'

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29. Whipstock. The handle of a whip. Feste is flourishing on with his jumble of apparent sententiousness and "best fooling." 30. Testril. An old form of 'testern,' or 'tester;' sixpence. See Note 12, Act i., "Two Gentlemen of Verona 31. If one knight give a-. In the Folio, this is not printed as a broken or interrupted speech, but merely as if it were a typographical error of omission. Possibly there may have originally been some platitude of a reason given by Sir Andrew for his giving a similar piece of money with his brother "knight,"

Sir Toby; but, printed as a broken speech, it serves well to indicate Aguecheek's flabby attempt to imitate his knightly model, trying to give a reason, and failing from sheer incompetence to express himself.

32. Good life? Used here for 'virtuous conduct,' 'decent behaviour' as we find "good life" employed to express 'character for virtue and decent conduct,' in " Merry Wives," Act iii., sc. 3, where Mrs. Page says to Mrs. Ford, "Defend your reputation, or bid farewell to your good life for ever." 33. Sweet and twenty. This was formerly used as a term of endearment, and may be so employed here; but we think it likely to mean 'sweetly and twenty times.'

34. Make the welkin dance. 'Drink till we make the sky whirl round.'

35. Draw three souls out of one weaver? Shakespeare elsewhere has jocose allusion to the effect of music being to "hale souls out of men's bodies" ("Much Ado," Act ii., sc. 3); and here he makes it have a threefold power of soul-drawing from a "weaver "-weavers, in common with most persons of sedentary occupation, being notedly fond of music.

36. I am dog at a catch. This was an idiomatic form of expression, instead of 'I am a dog at a catch;' and it is, moreover, characteristic of Sir Andrew's diction, who has just said, "As I am true knight."

37. "Hold thy peace, thou knave." A copy of this threepart catch exists in a book entitled "Pammelia, Musick's Miscellanie," 1618; and the composition is so contrived that each of the singers calls the other "knave" in turn.

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Viola. She took the ring of me:-I'll none of it.

Malvolio. Come, sir, you peevishly threw it to her; and her will is, it should be so returned.

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Act II. Scene II.

Sir And. Ay, he does well enough if he be disposed, 42 and so do I too: he does it with a better grace, but I do it more natural. Sir To. [Singing.] Oh, the twelfth day of December,-43 Mar. For the love of Heaven, peace!

of another old ballad. Its burden, "Lady, lady," is elsewhere introduced by Shakespeare.

42. Disposed. Used by Shakespeare and his contemporary writers for inclined to freedom in mirth,' 'ready to indulge in licence of fun, or in broad talk.' See Note 26, Act ii., "Love's Labour's Lost."

43. Oh, the twelfth day of December!" A portion of a ballad now lost; but which, if found, might furnish some vestige of connection between this fragment sung by Sir Toby and the title of the present comedy. The Epiphany is called Twelfth Day,' because it is the twelfth day from Christmas, which occurs in December; and, therefore, the ballad may speak of "the twelfth day of December," meaning thereby Twelfth Day, though that festival occurs in January.

Enter MALVOLIO.

Mal. My masters, are you mad? or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out your coziers' catches 44 without any Is there no mitigation or remorse of voice? respect of place, persons, nor time, in you? Sir To. We did keep time, sir, in our catches. Sneck up: 45

Mal. Sir Toby, I must be round with you.46 My lady bade me tell you, that, though she harbours you as her kinsman, she's nothing allied to your disorders. If you can separate yourself and your misdemeanours, you are welcome to the house; if not, an it would please you to take leave of her, she is very willing to bid you farewell. Sir To. [Singing.]

Farewell, dear heart, since I must needs be gone. 47
Mar. Nay, good Sir Toby.
Clo. [Singing.]

His eyes do show his days are almost done.
Mal. Is't even so?

Sir To. [Singing.] But I will never die.
Clo. Sir Toby, there you lie.
Mal. This is much credit to you.
Sir To. [Singing.] Shall I bid him go?
Clo. [Singing.] What an if you do?

Sir To. [Singing.] Shall I bid him go, and spare not? Clo. [Singing.] Oh, no, no, no, no, you dare not. Sir To. Out o' time, sir ?48 ye lie.-Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale ?49 Clo. Yes, by Saint Anne; and ginger shall be hot i' the mouth too.

44. Coziers' catches. A "cozier "was a botcher of old clothes, or a mender of old shoes. French, coudre, to sew; participle past, cousu, sewed.

45. Sneck up! This was a scoffing interjection, tantamount to go hang!' and here has the added humorous effect of a hiccup. 46. Round with you. 'Blunt with you,' 'frank with you.' See Note 10, Act ii., "Comedy of Errors."

47. Farewell, dear heart, since 1, &c. This ballad, containing some of the snatches quoted alternately by Sir Toby and the Clown, appears in the first volume of " Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry."

48. Out o' time, sir? The Folio prints 'tune' instead of "time" (Theobald's correction); and perhaps 'tune' was here used in the sense of "time," as we have shown was the case formerly. See Note 24, Act v., "As You Like It." But as Sir Toby seems to refer to Malvolio's previous words, and his own rejoinder, it seems probable that "time" was the word, repeated exactly, having left its sound on the knight's ear, and merely misprinted. "Time" and 'tune,' the one word erroneously printed for the other, was a frequent typographical mistake.

49. Because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale? A fling at Malvolio's Puritanism; the Puritans being violent denouncers of merry-makings, cake-eatings, carousals, and such other customary observances of holidays and festivals in old England. The Clown follows this up by swearing "by Saint Anne;" the Puritans not only objecting to swearing, but

Sir To. Thou 'rt i' the right.-Go, sir, rub your chain with crumbs. 50-A stoop of wine, Maria! Mal. Mistress Mary, if you prized my lady's favour at anything more than contempt, you would not give means for this uncivil rule; 51 she shall know of it, by this hand. [Exit.

Mar. Go shake your ears.

Sir And. 'Twere as good a deed as to drink when a man's a-hungry, to challenge him to the field, 52 and then to break promise with him, and

make a fool of him.

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Mar. Marry, sir, sometimes he is a kind of Puritan.

Sir And. Oh, if I thought that, I'd beat him like a dog.

Sir To. What! for being a Puritan? thy exquisite reason, dear knight?

Sir And. I have no exquisite reason for 't, but I have reason good enough.55

Mar. The devil a Puritan that he is, or anything constantly, but a time-pleaser ; an affectioned 56 ass, that cons 57 state without book, and utters it by great swarths; 58 the best persuaded of

having peculiar abhorrence of invoking the saints, as well as of observing saints' days.

50. Rub your chain with crumbs. It was usual with stewards in great houses to wear a gold chain, as a badge of office, and mark of distinction over inferior servants; and these chains were kept bright by rubbing them with bread-crumbs.

51. Rule. Here used for 'revel;' in the same way as we have pointed out in Note 25, Act iii., "Midsummer Night's Dream." 52. Challenge him to the field. here.

The Folio omits "to"

53. A nay-word. The Folio prints 'an ayword' here; but as Shakespeare uses "nay-word," it is probably the term here. See Note 45, Act ii., "Merry Wives." There it is used more in the sense of 'watchword;' here, more in the sense of 'byword.' 54. Possess. Tell, inform. See Note 9, Act iv., "Measure for Measure."

55. Reason good enough. The bullying coward Sir Andrew's reason was all-sufficient; inasmuch as the Puritans were known to conscientiously avoid fighting.

56. Affectioned. Used here for 'affected.' 57. Cons.

Here used for 'knows by rote,' 'has by heart;' so

as to repeat it "without book."

58. Swarths. Swarth, or swath, is as much grass as a mower cuts at one stroke of his scythe; and figuratively represents the pompous sweep of sentence that a large talker promulgates.

himself, so crammed, as he thinks, with excellences, that it is his ground of faith, that all that look on him love him; and on that vice in him will my revenge find notable cause to work,

Sir To. What wilt thou do?

Mar. I will drop in his way some obscure epistles of love; wherein, by the colour of his beard, the shape of his leg, the manner of his gait, the expressure of his eye, forehead, and complexion, he shall find himself most feelingly personated: I can write very like my lady, your niece; on a forgotten matter we can hardly make distinction of our hands.

Sir To. Excellent! I smell a device.
Sir And. I have 't in my nose too.

Sir To. He shall think, by the letters that thou wilt drop, that they come from my niece, and that she's in love with him.

Mar. My purpose is, indeed, a horse of that colour.

Sir And. And your horse, now, would make him an ass.

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59. Penthesilea. A queen of the Amazons, who fought with Achilles. Sir Toby calls Maria thus, in ironical allusion to her unmartial dimensions, as well as in compliment to her prowess. 60. If I cannot recover your niece. Shakespeare sometimes, as here, uses "recover" for 'attain,' 'reach to.'

61. Call me cut. This phrase, and "call me horse," were with 'abuse me,' 'reproach me.' synonymous 66 Cut was one name for a horse; probably an abbreviation of 'curtal,' or 'curtail.' See Note 79, Act ii., "All's Well."

62. I'll go burn some sack. See Note 42, Act iii., "Merry Wives."

63. Recollected terms. By this expression the poet probably means what musicians call 'phrases of repetition,' or 'passages of imitation;' where rapid successions of notes, and florid ornamentation, produce the effect of liveliness which the Duke's lovemelancholy shrinks from, and contrast with the simplicity he so much prefers.

64. Feste. Shakespeare's aptly-invented name for this, one of his pleasantest clowns; from the Italian word festeggiante, which

Sir And. If I do not, never trust me, take it how you will.

Sir To. Come, come; I'll go burn some sack; 62 'tis too late to go to bed now; come, knight; come, knight, [Exeunt.

SCENE IV.-An Apartment in the DUKE'S Palace.

Enter DUKE, VIOLA, CURIO, and others. Duke. Give me some music :-now, good morrow, friends:

Now, good Cesario, but that piece of song,
That old and antique song we heard last night:
Methought it did relieve my passion much,
More than light airs, and recollected terms," 63
Of these most brisk and giddy-paced times :--
Come, but one verse.

Cur. He is not here, so please your lordship, that should sing it,

Duke. Who was it?

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while.

Duke. Seek him out:-and play the tune the [Exit CURIO. Music. Come hither, boy; if ever thou shalt love, In the sweet pangs of it remember me; For such as I am all true lovers are,Unstaid and skittish in all motions else, Save in the constant image of the creature That is belov'd.-How dost thou like this tune ? Vio. It gives a very echo to the seat Where Love is thron'd.

Duke. Thou dost speak masterly: 65
My life upon 't, young though thou art, thine eye
Hath stay'd upon some favour that it loves;—
Hath it not, boy?

Vio.
A little, by your favour.66
Duke. What kind of woman is 't?

Florio explains-' Feasting, merrie, banqueting, pleasant, of good entertainment.'

65, Speak masterly. This is one of the few instances where Shakespeare indirectly (and of course unconsciously) comments upon himself. That the comment is here highly commendatory is, as it were, forced from him by the exigencies of dramatic truth in the situation, and by the verity of beauty in the words commented upon. Certainly there never was more masterly speaking" on the effect produced by music upon a nature sensitively alive to its finest influences, than Viola's few but intensely expressive words.

66. A little, by your favour. Viola says this ostensibly in the sense of a little, by your leave; but she secretly says it in consonance with the sense in which the Duke uses the word "favour" ("look,' 'aspect,' countenance '), meaning, 'I have suffered mine eye to rest upon your own countenance.' And how well the words "a little " serve to denote the shy, timid, occasional glances that she has allowed herself to indulge in, when his not observing her has favoured her looking upon him!

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67. Worn. It was proposed by Johnson, who has been followed by some editors, to change worn to won' here. We think that "worn" is here much the more Shakespearian word, as signifying 'worn out,' 'worn away,' 'obliterated;' and that it more strictly consists with the context than won' would do. The reason that Johnson gives for preferring 'lost and won' ("these two words," he says, "coming usually and naturally together"), is the very cause why we do not believe that the poet placed them here in conventional conjunction; for, as we have before shown (see Note 47, Act iv., "All's Well "), Shakespeare often gives the effect of one word to another by his introduction of the latter in a sentence where usually the former is employed.

68. Hold the bent. 'Bide the strain,' 'maintain, or endure the tension;' "bent" being a technicality in archery for the degree of flexure to which a bow was drawn. Shakespeare uses the word "bent" with peculiar and forcible meaning. See Note 71, Act ii., "Much Ado."

69. Perfection. This word, as used here, not only applies to the blown beauty of the rose, but has figurative reference to the full loveliness of a woman when matched with her chosen manly counterpart in married union; thus affording corroboration to the reading of "perfection" instead of 'perfections' in a previous passage of the present play. See Note 13, Act i.

70. The free maids. The word "free" was used by Chaucer, and sometimes by Shakespeare (as here), to express 'pure,' 'chaste,' 'free from vicious taint.'

71. Silly sooth. Simple truth.

72. The old age. The antique age,' 'the primitive age.'

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Clo. No pains, sir; I take pleasure in singing, sir.

Duke. I'll pay thy pleasure then.

Clo. Truly, sir, and pleasure will be paid, one time or another.75

Duke. Give me now leave to leave thee.

Clo. Now, the melancholy god protect thee; and the tailor make thy doublet of changeable taffeta,76 for thy mind is a very opal !77-I would have men of such constancy put to sea, that their business might be everything, and their intent everywhere; for that's it that always makes a [Exit. good voyage of nothing.-Farewell. Duke. Let all the rest give place.

[Exeunt CURIO and Attendants. Once more, Cesario, Get thee to yond' same sovereign cruelty:

73. Cypress. By this word it is not quite certain whether a coffin of cypress-wood, or a shroud of cypress (or cyprus, the then name for what we call 'crape'), was meant; since it may refer either to the "black coffin," or the "white shroud." In this play, Olivia says "a cyprus, not a bosom, hides my heart;" and in the "Winter's Tale," Act iv., sc. 3, we find

"Lawn as white as driven snow, Cyprus black as e'er was crow." Cyprus, or crape, was made in both black and white. 74. My part of death, no one so true did share it. 'No one so true as I did ever take part in death's tragedy.'

75. Pleasure will be paid, one time or another. One of the beautifully wise and largely significant axioms that we owe to Shakespeare's fools; his fools have in their folly a reflection of their deviser's wit-wit replete with acute truth in playful expression.

76. Changeable taffeta. What is now called 'shot silk.' 77. Opal. A precious stone, that displays varying colours according to the lights in which it is viewed. It is worthy of remark that this touch, indicating the variable hues in the Duke's mood-supported by just such another in the first scene, where we also find him abruptly breaking off from listening to music, with confessed restlessness and alteration of humourharmonises with, and suitably prepares the subsequent facile transposition of his fancy from Olivia to Viola. How well, too, it agrees with what he himself says of men's "fancies" being more giddy and unfirm, more longing, wavering, sooner lost and worn, than women's are." So naturally, so consistently, so characteristically does Shakespeare write!

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